In urban ecosystems, microbes play a key role in maintaining major ecological functions that directly support human health and city life. However, the knowledge about the species composition and functions involved in urban environments is still limited, which is largely due to the lack of reference genomes in metagenomic studies comprises more than half of unclassified reads. Here we uncovered 732 novel bacterial species from 4728 samples collected from various common surface with the matching materials in the mass transit system across 60 cities by the MetaSUB Consortium. The number of novel species is significantly and positively correlated with the city population, and more novel species can be identified in the skin-associated samples. The in-depth analysis of the new gene catalog showed that the functional terms have a significant geographical distinguishability. Moreover, we revealed that more biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) can be found in novel species. The co-occurrence relationship between BGCs and genera and the geographical specificity of BGCs can also provide us more information for the synthesis pathways of natural products. Expanded the known urban microbiome diversity and suggested additional mechanisms for taxonomic and functional characterization of the urban microbiome. Considering the great impact of urban microbiomes on human life, our study can also facilitate the microbial interaction analysis between human and urban environment.
Several factors ranging from environmental risks to the genetics of the virus and that of the hosts, affect the spread of COVID-19. The impact of physicochemical variables on virus vitality and spread should be taken into account in experimental and clinical studies. Another avenue to explore is the effect of diet and its interaction with the immune system on SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality rate. Past year have witnessed extensive studies on virus and pathophysiology of the COVID-19 disease and the cellular mechanisms of virus spreading. However, our knowledge has not reached a level where we plan an efficient therapeutic approach to prevent the virus entry to the cells or decreasing the spreading and morbidity in severe cases of disease. The risk of infection directly correlates with the control of virus spreading via droplets and aerosol transmission, as well as patient immune system response. A key goal in virus restriction and transmission rate is to understand the physicochemical structure of aerosol and droplet formation, and the parameters that affect the droplet-borne and airborne in different environmental conditions. The lifetime of droplets on different surfaces is described based on the contact angle. Hereby, we recommend regular use of high-quality face masks in high temperature and low humidity conditions. However, in humid and cold weather conditions, wearing gloves and frequently hand washing, gain a higher priority. Additionally, social distancing rules should be respected in all aforementioned conditions. We will also discuss different routes of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cells and how multiple genetic factors play a role in the spread of the virus. Given the role of environmental and nutritional factors, we discuss and recommend some strategies to prevent the disease and protect the population against COVID-19. Since an effective vaccine can prevent the transmission of communicable diseases and abolish pandemics, we added a brief review of candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
MXene based nanomaterial is an uprising two-dimensional material gaining tremendous scientific attentions due to its versatile properties for the applications in electronic devices, power generation, sensors, drug delivery, and biomedicine. However, the cytotoxic effects of MXene still remained a huge concern. Therefore, stringent analysis of biocompatibility of MXene is an essential requirement before introduction to human physiological system. Several in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies have been reported to investigate the interactions between MXenes with living organisms such as microbes, mammalian cells and animal models. The biological response and cytotoxicity reported were dependent on the physicochemical properties of MXene. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MXene were dependent on size, dose, and surface coating. This review demystifies the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies associated with MXene. Various methods proposed to mitigate the cytotoxicity of MXene for in vivo applications were revealed. The machine learning methods were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of experimentally synthesized MXene compounds. Finally, we also discussed the current research gaps of applying MXenes in biomedical interventions.
