Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Jun LY, Karri RR, Yon LS, Mubarak NM, Bing CH, Mohammad K, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 04;183:109158.
    PMID: 32044575 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109158
    Jicama peroxidase (JP) immobilized functionalized Buckypaper/Polyvinyl alcohol (BP/PVA) membrane was synthesized and evaluated as a promising nanobiocomposite membrane for methylene blue (MB) dye removal from aqueous solution. The effects of independent process variables, including pH, agitation speed, initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and contact time on dye removal efficiency were investigated systematically. Both Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network coupled with Particle Swarm Optimization (ANN-PSO) approaches were used for predicting the optimum process parameters to achieve maximum MB dye removal efficiency. The best optimal topology for PSO embedded ANN architecture was found to be 4-6-1. This optimized network provided higher R2 values for randomized training, testing and validation data sets, which are 0.944, 0.931 and 0.946 respectively, thus confirming the efficacy of the ANN-PSO model. Compared to RSM, results confirmed that the hybrid ANN-PSO shows superior modeling capability for prediction of MB dye removal. The maximum MB dye removal efficiency of 99.5% was achieved at pH-5.77, 179 rpm, ratio of H2O2/MB dye of 73.2:1, within 229 min. Thus, this work demonstrated that JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane is a promising and feasible alternative for treating industrial effluent.
  2. Ajab H, Ali Khan AA, Nazir MS, Yaqub A, Abdullah MA
    Environ Res, 2019 09;176:108563.
    PMID: 31280029 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108563
    Environmental monitoring is important to determine the extent of eco-system pollution and degradation so that effective remedial strategies can be formulated. In this study, an environmentally friendly and cost-effective sensor made up of novel carbon electrode modified with cellulose and hydroxyapatite was developed for the detection of trace lead ions in aqueous system and palm oil mill effluent. Zinc, cadmium, and copper with lead were simultaneously detected using this method. The electrode exhibited high tolerance towards twelve common metal ions and three model surface active substances - sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Under optimum conditions, the sensor detected lead ions in palm oil mill effluent in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/L with 0.11 ± 0.37 μg/L limit of detection and 0.37 ± 0.37 μg/L limit of quantification. The validation using tap water, blood serum and palm oil mill effluent samples and compared with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, suggested excellent sensitivity of the sensor to detect lead ions in simple and complex matrices. The cellulose produced based on "green" techniques from agro-lignocellulosic wastes, in combination with hydroxyapatite, were proven effective as components in the carbon electrode composite. It has great potential in both clinical and environmental use.
  3. Noman E, Al-Gheethi A, Saphira Radin Mohamed RM, Talip B, Othman N, Hossain S, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 Aug 28;204(Pt A):111926.
    PMID: 34461120 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111926
    The present study aimed to assess the efficiency of silver bio-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in inactivating of the Aspergillus fumigatus, A. parasiticus and A. flavus var. columnaris and A. aculeatus spores. The AgNPs were synthesized in secondary metabolic products of Penicillium pedernalens 604 EAN. The inactivation process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) as a function of Ag NPs volume (1-10 μL/mL); time (10-120 min); pH (5-8); initial fungal concentrations (log10) (3-6). The artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to understand the behavior of spores for the factors affecting inactivation process. The best conditions to achieved SAL 10-6 of the fungal spores were recorded with 3.46 μl/mL of AgNPs, after 120 min at pH 5 and with 6 log of initial fungal spore concentrations, at which 5.99 vs. 6.09 (SAL 10-6) log reduction was recorded in actual and predicted results respectively with coefficient of 87.00%. The ANN revealed that the timehas major contribution in the inactivation process compare to Ag NPs volume. The fungal spores were totally inactivated (SAL 10-6, 6 log reduction with 99.9999%) after 110 min of the inactivation process, 10 min more was required to insure the irreversible inactivation of the fungal spores. The absence of protease and cellulase enzymes production confirm the total inactivation of the fungal spores. FESEM analysis revealed that the AgNPs which penetrated the fungal spores leading to damage and deform the fungal spore morphology. The AFM analysis confirmed the total spore surface damage. The bands in the range of the Raman spectroscopy from 1300 to 1600 cm-1 in the inactivated spores indicate the presence of CH3, CH2 and the deformation of lipids released outside the spore cytoplasm. These finding indicate that the AgNPs has high potential as a green alternative inactivation process for the airborne fungal spores.
  4. Salahuddin M, Habib MA, Al-Mulali U, Ozturk I, Marshall M, Ali MI
    Environ Res, 2020 12;191:110094.
