DCOIT is an effective antifouling biocide, which presence in the environment and toxicity towards non-target species has been generating great concern. This study evaluated the waterborne toxicity of DCOIT on marine invertebrates (i.e., survival of brine shrimp Artemia sp., larval development of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and the mussel Perna perna), as well as DCOIT-spiked-sediment toxicity on the fecundity rate of the copepod Nitrocra sp. And the mortality of the amphipod Tiburonella viscana. The data outcomes were used to calculate environmental hazards and risks, which were compared to their corresponding values obtained from temperate regions. Waterborne toxicity can be summarized as follows: Artemia sp. (LC50-48h = 163 (135-169) μg/L), E. lucunter (EC50-36h = 33.9 (17-65) μg/L), and P. perna (EC50-48h = 8.3 (7-9) μg/L). For whole-sediment toxicity, metrics were calculated for T. viscana (LC50-10d = 0.5 (0.1-2.6) μg/g) and Nitrocra sp, (EC50-10d = 200 (10-480) μg/kg). The DCOIT hazard was assessed for both tropical and non-tropical pelagic organisms. The predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for tropical species (0.19 μg/L) was 1.7-fold lower than that for non-tropical organisms (0.34 μg/L). In whole-sediment exposures, DCOIT presented a PNEC of 0.97 μg/kg, and the risk quotients (RQs) were >1 for areas with constant input of DCOIT such as ports ship/boatyards, marinas, and maritime traffic zones of Korea, Japan, Spain, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brazil. The presented data are important for supporting the establishment of policies and regulations for booster biocides worldwide.
Attenuated backscatter profiles retrieved by the space borne active lidar CALIOP on-board CALIPSO satellite were used to measure the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and to compare it against the ECMWF planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) over the smoke dominated region of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia. Initially, the relative abundance of smoke aerosols was investigated considering multiple satellite retrieved aerosol optical properties. Only the upper IGP was selectively considered for CALIPSO retrieval based on prevalence of smoke aerosols. Smoke extinction was found to contribute 2-50% of the total aerosol extinction, with strong seasonal and altitudinal attributes. During winter (DJF), smoke aerosols contribute almost 50% of total aerosol extinction only near to the surface while in post-monsoon (ON) and monsoon (JJAS), relative contribution of smoke aerosols to total extinction was highest at about 8 km height. There was strong diurnal variation in smoke extinction, evident throughout the year, with frequent abundance of smoke particles at lower height (<4 km) during daytime compared to higher height during night (>4 km). Smoke injection height also varied considerably during rice (ON: 0.71 ± 0.65 km) and wheat (AM: 2.34 ± 1.34 km) residue burning period having a significant positive correlation with prevailing PBLH. Partitioning smoke AOD against PBLH into the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) yield interesting results. BL contribute 36% (16%) of smoke AOD during daytime (nighttime) and the BL-FT distinction increased particularly at night. There was evidence that despite travelling efficiently to FT, major proportion of smoke AOD (50-80%) continue to remain close to the surface (<3 km) thereby, may have greater implications on regional climate, air quality, smoke transport and AOD-particulate modelling.
This research aims to study the wet torrefaction (WT) and saccharification of sorghum distillery residue (SDR) towards hydrochar and bioethanol production. The experiments are designed by Box-Behnken design from response surface methodology where the operating conditions include sulfuric acid concentration (0, 0.01, and 0.02 M), amyloglucosidase concentration (36, 51, and 66 IU), and saccharification time (120, 180, and 240 min). Compared to conventional dry torrefaction, the hydrochar yield is between 13.24 and 14.73%, which is much lower than dry torrefaction biochar (yield >50%). The calorific value of the raw SDR is 17.15 MJ/kg, which is significantly enhanced to 22.36-23.37 MJ/kg after WT. When the sulfuric acid concentration increases from 0 to 0.02 M, the glucose concentration in the product increases from 5.59 g/L to 13.05 g/L. The prediction of analysis of variance suggests that the best combination to maximum glucose production is 0.02 M H2SO4, 66 IU enzyme concentration, and 120 min saccharification time, and the glucose concentration is 30.85 g/L. The maximum bioethanol concentration of 19.21 g/L is obtained, which is higher than those from wheat straw (18.1 g/L) and sweet sorghum residue (16.2 g/L). A large amount of SDR is generated in the kaoliang liquor production process, which may cause environmental problems if it is not appropriately treated. This study fulfills SDR valorization for hydrochar and bioenergy to lower environmental pollution and even achieve a circular economy.