Herein, it is aimed to develop a high-performance monolithic adsorbent to be utilized in methyl orange (MO) adsorption. Therefore, amino-functionalized three-dimensional graphene networks (3D-GNf) fulfilling the requirements of reusability and high capacity have been fabricated via hydrothermal self-assembly approach followed by a double-crosslinking strategy. The potential utilization of 3D-GNf as an adsorbent for removal MO has been assessed using both batch-adsorption studies and an artificial neural network (ANN) approach. Graphene oxide sheets have been amino-functionalized and cross-linked, by ethylenediamine (EDA) during hydrothermal treatment, following the glutaraldehyde has used as a double-crosslinking agent to facilitate the crosslinking of architecture. The successful fabrication of 3D-GNf has been confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms have revealed the high specific surface area (1015 m2.g-1) with high pore volume (1.054 cm3.g-1) and hierarchical porous structure of 3D-GNf. The effect of initial concentration, contact time, and temperature on adsorption capacity have been thoroughly studied, and the kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics of MO adsorption have been modelled. The MO adsorption has been well defined by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 270.27 mg.g-1 at 25 °C. The thermodynamic findings have revealed MO adsorption has occurred spontaneously with an endothermic process. The Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm has been implemented to train the ANN model, which has used the activation functions of tansig and purelin functions at the hidden and output layers, respectively. An optimum ANN model with high-performance metrics (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.9995; mean squared error, MSE = 0.0008) composed of three hidden layers with 5 neurons in each layer was constructed to forecast MO adsorption. The findings have shown that experimental results are consistent with ANN-based data, implying that the suggested ANN model may be used to forecast cationic dye adsorption.
Several strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Among them, the use of various nanoparticles (NPs) (e.g. Fe, Ag, Cu, Mn, and metal oxides) is considered one of the most effective approaches to enhance the methanogenesis stage and biogas yield. Iron-based NPs (zero-valent iron with paramagnetic properties (Fe0) and iron oxides with ferromagnetic properties (Fe3O4/Fe2O3) enhance microbial activity and minimise the inhibition effect in methanogenesis. However, comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge on the function and impact of Fe-NPs on methanogens and methanogenesis stages in AD is frequently required. This review focuses on the applicative role of iron-based NPs (Fe-NPs) in the AD methanogenesis step to provide a comprehensive understanding application of Fe-NPs. In addition, insight into the interactions between methanogens and Fe-NPs (e.g. role of methanogens, microbe interaction and gene transfer with Fe-NPs) beneficial for CH4 production rate is provided. Microbial activity, inhibition effects and direct interspecies electron transfer through Fe-NPs have been extensively discussed. Finally, further studies towards detecting effective and optimised NPs based methods in the methanogenesis stage are reported.
A comprehensive overview of various modifications carried out on polymeric membranes for biomedical applications has been presented in this review paper. In particular, different methods of carrying out these modifications have been discussed. The uniqueness of the review lies in the sense that it discusses the surface modification techniques traversing the timeline from traditionally well-established technologies to emerging new techniques, thus giving an intuitive understanding of the evolution of surface modification techniques over time. A critical comparison of the advantages and pitfalls of commonly used traditional and emerging surface modification techniques have been discussed. The paper also highlights the tuning of specific properties of polymeric membranes that are critical for their increased applications in the biomedical industry specifically in drug delivery, along with current challenges faced and where the future potential of research in the field of surface modification of membranes.
In this work, the transformation of soybean industrial bio-residue with limited practical applications, into a multifunctional carbonaceous adsorbent (SBAC) via one-step microwave-irradiation has been succeeded. The surface porosity, chemical compositions, functionalities and surface chemistry were featured by microscopic pore-textural analysis, elemental constitution analysis, morphological characterization and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The adsorptive performance of SBAC was evaluated in a batch experiment by adopting different classes of water pollutants, specifically methylene blue (MB), acetaminophen and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The equilibrium uptakes were analyzed with respect to the non-linearized Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm equations. The unique features of SBAC, specifically the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacies were examined against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungi species. An ordered microporous-mesoporous structure of SBAC, with the BET surface area and total pore volume of 1696 m2/g and 0.94 m3/g, respectively, has been achieved. The equilibrium data of MB and acetaminophen were found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, with the monolayer adsorption capacities (Qo) of 434.57 mg/g and 393.31 mg/g, respectively. The adsorptive experiment of 2,4-D was best fitted to the Freundlich isotherm equation, with the Qo of 253.17 mg/g. The regeneration performance of the spent SBAC under microwave-irradiation could maintain at 69.42-79.31%, even after five (5) adsorption-regeneration cycles. SBAC exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies against gram-positive/negative bacteria and fungi species, with the inhibition zones at 14.0-28.0 mm. This newly developed SBAC appears to be a new powerful candidate for the remediation of different classes of water contaminants, and novel antibacterial and antifungal agents against biological contaminations. The novel concept of "turn waste into wealth" in a cost-effective and energy saving manner for environmental preservation has been successfully accomplished.