    PMID: 32846170 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110094
    This study employs dynamic panel data for 34 Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) countries for the period 1984-2016 to estimate the effects of renewable energy on environmental quality measured by three indicators, namely, per capita CO2 emissions, energy intensity (EI) and Aggregate National Savings (ANS). The study leveraged a battery of second-generation econometric tests and estimation and causality methods to obtain the coefficients between the regressed and the regressors. Results reveal that use of renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions and energy intensity while it enhances ANS. Economic growth still seems to be expensive for the region as it stimulates CO2 emissions. However, it has a positive effect on ANS. As expected, fossil fuels exacerbate CO2 emissions and energy intensity. FDI is found to be detrimental for the environment of SSA region with its positive significant coefficient on CO2 emissions. Financial development is reported to reduce CO2 emissions. Some causal links between variables are also noted.
  5. Peng W, Sonne C, Lam SS, Ok YS, Alstrup AKO
    Environ Res, 2020 02;181:108887.
    PMID: 31732170 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108887
    The Amazon rainforest has sustained human existence for more than 10,000 years. Part of this has been the way that the forest controls regional climate including precipitation important for the ecosystem as well as agroforestry and farming. In addition, the Amazon also affects the global weather systems, so cutting down the rainforest significantly increases the effects of climate change, threatening the world's biodiversity and causing local desertification and soil erosion. The current fire activities and deforestation in the Amazon rainforest therefore have consequences for global sustainability. In the light of this, the current decisions made in Brazil regarding an increase in Amazon deforestation require policy changes if the global ecosystems and biodiversity are not to be set to collapse. There is only one way to move forward and that is to increase efforts in sustainable development of the region including limitation in deforestation and to continuously measure and monitor the development. The G7 countries have offered Brazil financial support for at least 20 million euros for fighting the forest fires but the president denies receiving such financial support and says that it is more relevant to raise new forests in Europe. In fact, this is exactly what is happening in Denmark and China in order to reduce climate change. Such activities should be global and include South America, Europe, Africa and Asia where deforestation is important issue. Forest restoration reduces climate change, desertification, and preserves both the regional tropical and global environment if the wood is not burned at a later stage but instead used in e.g. roads as filling material. Changes are therefore needed through improved international understanding and agreements to better avoid the global climate changes, from cutting down the precious rainforest before it is too late as rainforest cannot be re-planted.
  6. Ahmed A, Abu Bakar MS, Hamdani R, Park YK, Lam SS, Sukri RS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 07;186:109596.
    PMID: 32361527 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109596
    Biochar production from invasive species biomass discarded as waste was studied in a fixed bed reactor pyrolysis system under different temperature conditions for value-added applications. Prior to pyrolysis, the biomass feedstock was characterized by proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses, while the biomass decomposition behavior was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. The heating values of the feedstock biomass ranged from 18.65 to 20.65 MJ/kg, whereas the volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content were 61.54-72.04 wt %, 19.27-26.61 wt % and 1.51-1.86 wt %, respectively. The elemental composition of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the samples was reported to be in the range of 47.41-48.47 wt %, 5.50-5.88 wt % and 46.10-45.18 wt %, respectively, while the nitrogen and sulphur content in the biomass samples were at very low concentrations, making it more useful for valorization from environmental aspects. The biochar yields were reported in the range of 45.36-58.35 wt %, 28.63-44.38 wt % and 22.68-29.42 wt % at a pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C, respectively. The biochars were characterized from ultimate analysis, heating value, energy densification ratio, energy yield, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM and EDX), to evaluate their potential for value-added applications. The carbon content, heating value, energy densification ratio, and the porosity of the biochars improved with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the energy yield, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen content of the biochars decreased. This study revealed the potential of the valorization of underutilized discarded biomass of invasive species via a pyrolysis process to produce biochar for value-added applications.
  7. Mirzaei M, Bekri M
    Environ Res, 2017 Apr;154:345-351.
    PMID: 28161426 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.01.023
    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO2 emission outlines.
  8. Gurdeep Singh HK, Yusup S, Quitain AT, Abdullah B, Ameen M, Sasaki M, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 07;186:109616.