Biodiesel side stream waste glycerol was identified as a cheap carbon source for rhamnolipids (RLs) production which at the same time could improve the management of waste. The present study aimed to produce RLs by using Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS6 utilizing waste glycerol as a substrate and to evaluate their physico-chemicals properties. Fermentation conditions such as temperature, initial medium pH, waste glycerol concentration, nitrogen sources and concentrations resulted in different compositions of the mono- and di-RLs produced. The maximum RLs production of 2.73 g/L was obtained when P. aeruginosa RS6 was grown in a basal salt medium supplemented with 1% waste glycerol and 0.2 M sodium nitrate at 35 °C and pH 6.5. At optimal fermentation conditions, the emulsification index (E24) values of cooking oil, diesel oil, benzene, olive oil, petroleum, and kerosene were all above E24=50%. The surface tension reduction obtained from 72.13 mN/m to 29.4-30.4 mN/m was better than the surface activity of some chemical-based surfactants. The RLs produced possessed antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with values ranging from 37% to 77% of growth inhibition when 1 mg/mL of RLs was used. Concentrations of RLs below 1500 μg/mL did not induce phytotoxicity effects on the tested seeds (Vigna radiata) compared to the chemical-based- surfactant, SDS. Furthermore, RLs tested on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos only exhibited low acute toxicity with an LC50 value of 72.97 μg/mL at 48 h of exposure suggesting a green and eco-biochemical worthy of future applications to replace chemical-based surfactants.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted great shocks and challenges to the environment, society and economy. Simultaneously, an intractable issue appeared: a considerable number of hazardous medical wastes have been generated from the hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities, constituting a serious threat to public health and environmental sustainability without proper management. Traditional disposal methods like incineration, landfill and autoclaving are unable to reduce environmental burden due to the issues such as toxic gas release, large land occupation, and unsustainability. While the application of clean and safe pyrolysis technology on the medical wastes treatment to produce high-grade bioproducts has the potential to alleviate the situation. Besides, medical wastes are excellent and ideal raw materials, which possess high hydrogen, carbon content and heating value. Consequently, pyrolysis of medical wastes can deal with wastes and generate valuable products like bio-oil and biochar. Consequently, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of the pyrolysis of medical wastes. It demonstrates the feasibility of pyrolysis, which mainly includes pyrolysis characteristics, product properties, related problems, the prospects and future challenges of pyrolysis of medical wastes.
The rapid development of the industrial sector has resulted in tremendous economic growth. However, this growth has also presented environmental challenges, specifically due to the substantial sewage generated and its contribution to the early warning of global water resource depletion. Large concentrations of poisonous heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni), are found in industrial effluent. Therefore, various studies are currently underway to provide effective solutions to alleviate heavy metal ion pollution in sewage. One emerging strategy for sewage pollution remediation is adsorption using wood and its derivatives. This approach is gaining popularity due to the porous structure, excellent mechanical properties, and easy chemical modification of wood. Recent studies have focused on removing heavy metal ions from sewage, summarising and analysing different technical principles, affecting factors, and mainstream chemical modification methods on wood. Furthermore, this work provides insight into potential future development direction for enhanced adsorption of heavy metal ions using wood and its derivatives in wastewater treatment. Overall, this review aims to raise awareness of environmental pollution caused by heavy metals in sewage and promote green environmental protection, low-carbon energy-saving, and sustainable solutions for sewage heavy metal treatment.
Waste residues and acidic effluents (post-processing of E-waste) released into the local surroundings cause perilous environmental threats and potential risks to human health. Only limited research and information are available toward the sustainable management of waste residues generated post resource recovery of E-waste components. In the present study, the manual processing of obsolete computer (keyboard, monitor, CPU, and mouse) and chemical leaching of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) (motherboard, hard drive, DVD drive, and power supply) were performed for urban mining. The toxicity characteristics of typical pollutants in the residues of the WPCBs (post chemical leaching) were studied by toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) test. Manual dismantling techniques resulted in an efficient urban mining concept with an overall average profit estimation of INR 2513.73/US$ 34.59. The chemical leaching of WPCBs showed a high concentration of metal leaching like Cu (229662 ± 575.3 mg/kg) and Pb (36785.67 ± 13.07 mg/kg) in the motherboard after stripping epoxy coating. The toxicity test revealed that the concentration of Cu (245.746 ± 0.016 mg/l) in the treated waste residue and Cu (430.746 ± 0.0015 mg/l) and Pb (182.09 ± 0.0035 mg/l) in the non-treated waste residue exceeded the threshold limit. The concentrations of other elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ag, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe, Se, and In were within the permissible limit. Hence, the waste residue stands non-hazardous except Cu and Pb. Stripping out the epoxy coating of WPCBs enhances the metal leaching concentrations. The study highlighted that efficient and appropriate E-waste urban mining has immense potential in tracing the waste scrap into secondary resources. This study also emphasized that the final processed waste residue (left unattended or discarded due to lack of appropriate skill and technology) can be taken into consideration and exploited for value-added materials.