In the present research work, 2D-Porous NiO decorated graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method to monitored the concentration of epinephrine (EPI). The morphology (SEM and TEM) results confirmed 2D-Porous NiO nanoparticles firmly attached over graphene nanosheets. FTIR and XPS analysis confirmed the formation of nickel oxide formation and complete reduction of GO to rGO. The electrochemical activity of the proposed NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode on epinephrine was analyzed by simple cyclic voltammetry technique. The proposed low cost NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity over GCE and rGO/GCE electrodes. Due to its high conductivity and charge transfer ability of the NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity of EPI at optimized conditions. The anodic peak current of the EPI linearly increases with increasing the concertation of EPI. A wide linear range (50 μM-1000 μM) was achieved with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9986) and the limit of detection (LOD) of NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode was calculated to be 10 μM. NiO-rGO/GCE electrode showed good stability and repeatability towards the EPI oxidation. Mainly, the proposed NiO-rGO/GCE modified electrode showed good sensitivity of EPI in the human biological fluid with high recovery percentage. The low cost, NiO-rGO/GCE electrode could be the promising sensor electrode for the detection of Epinephrine in the real samples.
This study was focused on identifying the region suitable for agriculture-based, using new irrigation groundwater quality plot and its spatio-temporal variation with fuzzy logic technique in a geographic information system (GIS) platform. Six hundred and eighty groundwater samples were collected during pre, southwest, northeast, and post monsoon periods. A new ternary plot was also attempted to determine the irrigation suitability of water by considering four essential parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), Sodium percentage (Na %), and electrical conductivity (EC). The derived ternary plot was the most beneficial over other available plots, as it incorporated four parameters, and it differs from the US Salinity Laboratory (USSL) plot, such that the groundwater with higher EC could also be used for irrigation purposes, depending on the Na%. The ternary plot revealed that the groundwater predominantly manifested good to moderate category during post, northeast, and southwest monsoons. The assessment with the amount of fertilizer used during the study period showed that the NPK fertilizers were effectively used for irrigation during monsoon periods. Spatial maps on EC, Kelly's ratio, Mg hazard, Na%, PI, potential salinity (PS), SAR, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and soluble sodium percentage (SSP) were prepared for each season using fuzzy membership values, integrated for each season. A final suitability map derived by an overlay of all the seasonal outputs has identified that the groundwater in the western and the eastern part of the study area are suitable for agriculture. The study recommends cultivation of groundwater-dependent short-term crops, along the western and northern regions of the study area during the pre-monsoon season.
The present study aimed to assess the efficiency of silver bio-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in inactivating of the Aspergillus fumigatus, A. parasiticus and A. flavus var. columnaris and A. aculeatus spores. The AgNPs were synthesized in secondary metabolic products of Penicillium pedernalens 604 EAN. The inactivation process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) as a function of Ag NPs volume (1-10 μL/mL); time (10-120 min); pH (5-8); initial fungal concentrations (log10) (3-6). The artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to understand the behavior of spores for the factors affecting inactivation process. The best conditions to achieved SAL 10-6 of the fungal spores were recorded with 3.46 μl/mL of AgNPs, after 120 min at pH 5 and with 6 log of initial fungal spore concentrations, at which 5.99 vs. 6.09 (SAL 10-6) log reduction was recorded in actual and predicted results respectively with coefficient of 87.00%. The ANN revealed that the timehas major contribution in the inactivation process compare to Ag NPs volume. The fungal spores were totally inactivated (SAL 10-6, 6 log reduction with 99.9999%) after 110 min of the inactivation process, 10 min more was required to insure the irreversible inactivation of the fungal spores. The absence of protease and cellulase enzymes production confirm the total inactivation of the fungal spores. FESEM analysis revealed that the AgNPs which penetrated the fungal spores leading to damage and deform the fungal spore morphology. The AFM analysis confirmed the total spore surface damage. The bands in the range of the Raman spectroscopy from 1300 to 1600 cm-1 in the inactivated spores indicate the presence of CH3, CH2 and the deformation of lipids released outside the spore cytoplasm. These finding indicate that the AgNPs has high potential as a green alternative inactivation process for the airborne fungal spores.
