Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
  2. Baneshi MM, Ghaedi AM, Vafaei A, Emadzadeh D, Lau WJ, Marioryad H, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 04;183:109278.
    PMID: 32311912 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109278
    The water sources contaminated by toxic dyes would pose a serious problem for public health. In view of this, the development of a simple yet effective method for removing dyes from industrial effluent has attracted interest from researchers. In the present work, flat sheet mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with different physiochemical properties were fabricated by blending P84 polyimide with different concentrations of cadmium-based metal organic frameworks (MOF-2(Cd)). The resultant membranes were then used for simultaneous removal of eosin y (EY), sunset yellow (SY) and methylene blue (MB) under various process conditions. The findings indicated that the membranes could achieve high water permeability (117.8-171.4 L/m2.h.bar) and promising rejection for simultaneous dyes removal, recording value of 99.9%, 81.2% and 68.4% for MB, EY and SY, respectively. When 0.2 wt% MOF-2(Cd) was incorporated into the membrane matrix, the membrane separation efficiency was improved by 110.2% and 213.3% for EY and SY removal, respectively when compared with the pristine membrane. In addition, the optimization and modeling of membrane permeate flux and dye rejection was explored using response surface methodology. The actual and model results are in good agreement with R2 of at least 0.9983 for dye rejection and permeate flux. The high flux of the developed MMMs coupled with effective separation of dyes suggests a promising prospect of using P84 polyimide MMMs incorporated with MOF-2(Cd) for water purification.
  3. Peng W, Ma NL, Zhang D, Zhou Q, Yue X, Khoo SC, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 12;191:110046.
    PMID: 32841638 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110046
    Locusts differ from ordinary grasshoppers in their ability to swarm over long distances and are among the oldest migratory pests. The ecology and biology of locusts make them among the most devastating pests worldwide and hence the calls for actions to prevent the next outbreaks. The most destructive of all locust species is the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). Here, we review the current locust epidemic 2020 outbreak and its causes and prevention including the green technologies that may provide a reference for future directions of locust control and food security. Massive locust outbreaks threaten the terrestrial environments and crop production in around 100 countries of which Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are the most affected. Six large locust outbreaks are reported for the period from 1912 to 1989 all being closely related to long-term droughts and warm winters coupled with occurrence of high precipitation in spring and summer. The outbreaks in East Africa, India and Pakistan are the most pronounced with locusts migrating more than 150 km/day during which the locusts consume food equivalent to their own body weight on a daily basis. The plague heavily affects the agricultural sectors, which is the foundation of national economies and social stability. Global warming is likely the main cause of locust plague outbreak in recent decades driving egg spawning of up to 2-400,000 eggs per square meter. Biological control techniques such as microorganisms, insects and birds help to reduce the outbreaks while reducing ecosystem and agricultural impacts. In addition, green technologies such as light and sound stimulation seem to work, however, these are challenging and need further technological development incorporating remote sensing and modelling before they are applicable on large-scales. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the 2020 locust outbreak is the worst in 70 years probably triggered by climate change, hurricanes and heavy rain and has affected a total of 70,000 ha in Somalia and Ethiopia. There is a need for shifting towards soybean, rape, and watermelon which seems to help to prevent locust outbreaks and obtain food security. Furthermore, locusts have a very high protein content and is an excellent protein source for meat production and as an alternative human protein source, which should be used to mitigate food security. In addition, forestation of arable land improves local climate conditions towards less precipitation and lower temperatures while simultaneously attracting a larger number of birds thereby increasing the locust predation rates.
  4. Ho NAD, Leo CP
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:111100.
    PMID: 33812871 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111100
    Carbon capture can be implemented at a large scale only if the CO2 selective materials are abundantly available at low cost. Since the sustainable requirement also elevated, the low-cost and biodegradable cellulosic materials are developed into CO2 selective adsorbent and membranes recently. The applications of cellulose, cellulosic derivatives and nanocellulose as CO2 selective adsorbents and membranes are reviewed here. The fabrication and modification strategies are discussed besides comparing their CO2 separation performance. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) isolated from cellulose possess a big surface area for mechanical enhancement and a great number of hydroxyl groups for modification. Nanocellulose aerogels with the large surface area were chemically modified to improve their selectivity towards CO2. Even with the reduction of surface area, amino-functionalized nanocellulose aerogels exhibited the satisfactory chemisorption of CO2 with a capacity of more than 2 mmol/g was recorded. Inorganic fillers such as silica, zeolite and MOFs were further incorporated into nanocellulose aerogels to enhance the physisorption of CO2 by increasing the surface area. Although CO2 adsorbents developed from cellulose and cellulose derivatives were less reported, their applications as the building blocks of CO2 separation membranes had been long studied. Cellulose acetate membranes were commercialized for CO2 separation, but their separation performance could be further improved with silane or inorganic filler. CNCs and CNFs enhanced the CO2 selectivity and permeance through polyvinyl alcohol coating on membranes, but only CNF membranes incorporated with MOFs were explored so far. Although some of these membranes surpassed the upper-bound of Robeson plot, their stability should be further investigated.