The gravity of the impending threats posed by microplastics (MPs) pollution in the environment cannot be over-emphasized. Several research studies continue to stress how important it is to curb the proliferation of these small plastic particles with different physical and chemical properties, especially in aquatic environments. While several works on how to monitor, detect and remove MPs from the aquatic environment have been published, there is still a lack of explicit regulatory framework for mitigation of MPs globally. A critical review that summarizes recent advances in MPs research and emphasizes the need for regulatory frameworks devoted to MPs is presented in this paper. These frameworks suggested in this paper may be useful for reducing the proliferation of MPs in the environment. Based on all reviewed studies related to MPs research, we discussed the occurrence of MPs by identifying the major types and sources of MPs in water bodies; examined the recent ways of detecting, monitoring, and measuring MPs routinely to minimize projected risks; and proposed recommendations for consensus regulatory actions that will be effective for MPs mitigation.
The occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) is reported in the coastal waters of a few selected sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Water, bivalves and sediment samples collected were analysed specifically for TBT using sensitive analytical methods which involved a solvent extraction procedure with appropriate clean-up followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric measurements. The levels of TBT in the seawater in unexposed areas were found in the range from <3.4 to 20 ng litre(-1) as compared to coastal areas with high boat and ship activities where TBT levels in seawater were generally above 30 ng litre(-1), with the highest level found at 281.8 ng litre(-1). TBT levels in the tissues of random cockle and soft-shell clam samples from local markets were found in the range from <0.5 to 3.7 ng g(-1) wet weight. The levels of TBT found in green mussel samples both from the market (23.5 ng g(-1) wet weight) and those from a mussel farm (14.2 ng g(-1) wet weight) indicate slight accumulation of TBT. In sediments, TBT levels were found ranging from <0.7 ng g(-1) dry weight in unexposed coastal sites to as high as 216.5 ng g(-1) dry weight for a site within a port area.
This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).
The effect of the oil-spill dispersant Corexit 9527 on egg-hatching rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) was studied by using an innovated flow-through bioassay technique. This bioassay method relies on the fact that M. rosenbergii fertilized eggs when detached from the mother prawn were able to hatch artificially. The flow-through system generated a stable and good water quality environment for hatching the eggs successfully. The Corexit 9527 had a pronounced effect on hatching rate of the M. rosenbergii eggs. In the control, the hatching rate of the eggs was 95.55% +/- 1.74%. However, it was reduced drastically with increasing concentrations of Corexit 9527. A 100% inhibition of egg hatchability was found when the level of Corexit 9527 was higher than 250 mg litre(-1). The EC(50) and the EC(95) values estimated by the probit method were 80.4 +/- 5.5 mg litre(-1) and 193.5 +/- 39.9 mg litre(-1) respectively (P = 0.05). The recommended safety level of Corexit 9527 for M. rosenbergii in Malaysian estuarine waters is below 40 mg litre(-1).
Anthropogenic activities and population growth have resulted in a reduced availability of drinking water. To ensure consistency in the existence of drinking water, it is inevitable to establish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 70% of India's rural population was found to be without WWTP, waste disposal, and good sanitation. Wastewater has emerged from kitchens, washrooms, etc., with industry activities. This scenario caused severe damage to water resources, leading to degradation of water quality and pathogenic insects. Thus, it is a need of an hour to prompt for better WWTPs for both rural and urban areas. Many parts of the world have started to face severe water shortages in recent years, and wastewater reuse methods need to be updated. Clean water supply is not enough to satisfy the needs of the planet as a whole, and the majority of freshwater in the polar regions takes the form of ice and snow. The increasing population requires clean water for drinks, hygiene, irrigation, and various other applications. Lack of water and contamination of water result from human activities. 90% of wastewater is released to water systems without treatment in developing countries. Studies show that about 730 megatons of waste are annually discharged into water from sewages and other effluents. The sustenance of water resources, applying wastewater treatment technologies, and calling down the percentage of potable water has to be strictly guided by mankind. This review compares the treatment of domestic sewage to its working conditions, energy efficiency, etc. In this review, several treatment methods with different mechanisms involved in waste treatment, industrial effluents, recovery/recycling were discussed. The feasibility of bioaugmentation should eventually be tested through data from field implementation as an important technological challenge, and this analysis identifies many promising areas to be explored in the future.
