Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), contribute significantly to global warming, and they have increased substantially over the years. Reforestation is considered as an important forestry application for carbon sequestration and GHGs emission reduction, however, it remains unknown whether reforestation may instead produce too much CO2 and N2O contibuting to GHGs pollution. This study was performed to characterize and examine the CO2 and N2O emissions and their controlling factors in different species and types of pure and mixture forest used for reforestation. Five soil layers from pure forest Platycladus orientalis (PO), Robinia pseudoacacia (RP), and their mixed forest P-R in the Taihang mountains of central China were sampled and incubated aerobically for 11 days. The P-R soil showed lower CO2 and N2O production potentials than those of the PO soils (P
Conventional fossil fuels are relied on heavily to meet the ever-increasing demand for energy required by human activities. However, their usage generates significant air pollutant emissions, such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter. As a result, a complete air pollutant control system is necessary. However, the intensive operation of such systems is expected to cause deterioration and reduce their efficiency. Therefore, this study evaluates the current air pollutant control configuration of a coal-powered plant and proposes an upgraded system. Using a year-long dataset of air pollutants collected at 30-min intervals from the plant's telemonitoring system, untreated flue gas was reconstructed with a variational autoencoder. Subsequently, a superstructure model with various technology options for treating NOx, SOx, and particulate matter was developed. The most sustainable configuration, which included reburning, desulfurization with seawater, and dry electrostatic precipitator, was identified using an artificial intelligence (AI) model to meet economic, environmental, and reliability targets. Finally, the proposed system was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation to assess various scenarios with tightened discharge limits. The untreated flue gas was then evaluated using the most sustainable air pollutant control configuration, which demonstrated a total annual cost, environmental quality index, and reliability indices of 44.1 × 106 USD/year, 0.67, and 0.87, respectively.
Hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) models are developed for sediment lead (Pb) prediction in two Bays (i.e., Bramble (BB) and Deception (DB)) stations, Australia. A feature selection (FS) algorithm called extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) is proposed to abstract the correlated input parameters for the Pb prediction and validated against principal component of analysis (PCA), recursive feature elimination (RFE), and the genetic algorithm (GA). XGBoost model is applied using a grid search strategy (Grid-XGBoost) for predicting Pb and validated against the commonly used AI models, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The input parameter selection approaches redimensioned the 21 parameters into 9-5 parameters without losing their learned information over the models' training phase. At the BB station, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values (0.06, 0.32, 0.34, and 0.33) were achieved for the XGBoost-SVM, XGBoost-ANN, XGBoost-Grid-XGBoost, and Grid-XGBoost models, respectively. At the DB station, the lowest MAPE values, 0.25 and 0.24, were attained for the XGBoost-Grid-XGBoost and Grid-XGBoost models, respectively. Overall, the proposed hybrid AI models provided a reliable and robust computer aid technology for sediment Pb prediction that contribute to the best knowledge of environmental pollution monitoring and assessment.
Malaysia depends heavily on rivers as a source for water supply, irrigation, and sustaining the livelihood of local communities. The evolution of land use in urban areas due to rapid development and the continuous problem of illegal discharge have had a serious adverse impact on the health of the country's waterways. Klang River requires extensive rehabilitation and remediation before its water could be utilised for a variety of purposes. A reliable and rigorous remediation work plan is needed to identify the sources and locations of streams that are constantly polluted. This study attempts to investigate the feasibility of utilising a temporal and spatial risk quotient (RQ) based analysis to make an accurate assessment of the current condition of the tributaries in the Klang River catchment area. The study relies on existing data sets on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Ammonia (NH3) to evaluate the water quality at thirty strategic locations. Analysis of ammonia pollution is not only based on the limit established for river health but was expanded to include the feasibility of using the water for water intake, recreational activities, and sustaining fish population. The temporal health of Klang River was evaluated using the Risk Matrix Approach (RMA) based on the frequency of RQ > 1 and associated colour-coded hazard impacts. By using the developed RMA, the hazard level for each parameter at each location was assessed and individually mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS). The developed risk hazard mapping has high potential as one of the essential tools in making decisions for a cost-effective river restoration and rehabilitation.
Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures.
Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout. Here we use sediment SCP and Hg records from several freshwater lentic ecosystems in SEA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore) to reconstruct long-term, region-wide variations in levels of these two key atmospheric pollution indicators. The age-depth models of Philippine sediment cores do not reach back far enough to date first SCP presence, but single SCP occurrences are first observed between 1925 and 1950 for a Malaysian site. Increasing SCP flux is observed at our sites from 1960 onward, although individual sites show minor differences in trends. SCP fluxes show a general decline after 2000 at each of our study sites. While the records show broadly similar temporal trends across SEA, absolute SCP fluxes differ between sites, with a record from Malaysia showing SCP fluxes that are two orders of magnitude lower than records from the Philippines. Similar trends in records from China and Japan represent the emergence of atmospheric pollution as a broadly-based inter-region environmental problem during the 20th century. Hg fluxes were relatively stable from the second half of the 20th century onward. As catchment soils are also contaminated with atmospheric Hg, future soil erosion can be expected to lead to enhanced Hg flux into surface waters.
Biochar has been considered as a potential tool to mitigate soil ammonia (NH3) volatilization and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions in recent years. However, the aging effect of biochar on soils remains elusive, which introduces uncertainty on the effectiveness of biochar to mitigate global warming in a long term. Here, a meta-analysis of 22 published works of literature with 217 observations was conducted to systematically explore the aging effect of biochar on soil NH3 and GHGs emissions. The results show that, in comparison with the fresh biochar, the aging makes biochar more effective to decrease soil NH3 volatilization by 7% and less risk to contribute CH4 emissions by 11%. However, the mitigation effect of biochar on soil N2O emissions is decreased by 15% due to aging. Additionally, aging leads to a promotion effect on soil CO2 emissions by 25% than fresh biochar. Our findings suggest that along with aging, particularly the effect of artificial aging, biochar could further benefit the alleviation of soil NH3 volatilization, whereas its potential role to mitigate global warming may decrease. This study provides a systematic assessment of the aging effect of biochar to mitigate soil NH3 and GHGs, which can provide a scientific basis for the sustainable green development of biochar application.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia.
Anthropologic activities caused frequent eutrophication in coastal and estuarine waters, resulting in diel-cycling hypoxia. Given global climate change, extreme weather events often occur, thus salinity fluctuation frequently breaks out in these waters. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of salinity and hypoxia on intestinal microbiota and digestive enzymes of Crassostrea hongkongensis. Specifically, we sequenced 16 S rRNA of intestinal microbiota and measured the digestive enzymes trypsin (TRS), lipase (LPS) and amylase (AMY) in oysters exposed for 28 days to three salinities (10, 25 and 35) and two dissolved oxygen conditions, normoxia (6 mg/L) and hypoxia (6 mg/L for 12 h, 2 mg/L for 12 h). Oysters in normoxia and salinity of 25 were treated as control. After 28-day exposure, for microbial components, Fusobacteriota, Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota comprised the majority for all experimental groups. Compared with the control group, the diversity and structure of intestinal microbiota tended to change in all treated groups. The species richness in C. hongkongensis intestine also changed. It was the most significant that high salinity increased Proteobacteria proportion while low salinity and hypoxia increased Fusobacteriota but decreased Proteobacteria, respectively. Additionally, Actinobacteriota was sensitive and changed under environmental stressor (P
This study develops an oil spill environmental vulnerability model for predicting and mapping the oil slick trajectory pattern in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia. The impact of seasonal variations on the vulnerability of the coastal resources to oil spill was modelled by estimating the quantity of coastal resources affected across three climatic seasons (northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and pre-monsoon). Twelve 100 m3 (10,000 splots) medium oil spill scenarios were simulated using General National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Operational Oil Modeling Environment (GNOME) model. The output was integrated with coastal resources, comprising biological, socio-economic and physical shoreline features. Results revealed that the speed of an oil slick (40.8 m per minute) is higher during the pre-monsoon period in a southwestern direction and lower during the northeast monsoon (36.9 m per minute). Evaporation, floating and spreading are the major weathering processes identified in this study, with approximately 70% of the slick reaching the shoreline or remaining in the water column during the first 24 h (h) of the spill. Oil spill impacts were most severe during the southwest monsoon, and physical shoreline resources are the most vulnerable to oil spill in the study area. The study concluded that variation in climatic seasons significantly influence the vulnerability of coastal resources to marine oil spill.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is regarded as deleterious to the environment, primarily owing to the substantial volume of waste it produces during palm oil extraction. In terms of contaminant composition, POME surpasses the pollutant content typically found in standard municipal sewage, therefore releasing it without treatment into water bodies would do irreparable damage to the environment. Main palm oil mills are normally located in the proximity of natural rivers in order to take advantage of the cheap and abundant water source. The same rivers are also used as a water source for many villages situated along the river banks. As such, it is imperative to degrade POME before its disposal into the water bodies for obvious reasons. The treatment methods used so far include the biological processes such as open ponding/land application, which consist of aerobic as well as anaerobic ponds, physicochemical treatment including membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation are successful for the mitigation of contaminants. As the above methods require large working area and it takes more time for contaminant degradation, and in consideration of the strict environmental policies as well as palm oil being the most sort of vegetable oil in several countries, numerous researchers have concentrated on the emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to remediate POME. Methods such as the photocatalysis, Fenton process, sonocatalysis, sonophotocatalysis, ozonation have attained special importance for the degradation of POME because of their efficiency in complete mineralization of organic pollutants in situ. This review outlines the AOP technologies currently available for the mineralization of POME with importance given to sonophotocatalysis and ozonation as these treatment process removes the need to transfer the pollutant while possibly degrading the organic matter sufficiently to be used in other industry like fertilizer manufacturing.