    PMID: 32668556 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109616
    Catalytic cracking of vegetable oil mainly processed over zeolites, and among all the zeolites particularly HZMS-5 has been investigated on wide range for renewable and clean gasoline production from various plant oils. Despite the fact that HZSM-5 offers a higher conversion degree and boost aromatics yield, the isomerate yield reduces due to high cracking activity and shape selectivity of HZSM-5. Hence, to overcome these problems, in this study the transition metals, such as nickel and copper doped over HZSM-5 were tested for its efficiencies to improve the isoparaffin compounds. The catalysts were screened with linoleic acid in a catalytic cracking reaction conducted at 450 ᵒC for 90 min in an atmospheric condition in batch reactor. Then, the gasoline composition of the organic liquid product (OLP) was analysed in terms of paraffin, isoparaffin, olefin, naphthenes and aromatics (PIONA). The results showed that Cu/ZSM-5 produced the highest liquid yield of 79.1%, at the same time reduced the production of gas and coke to 18.8% and 0.7%. Furthermore, the desired isoparaffin composition in biogasoline increased from 1.6% to 6.8% and at the same time reduced the oxygenated and aromatic compounds to 15.4% and 59.7%, respectively. The linoleic acid as model compound of rubber seed oil, in the catalytic cracking reaction provides a clearer understanding of the process. Besides, the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in catalytic cracking reaction provides insitu hydrogen production to saturate the branched olefin into the desired isoparaffin and the aromatics into naphthenes.
  9. Ramu AG, Umar A, Ibrahim AA, Algadi H, Ibrahim YSA, Wang Y, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 09;200:111366.
    PMID: 34029547 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111366
    In the present research work, 2D-Porous NiO decorated graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method to monitored the concentration of epinephrine (EPI). The morphology (SEM and TEM) results confirmed 2D-Porous NiO nanoparticles firmly attached over graphene nanosheets. FTIR and XPS analysis confirmed the formation of nickel oxide formation and complete reduction of GO to rGO. The electrochemical activity of the proposed NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode on epinephrine was analyzed by simple cyclic voltammetry technique. The proposed low cost NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity over GCE and rGO/GCE electrodes. Due to its high conductivity and charge transfer ability of the NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity of EPI at optimized conditions. The anodic peak current of the EPI linearly increases with increasing the concertation of EPI. A wide linear range (50 μM-1000 μM) was achieved with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9986) and the limit of detection (LOD) of NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode was calculated to be 10 μM. NiO-rGO/GCE electrode showed good stability and repeatability towards the EPI oxidation. Mainly, the proposed NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode showed good sensitivity of EPI in the human biological fluid with high recovery percentage. The low cost, NiO-rGO/GCE electrode could be the promising sensor electrode for the detection of Epinephrine in the real samples.
  10. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
  11. Yap JX, Leo CP, Mohd Yasin NH, Show PL, Derek CJC
    Environ Res, 2021 08;199:111298.
    PMID: 33971133 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111298
    Culture scaffolds allow microalgae cultivation with minimum water requirement using the air-liquid interface approach. However, the stability of cellulose-based scaffolds in microalgae cultivation remains questionable. In this study, the stability of regenerated cellulose culture scaffolds was enhanced by adjusting TiO2 loading and casting gap. The membrane scaffolds were synthesized using cellulose dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution with various loading of TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 nanoparticles were embedded into the porous membrane scaffolds as proven by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopic images, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. Although surface hydrophilicity and porosity were enhanced by increasing TiO2 and casting gap, the scaffold pore size was reduced. Cellulose membrane scaffold with 0.05 wt% of TiO2 concentration and thickness of 100 μm attained the highest percentage of Navicula incerta growth rate, up to 37.4%. The membrane scaffolds remained stable in terms of weight, porosity and pore size even they were immersed in acidic solution, hydrogen peroxide or autoclaved at 121 °C for 15 min. The optimal cellulose membrane scaffold is with TiO2 loading of 0.5 wt% and thickness of 100 μm, resulting in supporting the highest N. incerta growth rate and and exhibits good membrane stability.
  12. Lim KY, Foo KY
    Environ Res, 2021 Sep 10;204(Pt B):112044.
    PMID: 34516977 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112044
    In this work, the transformation of soybean industrial bio-residue with limited practical applications, into a multifunctional carbonaceous adsorbent (SBAC) via one-step microwave-irradiation has been succeeded. The surface porosity, chemical compositions, functionalities and surface chemistry were featured by microscopic pore-textural analysis, elemental constitution analysis, morphological characterization and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The adsorptive performance of SBAC was evaluated in a batch experiment by adopting different classes of water pollutants, specifically methylene blue (MB), acetaminophen and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The equilibrium uptakes were analyzed with respect to the non-linearized Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm equations. The unique features of SBAC, specifically the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacies were examined against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungi species. An ordered microporous-mesoporous structure of SBAC, with the BET surface area and total pore volume of 1696 m2/g and 0.94 m3/g, respectively, has been achieved. The equilibrium data of MB and acetaminophen were found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, with the monolayer adsorption capacities (Qo) of 434.57 mg/g and 393.31 mg/g, respectively. The adsorptive experiment of 2,4-D was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm equation, with the Qo of 253.17 mg/g. The regeneration performance of the spent SBAC under microwave-irradiation could maintain at 69.42-79.31%, even after five (5) adsorption-regeneration cycles. SBAC exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungi species, with the inhibition zones at 14.0-28.0 mm. This newly developed SBAC appears to be a new powerful candidate for the remediation of different classes of water contaminants, and novel antibacterial and antifungal agents against biological contaminations. The novel concept of "turn waste into wealth" in a cost-effective and energy saving manner for environmental preservation has been successfully accomplished.