This study aims to investigate the positive effects of the combined use of Enterobacter cloacae and biochar on improving nitrogen (N) utilization. The greenhouse pots experimental results showed the synergy of biochar and E. cloacae increased soil total N content and plant N uptake by 33.54% and 15.1%, respectively. Soil nitrogenase (NIT) activity increased by 253.02%. Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and nitrate reductase (NR) activity associated with nitrification and denitrification decreased by 10.94% and 29.09%, respectively. The relative abundance of N fixing microorganisms like Burkholderia and Bradyrhizobium significantly increased. Sphingomonas and Ottowia, two bacteria involved in the nitrification and denitrification processes, were found to be in lower numbers. The E. cloacae's ability to fix N2 and promote the growth of plants allow the retention of N in soil and make more N available for plant development. Biochar served as a reservoir of N for plants by adsorbing N from the soil and providing a shelter for E. cloacae. Thus, biochar and E. cloacae form a synergy for the management of agricultural N and the mitigation of negative impacts of pollution caused by excessive use of N fertilizer.
Acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the drastic rise of waste generation with majority of them being biowaste. This constitutes a global challenge since conventional waste management methods (i.e., landfills) present environmental issues including greenhouse gases emissions, leachate formation and toxins release. A sustainable and effective approach to treat biowaste is through composting. Various aspects of composting such as compost quality, composting systems and compost pelletization are summarized in this paper. Common application of compost as fertilizer or soil amendment is presented with focus on the low adoption level of organic waste compost in reality. Rarely known, compost which is easily combustible can be utilized to generate electricity. With the analysis on critical approaches, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study on energy content of compost pellets, which has never been reviewed before. Environmental impacts and future prospects are also highlighted to provide further insights on application of this technology to close the loop of circular bioeconomy.
In this study, a sustainable NH2-MIL-101(Al) is synthesized and subjected to characterization for cryogenic CO2 adsorption, isotherms, and thermodynamic study. The morphology revealed a highly porous surface. The XRD showed that NH2-MIL-101(Al) was crystalline. The NH2-MIL-101(Al) decomposes at a temperature (>500 °C) indicating excellent thermal stability. The BET investigation revealed the specific surface area of 2530 m2/g and the pore volume of 1.32 cm3/g. The CO2 adsorption capacity was found to be 9.55 wt% to 2.31 wt% within the investigated temperature range. The isotherms revealed the availability of adsorption sites with favorable adsorption at lower temperatures indicating the thermodynamically controlled process. The thermodynamics showed that the process is non-spontaneous, endothermic, with fewer disorders, chemisorption. Finally, the breakthrough time of NH2-MIL-101(Al) is 31.25% more than spherical glass beads. The CO2 captured by the particles was 2.29 kg m-3. The CO2 capture using glass packing was 121% less than NH2-MIL-101(Al) under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.
Satellite observations for regional air quality assessment rely on comprehensive spatial coverage, and daily monitoring with reliable, cloud-free data quality. We investigated spatiotemporal variation and data quality of two global satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products derived from MODIS and VIIRS imagery. AOD is considered an essential atmospheric parameter strongly related to ground Particulate Matter (PM) in Southeast Asia (SEA). We analyze seasonal variation, urban/rural area influence, and biomass burning effects on atmospheric pollution. Validation indicated a strong relationship between AERONET ground AOD and both MODIS AOD (R2 = 0.81) and VIIRS AOD (R2 = 0.68). The monthly variation of satellite AOD and AERONET AOD reflects two seasonal trends of air quality separately for mainland countries including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan, Hong Kong, and for maritime countries consisting of Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and Timor Leste. The mainland SEA has a pattern of monthly AOD variation in which AODs peak in March/April, decreasing during wet season from May-September, and increasing to the second peak in October. However, in maritime SEA, AOD concentration peaks in October. The three countries with the highest annual satellite AODs are Singapore, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. High urban population proportions in Singapore (40.7%) and Hong Kong (21.6%) were associated with high AOD concentrations as expected. AOD values in SEA urban areas were a factor of 1.4 higher than in rural areas, with respective averages of 0.477 and 0.336. The AOD values varied proportionately to the frequency of biomass burning in which both active fires and AOD peak in March/April and September/October. Peak AOD in September/October in some countries could be related to pollutant transport of Indonesia forest fires. This study analyzed satellite aerosol product quality in relation to AERONET in SEA countries and highlighted framework of air quality assessment over a large, complicated region.