A green approach using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to intensify the fuel properties of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) through torrefaction is developed in this study to minimize environmental pollution. Meanwhile, a neural network (NN) is used to minimize bulk density at different combinations of operating conditions to show the accurate and reliable model of NN (R2 = 0.9994). The biochar produced from SCGs torrefied at temperatures of 200-300 °C, duration of 30-60 min, and H2O2 concentrations of 0-100 wt% is examined. The results reveal that the higher heating value (HHV) of biochar increases with rising temperature, duration, or H2O2 concentration, whereas the bulk density has an opposite trend. The HHV, ignition temperature, and bulk density of biochar from torrefaction at 230 °C for 30 min with a 100 wt% H2O2 solution (230-100%-TSCG) are 27.00 MJ∙kg-1, 292 °C, and 120 kg∙m-3, respectively. This HHV accounts for a 29% improvement compared to that of untorrefied SCG. The contact angle (126°), water activity (0.51 aw), and moisture content (7.69%) of the optimized biochar indicate that it has higher resistance against biodegradation, and thereby can be stored longer. Overall, H2O2 is a green treatment additive for SCGs solid fuel. This study has successfully produced biochar with greater HHV and low bulk density at low temperatures. The green additive development can effectively reduce environmental pollutants and upgrade wastes into resources, and achieve "3E", namely, environmental (non-polluting green additives), energy (biofuel), and circular economy (waste upgrade). In addition, the produced biochar has great potential in the fields of bioadsorbents and soil amendments.
Catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is a promising method to provide clean hydrogen (H2) energy for portable devices. Therefore, designing a non-noble metal catalyst that performs well in this hydrolysis is essential. Cobalt-nanoparticles (Co-NPs) supported on magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) with various mean diameter were synthesized by changing concentration of cobalt-citrate anion (Co-citrate) precursor used for ion exchange with the LDH host. Then the Co-citrate intercalated LDHs were reduced with NaBH4 to form Co-NPs. Evidence of successful intercalation was shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning TEM (STEM) observations revealed that Co-NPs were in metallic state and their mean diameter increased with the concentration of Co-citrate solution. Nitrogen physisorption isotherms showed that the surface structure of LDHs transformed from non-porous to mesoporous after chemical reduction, which indicated that the Co-NPs were formed in the interlayer of LDHs. Catalytic hydrolysis of NaBH4 at 25 °C clarified that the catalyst synthesized from 6 mM Co-citrate solution showed the highest H2 generation rate of 4520 ± 251 mL min-1·gCo-1, indicating the catalyst had the optimum size of Co-NP. This activity could be considered relatively higher compared to unsupported cobalt and many other supported cobalt-base catalysts previously reported. It was also clearly shown that size of Co-NPs supported on LDH could be a significant parameter as it allowed better accessibility of reactants to the active catalyst surface to obtain maximum activity. For this optimum catalyst, the activation energy was evaluated to be 56.9 kJ mol-1. Although the catalyst was able to achieve almost the same conversion when the catalyst was repeatedly tested five times under the same condition, the catalytic activity decreased gradually. Overall, it could be revealed that Co-NPs supported on LDHs have a huge potential to be used for H2 energy production.
Microplastic pollution is widely recognised as a global issue, posing risks to natural ecosystems and human health. The combination of rapid industrial and urban development and relatively limited environmental regulation in many tropical countries may increase the amount of microplastic entering rivers, but basic data on contamination levels are lacking. This is especially the case in tropical South East Asian countries. In this paper, the abundance, composition and spatio-temporal variation of microplastic in the Langat River, Malaysia, were assessed, and the relationship between microplastic concentration and river discharge was investigated. Water samples were collected over a 12-month period from 8 sampling sites on the Langat, extending from forested to heavily urbanised and industrial areas. All 508 water samples collected over this period contained microplastic; mean concentration across all sites and times was 4.39 particles/L but extended up to 90.00 particles/L in some urban tributaries. Most microplastics were secondary in origin, and dominated by fibres. Microplastic counts correlated directly with river discharge, and counts increased and decreased in response to changes in flow. A time-integrated assessment of the microplastic load conveyed by the Langat suggested that the river is typically (50 % of the time) delivering around 5 billion particles per day to the ocean. The positive correlation between the concentration of microplastics and suspended sediments in the Langat suggested that continuously logging turbidity sensors could be used to provide better estimates of microplastic loads and improve assessment of human and ecological health risks.