As one of the potential bionanomaterials, nanocellulose has appeared as a favorable candidate for photoremediation of the environment because of its abundance in nature, inexpensive, eco-friendly, decomposable, high surface area, and outstanding mechanical properties. The current review carefully summarized the diverse type of nanocellulose, their preparation approaches, and several previous works on the use of nanocellulose for photoremediation. These include the role of nanocellulose for the increased surface active site of the hybrid photocatalysts by providing a large surface area for enhanced adsorption of photons and pollutant molecules, as a dispersing agent to increase distribution of metal/non-metal dopants photocatalysts, as well as for controlled size and morphology of the dopants photocatalysts. Furthermore, the recommendations for upcoming research provided in this review are anticipated to ignite an idea for the development of other nanocellulose-based photocatalysts. Other than delivering beneficial information on the present growth of the nanocellulose biomaterials photocatalysts, this review is expected will attract more interest to the utilization of nanocellulose photocatalyst and distribute additional knowledge in this exciting area of environmental photoremediation. This could be attained by considering that a review on nanocellulose biomaterials for environmental health photoremediation has not been described elsewhere, notwithstanding intensive research works have been dedicated to this topic.
The demand for the green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained prominence over the conventional chemical and physical syntheses, which often entails toxic chemicals, energy consumption and ultimately lead to negative environmental impact. In the green synthesis approach, naturally available bio-compounds found in plants and fungi can be effective and have been proven to be alternative reducing agents. Fungi or mushrooms are particularly interesting due to their high content of bioactive compounds, which can serve as excellent reducing agents in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Apart from the economic and environmental benefits, such as ease of availability, low synthesis/production cost, safe and no toxicity, the nanoparticles synthesized from this green method have unique physical and chemical properties. Stabilisation of the nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is exceedingly high, even after prolonged storage with unperturbed size uniformity. Biological properties were significantly improved with higher biocompatibility, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. These remarkable properties allow further exploration in their applications both in the medical and agricultural fields. This review aims to explore the mushroom-mediated biosynthesis of nanomaterials, specifically the mechanism and bio-compounds involved in the synthesis and their interactions for the stabilisation of nanoparticles. Various metal and non-metal nanoparticles have been discussed along with their synthesis techniques and parameters, making them ideal for specific industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. Only recent developments have been explored in this review.
Microalgae are drawing attentions among researchers for their biorefinery use or value-added products. The high production rate of biomasses produced are attractive for conversion into volatile biochar. Torrefaction, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization are the recommended thermochemical conversion techniques that could produce microalgal-based biochar with desirable physiochemical properties such as high surface area and pore volume, abundant surface functional groups, as well as functionality such as high adsorption capacity. The characterizations of the biochar significantly influence the mechanisms in adsorption of pollutants from wastewaters. Specific adsorption of the organic and inorganic pollutants from the effluent are reviewed to examine the adsorption capacity and efficiency of biochar derived from different microalgae species. Last but not least, future remarks over the challenges and improvements are discussed accordingly. Overall, this review would discuss the synthesis, characterization and application of the microalgal-based biochar in wastewater.
Culture scaffolds allow microalgae cultivation with minimum water requirement using the air-liquid interface approach. However, the stability of cellulose-based scaffolds in microalgae cultivation remains questionable. In this study, the stability of regenerated cellulose culture scaffolds was enhanced by adjusting TiO2 loading and casting gap. The membrane scaffolds were synthesized using cellulose dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution with various loading of TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 nanoparticles were embedded into the porous membrane scaffolds as proven by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopic images, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. Although surface hydrophilicity and porosity were enhanced by increasing TiO2 and casting gap, the scaffold pore size was reduced. Cellulose membrane scaffold with 0.05 wt% of TiO2 concentration and thickness of 100 μm attained the highest percentage of Navicula incerta growth rate, up to 37.4%. The membrane scaffolds remained stable in terms of weight, porosity and pore size even they were immersed in acidic solution, hydrogen peroxide or autoclaved at 121 °C for 15 min. The optimal cellulose membrane scaffold is with TiO2 loading of 0.5 wt% and thickness of 100 μm, resulting in supporting the highest N. incerta growth rate and and exhibits good membrane stability.