Microplastic pollution is widely recognised as a global issue, posing risks to natural ecosystems and human health. The combination of rapid industrial and urban development and relatively limited environmental regulation in many tropical countries may increase the amount of microplastic entering rivers, but basic data on contamination levels are lacking. This is especially the case in tropical South East Asian countries. In this paper, the abundance, composition and spatio-temporal variation of microplastic in the Langat River, Malaysia, were assessed, and the relationship between microplastic concentration and river discharge was investigated. Water samples were collected over a 12-month period from 8 sampling sites on the Langat, extending from forested to heavily urbanised and industrial areas. All 508 water samples collected over this period contained microplastic; mean concentration across all sites and times was 4.39 particles/L but extended up to 90.00 particles/L in some urban tributaries. Most microplastics were secondary in origin, and dominated by fibres. Microplastic counts correlated directly with river discharge, and counts increased and decreased in response to changes in flow. A time-integrated assessment of the microplastic load conveyed by the Langat suggested that the river is typically (50 % of the time) delivering around 5 billion particles per day to the ocean. The positive correlation between the concentration of microplastics and suspended sediments in the Langat suggested that continuously logging turbidity sensors could be used to provide better estimates of microplastic loads and improve assessment of human and ecological health risks.
Malaysia depends heavily on rivers as a source for water supply, irrigation, and sustaining the livelihood of local communities. The evolution of land use in urban areas due to rapid development and the continuous problem of illegal discharge have had a serious adverse impact on the health of the country's waterways. Klang River requires extensive rehabilitation and remediation before its water could be utilised for a variety of purposes. A reliable and rigorous remediation work plan is needed to identify the sources and locations of streams that are constantly polluted. This study attempts to investigate the feasibility of utilising a temporal and spatial risk quotient (RQ) based analysis to make an accurate assessment of the current condition of the tributaries in the Klang River catchment area. The study relies on existing data sets on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Ammonia (NH3) to evaluate the water quality at thirty strategic locations. Analysis of ammonia pollution is not only based on the limit established for river health but was expanded to include the feasibility of using the water for water intake, recreational activities, and sustaining fish population. The temporal health of Klang River was evaluated using the Risk Matrix Approach (RMA) based on the frequency of RQ > 1 and associated colour-coded hazard impacts. By using the developed RMA, the hazard level for each parameter at each location was assessed and individually mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS). The developed risk hazard mapping has high potential as one of the essential tools in making decisions for a cost-effective river restoration and rehabilitation.
Chemical forms of copper and lead in river water of the Linggi River Basin have been fractionated into ASV labile, moderately labile, slowly labile, and inert metal species, based on a previously proposed scheme. Free (hydrated) metal ions were identified by a potentiometric method using an ion selective electrode. Speciation results showed that the soluble copper and lead species occurred mainly in the moderately labile and slowly labile fractions. The speciation results are primarily interpreted in terms of organic interaction due to agricultural based and light industries, and urban discharges. The measured metal complexing capacity (MCC) of the samples reveals consistency of the results with the nature of the discharge. MCC correlates reasonably well with the value from the permanganate test on the river water. In general, the speciation pattern was found to be consistent with the findings of other workers.
Conventional fossil fuels are relied on heavily to meet the ever-increasing demand for energy required by human activities. However, their usage generates significant air pollutant emissions, such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter. As a result, a complete air pollutant control system is necessary. However, the intensive operation of such systems is expected to cause deterioration and reduce their efficiency. Therefore, this study evaluates the current air pollutant control configuration of a coal-powered plant and proposes an upgraded system. Using a year-long dataset of air pollutants collected at 30-min intervals from the plant's telemonitoring system, untreated flue gas was reconstructed with a variational autoencoder. Subsequently, a superstructure model with various technology options for treating NOx, SOx, and particulate matter was developed. The most sustainable configuration, which included reburning, desulfurization with seawater, and dry electrostatic precipitator, was identified using an artificial intelligence (AI) model to meet economic, environmental, and reliability targets. Finally, the proposed system was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation to assess various scenarios with tightened discharge limits. The untreated flue gas was then evaluated using the most sustainable air pollutant control configuration, which demonstrated a total annual cost, environmental quality index, and reliability indices of 44.1 × 106 USD/year, 0.67, and 0.87, respectively.