Persistent organochlorines in air, river water and sediment samples were analysed from eastern and southern Asia (India, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia) and Oceania (Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands) to elucidate their geographical distribution in tropical environment. The concentrations of organochlorines in these abiotic samples collected from Taiwan, Japan and Australia were also monitored for comparison. Atmospheric and hydrospheric concentrations of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) in the tropical developing countries were apparently higher than those observed in the developed nations, suggesting extensive usage of these chemicals in the lower latitudes. CHLs (chlordane compounds) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were also occasionally observed at higher levels in the tropics, implying that their usage area is also expanding southward. Distribution patterns of organochlorines in sediments showed smaller spatial variations on global terms, indicating that the chemicals released in the tropical environment are dispersed rapidly through air and water and retained less in sediments. The ratios of organochlorine concentrations in sediment and water phases were positively correlated with the latitude of sampling, suggesting that persistent and semivolatile compounds discharged in the tropics tend to be redistributed on a global scale.
Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.
This study aims to investigate the positive effects of the combined use of Enterobacter cloacae and biochar on improving nitrogen (N) utilization. The greenhouse pots experimental results showed the synergy of biochar and E. cloacae increased soil total N content and plant N uptake by 33.54% and 15.1%, respectively. Soil nitrogenase (NIT) activity increased by 253.02%. Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and nitrate reductase (NR) activity associated with nitrification and denitrification decreased by 10.94% and 29.09%, respectively. The relative abundance of N fixing microorganisms like Burkholderia and Bradyrhizobium significantly increased. Sphingomonas and Ottowia, two bacteria involved in the nitrification and denitrification processes, were found to be in lower numbers. The E. cloacae's ability to fix N2 and promote the growth of plants allow the retention of N in soil and make more N available for plant development. Biochar served as a reservoir of N for plants by adsorbing N from the soil and providing a shelter for E. cloacae. Thus, biochar and E. cloacae form a synergy for the management of agricultural N and the mitigation of negative impacts of pollution caused by excessive use of N fertilizer.
With the synchronous development of highway construction and the urban economy, automobiles have entered thousands of households as essential means of transportation. This paper reviews the latest research progress in using phytoremediation technology to remediate the environmental pollution caused by automobile exhaust in recent years, including the prospects for stereoscopic forestry. Currently, most automobiles on the global market are internal combustion vehicles using fossil energy sources as the primary fuel, such as gasoline, diesel, and liquid or compressed natural gas. The composition of vehicle exhaust is relatively complex. When it enters the atmosphere, it is prone to a series of chemical reactions to generate various secondary pollutants, which are very harmful to human beings, plants, animals, and the eco-environment. Despite improving the automobile fuel quality and installing exhaust gas purification devices, helping to reduce air pollution, the treatment costs of these approaches are expensive and cannot achieve zero emissions of automobile exhaust pollutants. The purification of vehicle exhaust by plants is a crucial way to remediate the environmental pollution caused by automobile exhaust and improve the environment along the highway by utilizing the ecosystem's self-regulating ability. Therefore, it has become a global trend to use phytoremediation technology to restore the automobile exhaust pollution. Now, there is no scientific report or systematic review about how plants absorb vehicle pollutants. The screening and configuration of suitable plant species is the most crucial aspect of successful phytoremediation. The mechanisms of plant adsorption, metabolism, and detoxification are reviewed in this paper to address the problem of automobile exhaust pollution.
Acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the drastic rise of waste generation with majority of them being biowaste. This constitutes a global challenge since conventional waste management methods (i.e., landfills) present environmental issues including greenhouse gases emissions, leachate formation and toxins release. A sustainable and effective approach to treat biowaste is through composting. Various aspects of composting such as compost quality, composting systems and compost pelletization are summarized in this paper. Common application of compost as fertilizer or soil amendment is presented with focus on the low adoption level of organic waste compost in reality. Rarely known, compost which is easily combustible can be utilized to generate electricity. With the analysis on critical approaches, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study on energy content of compost pellets, which has never been reviewed before. Environmental impacts and future prospects are also highlighted to provide further insights on application of this technology to close the loop of circular bioeconomy.