Herein we reported the effect of doping and addition of surfactant on SnO2 nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic activity. Pristine SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) was prepared via simple co-precipitation method and the product was annealed at 600 °C to obtain a clear phase. The structural, optical, vibrational, morphological characteristics of the synthesized SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) product were investigated. SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) possess crystallite size of 20 nm, 19 nm and 18 nm correspondingly with tetragonal structure and high purity. The metal oxygen vibrations were present in FT-IR spectra. The obtained bandgap energies of SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) were 3.58 eV, 3.51 eV and 2.81 eV due to the effect of dopant and surfactant. This narrowing of bandgap helped in the photocatalytic activity. The morphology of the pristine sample showed poor growth of nanostructures with high level of agglomeration which was effectively reduced for other two samples. Product photocatalytic action was tested beneath visible light of 300 W. SDS-(Zn-SnO2) nanostructure efficiency showed 90% degradation of RhB dye which is 2.5 times higher than pristine sample. Narrow bandgap, crystallite size, better growth of nanostructures paved the way for SDS-(Zn-SnO2) to degrade the toxic pollutant. The superior performance and individuality of SDS-(Zn-SnO2) will makes it a potential competitor on reducing toxic pollutants from wastewater in future research.
Lead exposure is harmful at any time in life, but pre-natal and early childhood exposures are particularly detrimental to cognitive development. In Bangladesh, multiple household-level lead exposures pose risks, including turmeric adulterated with lead chromate and food storage in lead-soldered cans. We developed and evaluated an intervention to reduce lead exposure among children and their caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We conducted formative research to inform theory-based behavioral recommendations. Lead exposure was one of several topics covered in the multi-component intervention focused on early child development. Community health workers (CHWs) delivered the lead component of the intervention during group sessions with pregnant women and mother-child dyads (<15 months old) in a cluster-randomized trial. We administered household surveys at baseline (control n = 301; intervention n = 320) and 9 months later at endline (control n = 279; intervention n = 239) and calculated adjusted risk and mean differences for primary outcomes. We conducted two qualitative assessments, one after 3 months and a second after 9 months, to examine the feasibility and benefits of the intervention. At endline, the prevalence of lead awareness was 52 percentage points higher in the intervention arm compared to the control (adjusted risk difference: 0.52 [95% CI 0.46 to 0.61]). Safe turmeric consumption and food storage practices were more common in the intervention versus control arm at endline, with adjusted risk differences of 0.22 [0.10 to 0.32] and 0.13 [0.00 to 0.19], respectively. Semi-structured interviews conducted with a subset of participants after the intervention revealed that the perceived benefit of reducing lead exposure was high because of the long-term negative impacts that lead can have on child cognitive development. The study demonstrates that a group-based CHW-led intervention can effectively raise awareness about and motivate lead exposure prevention behaviors in rural Bangladesh. Future efforts should combine similar awareness-raising efforts with longer-term regulatory and structural changes to systematically and sustainably reduce lead exposure.
Uranium (U) in groundwater is hazardous to human health, especially if it is present in drinking water. The semiarid regions of southern India chiefly depend on groundwater for drinking purposes. In this regard, a comprehensive sampling strategy was adopted to collect groundwater representing different lithologies of the region. The samples were collected in two different seasons and analysed for major and minor ions along with total U in the groundwater. Two samples during pre monsoon (PRM) and seven samples during post monsoon (POM) had U > 30 μgL-1, which is above the World Health Organization's provisional guideline value. The high concentration of U (188 μgL-1) was observed in the alluvial formation though a few samples showed the release of U near the pink granite (39 μgL-1) and the concentration was low in the lateritic formation (10 μgL-1). The uranyl carbonato complexes UO2(CO3)22- and UO2(CO3)34- were associated with high pH which facilitated the transport of U into groundwater especially during POM. U3O8 is the major form observed in groundwater compared to either UO2 or UO3 in the both seasons. The uranium oxides were observed to be more prevalent at the neutral pH. Though U concentration increases with pH, it is mainly governed by the redox conditions. The principal component analysis (PCA) analysis also suggested redox conditions in groundwater to be the major process facilitating the U release mechanism regardless of the season. The POM season has an additional source of U in groundwater due to the application of nitrogenous fertilizers in the alluvium region. Furthermore, redox mobilization factor was predominantly observed near the coastal region and in the agricultural regions. The process of infiltration of the fertilizer-induced U was enhanced by the agricultural runoff into the surface water bodies in the region. Health risk assessment was also carried out by determining annual effective dose rate, cancer mortality risk, lifetime average daily dose and hazard quotient to assess the portability of groundwater in the study area. Artificial recharge technique and reducing the usage of chemical based fertilizers for irrigation are suggested as sustainable plans to safeguard the vulnerable water resource in this region.