  13. Jahir T, Pitchik HO, Rahman M, Sultana J, Shoab AKM, Nurul Huda TM, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 08;199:111292.
    PMID: 33971132 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111292
    Lead exposure is harmful at any time in life, but pre-natal and early childhood exposures are particularly detrimental to cognitive development. In Bangladesh, multiple household-level lead exposures pose risks, including turmeric adulterated with lead chromate and food storage in lead-soldered cans. We developed and evaluated an intervention to reduce lead exposure among children and their caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We conducted formative research to inform theory-based behavioral recommendations. Lead exposure was one of several topics covered in the multi-component intervention focused on early child development. Community health workers (CHWs) delivered the lead component of the intervention during group sessions with pregnant women and mother-child dyads (<15 months old) in a cluster-randomized trial. We administered household surveys at baseline (control n = 301; intervention n = 320) and 9 months later at endline (control n = 279; intervention n = 239) and calculated adjusted risk and mean differences for primary outcomes. We conducted two qualitative assessments, one after 3 months and a second after 9 months, to examine the feasibility and benefits of the intervention. At endline, the prevalence of lead awareness was 52 percentage points higher in the intervention arm compared to the control (adjusted risk difference: 0.52 [95% CI 0.46 to 0.61]). Safe turmeric consumption and food storage practices were more common in the intervention versus control arm at endline, with adjusted risk differences of 0.22 [0.10 to 0.32] and 0.13 [0.00 to 0.19], respectively. Semi-structured interviews conducted with a subset of participants after the intervention revealed that the perceived benefit of reducing lead exposure was high because of the long-term negative impacts that lead can have on child cognitive development. The study demonstrates that a group-based CHW-led intervention can effectively raise awareness about and motivate lead exposure prevention behaviors in rural Bangladesh. Future efforts should combine similar awareness-raising efforts with longer-term regulatory and structural changes to systematically and sustainably reduce lead exposure.
  14. Karami A, Romano N, Galloway T, Hamzah H
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:58-70.
    PMID: 27451000 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.024
    Despite the ubiquity of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments and their proven ability to carry a wide variety of chemicals, very little is known about the impacts of virgin or contaminant-loaded MPs on organisms. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of virgin or phenanthrene (Phe)-loaded low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fragments on a suite of biomarker responses in juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Virgin LDPE (50 or 500µg/L) were preloaded with one of two nominal Phe concentrations (10 or 100µg/L) and were exposed to the fish for 96h. Our findings showed one or both Phe treatments significantly increased the degree of tissue change (DTC) in the liver while decreased the transcription levels of forkhead box L2 (foxl2) and tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) in the brain of C. gariepinus. Exposure to either levels of virgin MPs increased the DTC in the liver and plasma albumin: globulin ratio while decreased the transcription levels of tph2. Moreover, MPs modulated (interacted with) the impact of Phe on the DTC in the gill, plasma concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin, and the transcription levels of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2), and liver glycogen stores. Results of this study highlight the ability of virgin LDPE fragments to cause toxicity and to modulate the adverse impacts of Phe in C. gariepinus. Due to the wide distribution of MPs and other classes of contaminants in aquatic environments, further studies are urgently needed to elucidate the toxicity of virgin or contaminant-loaded MPs on organisms.
  15. Phan K, Kim KW, Hashim JH
    Environ Res, 2014 Nov;135:37-41.
    PMID: 25262072 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.07.031
    We investigated relationship of arsenicosis symptoms with total blood arsenic (BAs) and serum albumin (SAlb) of residents in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. We found that arsenicosis patients had significantly higher BAs and lower SAlb than asymptomatic villagers (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Arsenicosis symptoms were found to be 76.4% (1.764 times) more likely to develop among individuals having an SAlb≤44.3gL(-1) than among those who had an SAlb>44.3gL(-1) (OR=1.764, 95% CI=0.999-3.114) and 117.6% (2.176 times) as likely to occur among those with BAs>5.73µgL(-1) than for those having BAs≤5.73µgL(-1) (OR=2.176, 95% CI=1.223-3.872). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was also found between BAs and SAlb (rs (199)=-0.354, p<0.0001). As such, this study suggests that people with low SAlb and/or high BAs are likely to rapidly develop arsenicosis symptoms.