This study aims to analyze the pollution characteristics and sources of heavy metal elements for the first time in the Zhundong mining area in Xinjiang using the linear regression model. Additionaly, the health risks with their probability and infleuencing factors on different groups of people's were also evaluated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach. The results shows that 89.28% of Hg was from coal combustion, 40.28% of Pb was from transportation, and 19.54% of As was from atmospheric dust. The main source of Cu and Cr was coal dust, Hg has the greatest impact on potential ecological risks. which accounted for 60.2% and 81.46% of the Cu and Cr content in soil, respectively. The all samples taken from Pb have been Extremely polluted (100%). 93.3% samples taken from As have been Extremely polluted. The overall potential ecological risk was moderate. Adults experienced higher non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals from their diets than children. Interestingly, body weight was the main factor affecting the adult's health risks. This research provides more comprehensive information for better soil management, soil remediation, and soil pollution control in the Xinjiang mining areas.
The Bokashi leachate (BL) is a by-product from the anaerobic digestion of food waste, following the Bokashi composting method. Bokashi leachate is acidic and it contains effective microorganisms hence it has potential to be a functional feed additive to the plant proteins based diets for fish farming. This study evaluated the growth performance and feed utilization of the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings fed with the BL supplemented soybean meal (SBM) based diets. After an 8-week feeding trial, fish fed with the 5% BL supplemented SBM diet attained the highest weight gain. This result was significantly higher (p 0.05) to those fed with the control full fish meal (FM) diet. Generally, dietary inclusion of BL enhanced the fish feed intake on the SBM diet but it did not show clear sign of improvement in their feed utilization. In addition, no significant difference was found across the hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index from all dietary treatments. These outcomes concluded that dietary inclusion of BL can enhance the feed intake and growth performance of the red tilapia fingerlings fed with the SBM based diet without compromising their health, and the optimum BL inclusion level was 5%. Nevertheless, further study on the properties and substances content of the BL produced from different types and ratios of food waste is strongly recommended. In this study, BL was also discovered to be capable of reducing the crude fiber content in the SBM diets. Such observation deserves a further exploitation on the application of BL to manipulate the crude fiber content in the plant proteins based diets in fish farming.
The deposition phenomenon of microparticle and SAR-CoV-2 laced bioaerosol in human airways is studied by Taguchi methods and response surface methodology (RSM). The data used herein is obtained from simulations of airflow dynamics and deposition fractions of drug particle aerosols in the downstream airways of asthma patients using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete particle motion (DPM). Three main parameters, including airflow rate, drug dose, and particle size, affecting aerosol deposition in the lungs of asthma patients are examined. The highest deposition fraction (DF) is obtained at the flow rate of 45 L min-1, the drug dose of 200 μg·puff-1, and the particle diameter of 5 μm. The optimized combination of levels for the three parameters for maximum drug deposition is performed via the Taguchi method. The importance of the influencing factors rank as particle size > drug dose > flow rate. RSM reveals that the combination of 30 L min-1, 5 μm, 200 μg·puff- has the highest deposition fraction. In part, this research also studied the deposition of bioaerosols contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus, and their lowest DF is 1.15%. The low DF of bioaerosols reduces the probability of the SAR-CoV-2 virus transmission.