  16. Norbäck D, Hashim Z, Ali F, Hashim JH
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:111061.
    PMID: 33785322 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111061
    Little is known on respiratory effects of indoor chemicals in the tropics. We investigated associations between asthma and respiratory infections in Malaysian students and chemical exposure at home and at school. Moreover, we investigated differences in home environment between the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian). Totally, 462 students from 8 junior high schools in Johor Bahru participated (96% participation rate). The students answered a questionnaire on health and home environment. Climate, carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured inside and outside the schools. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to study associations between exposure and health. Totally 4.8% were smokers, 10.3% had wheeze, 9.3% current asthma, and had 18.8% any respiratory infection in the past 3 months. Malay students had more dampness or mould (p 
  17. Ahmed Bhuiyan M, Rashid Khan HU, Zaman K, Hishan SS
    Environ Res, 2018 01;160:398-411.
    PMID: 29065379 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.013
    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of air pollutants, including mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on ecological footprint, habitat area, food supply, and biodiversity in a panel of thirty-four developed and developing countries, over the period of 1995-2014. The results reveal that NOx and SO2 emissions both have a negative relationship with ecological footprints, while N2O emission and real GDP per capita have a direct relationship with ecological footprints. NOx has a positive relationship with forest area, per capita food supply and biological diversity while CO2 emission and GHG emission have a negative impact on food production. N2O has a positive impact on forest area and biodiversity, while SO2 emissions have a negative relationship with them. SO2 emission has a direct relationship with per capita food production, while GDP per capita significantly affected per capita food production and food supply variability across countries. The overall results reveal that SO2, CO2, and GHG emissions affected potential habitat area, while SO2 and GHG emissions affected the biodiversity index. Trade liberalization policies considerably affected the potential habitat area and biological diversity in a panel of countries.
  18. Afroz R, Hassan MN, Ibrahim NA
    Environ Res, 2003 Jun;92(2):71-7.
    PMID: 12854685
    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.
  19. Hariharan P, Sundarrajan S, Arthanareeswaran G, Seshan S, Das DB, Ismail AF
    Environ Res, 2021 Sep 15.
    PMID: 34536369 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112045
    A comprehensive overview of various modifications carried out on polymeric membranes for biomedical applications has been presented in this review paper. In particular, different methods of carrying out these modifications have been discussed. The uniqueness of the review lies in the sense that it discusses the surface modification techniques traversing the timeline from traditionally well-established technologies to emerging new techniques, thus giving an intuitive understanding of the evolution of surface modification techniques over time. A critical comparison of the advantages and pitfalls of commonly used traditional and emerging surface modification techniques have been discussed. The paper also highlights the tuning of specific properties of polymeric membranes that are critical for their increased applications in the biomedical industry specifically in drug delivery, along with current challenges faced and where the future potential of research in the field of surface modification of membranes.
  20. Hitam CNC, Jalil AA
    Environ Res, 2021 Aug 27;204(Pt A):111964.
    PMID: 34461122 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111964
    As one of the potential bionanomaterials, nanocellulose has appeared as a favorable candidate for photoremediation of the environment because of its abundance in nature, inexpensive, eco-friendly, decomposable, high surface area, and outstanding mechanical properties. The current review carefully summarized the diverse type of nanocellulose, their preparation approaches, and several previous works on the use of nanocellulose for photoremediation. These include the role of nanocellulose for the increased surface active site of the hybrid photocatalysts by providing a large surface area for enhanced adsorption of photons and pollutant molecules, as a dispersing agent to increase distribution of metal/non-metal dopants photocatalysts, as well as for controlled size and morphology of the dopants photocatalysts. Furthermore, the recommendations for upcoming research provided in this review are anticipated to ignite an idea for the development of other nanocellulose-based photocatalysts. Other than delivering beneficial information on the present growth of the nanocellulose biomaterials photocatalysts, this review is expected will attract more interest to the utilization of nanocellulose photocatalyst and distribute additional knowledge in this exciting area of environmental photoremediation. This could be attained by considering that a review on nanocellulose biomaterials for environmental health photoremediation has not been described elsewhere, notwithstanding intensive research works have been dedicated to this topic.
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