  5. Hiew BYZ, Lee LY, Lai KC, Gan S, Thangalazhy-Gopakumar S, Pan GT, et al.
    Environ Res, 2019 01;168:241-253.
    PMID: 30321737 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.09.030
    Pharmaceutical residues are emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment and their removal by conventional wastewater treatment methods has proven to be ineffective. This research aimed to develop a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (rGOA) for the removal of diclofenac in aqueous solution. The preparation of rGOA involved facile self-assembly of graphene oxide under a reductive environment of L-ascorbic acid. Characterisation of rGOA was performed by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The developed rGOA had a measured density of 20.39 ± 5.28 mg/cm3, specific surface area of 132.19 m2/g, cumulative pore volume of 0.5388 cm3/g and point of zero charge of 6.3. A study on the simultaneous interactions of independent factors by response surface methodology suggested dosage and initial concentration as the dominant parameters influencing the adsorption of diclofenac. The highest diclofenac adsorption capacity (596.71 mg/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 0.25 g/L dosage, 325 mg/L initial concentration, 200 rpm shaking speed and 30 °C temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data were best fitted to the Freundlich model with correlation coefficient (R2) varying from 0.9500 to 0.9802. The adsorption kinetic data were best correlated to the pseudo-first-order model with R2 ranging from 0.8467 to 0.9621. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the process was spontaneous (∆G = - 7.19 to - 0.48 kJ/mol) and exothermic (∆H = - 12.82 to - 2.17 kJ/mol). This research concluded that rGOA is a very promising adsorbent for the remediation of water polluted by diclofenac.
  6. Chen WH, Chang CM, Mutuku JK, Lam SS, Lee WJ
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:110975.
    PMID: 33689824 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110975
    The deposition phenomenon of microparticle and SAR-CoV-2 laced bioaerosol in human airways is studied by Taguchi methods and response surface methodology (RSM). The data used herein is obtained from simulations of airflow dynamics and deposition fractions of drug particle aerosols in the downstream airways of asthma patients using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete particle motion (DPM). Three main parameters, including airflow rate, drug dose, and particle size, affecting aerosol deposition in the lungs of asthma patients are examined. The highest deposition fraction (DF) is obtained at the flow rate of 45 L min-1, the drug dose of 200 μg·puff-1, and the particle diameter of 5 μm. The optimized combination of levels for the three parameters for maximum drug deposition is performed via the Taguchi method. The importance of the influencing factors rank as particle size > drug dose > flow rate. RSM reveals that the combination of 30 L min-1, 5 μm, 200 μg·puff- has the highest deposition fraction. In part, this research also studied the deposition of bioaerosols contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus, and their lowest DF is 1.15%. The low DF of bioaerosols reduces the probability of the SAR-CoV-2 virus transmission.
  7. Wu J, Danko D, Afshinnekoo E, Bezdan D, Bhattacharyya M, Castro-Nallar E, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 Oct 09.
    PMID: 34637759 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112183
    In urban ecosystems, microbes play a key role in maintaining major ecological functions that directly support human health and city life. However, the knowledge about the species composition and functions involved in urban environments is still limited, which is largely due to the lack of reference genomes in metagenomic studies comprises more than half of unclassified reads. Here we uncovered 732 novel bacterial species from 4728 samples collected from various common surface with the matching materials in the mass transit system across 60 cities by the MetaSUB Consortium. The number of novel species is significantly and positively correlated with the city population, and more novel species can be identified in the skin-associated samples. The in-depth analysis of the new gene catalog showed that the functional terms have a significant geographical distinguishability. Moreover, we revealed that more biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) can be found in novel species. The co-occurrence relationship between BGCs and genera and the geographical specificity of BGCs can also provide us more information for the synthesis pathways of natural products. Expanded the known urban microbiome diversity and suggested additional mechanisms for taxonomic and functional characterization of the urban microbiome. Considering the great impact of urban microbiomes on human life, our study can also facilitate the microbial interaction analysis between human and urban environment.
  8. Norbäck D, Hashim Z, Ali F, Hashim JH
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:111061.
    PMID: 33785322 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111061
    Little is known on respiratory effects of indoor chemicals in the tropics. We investigated associations between asthma and respiratory infections in Malaysian students and chemical exposure at home and at school. Moreover, we investigated differences in home environment between the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian). Totally, 462 students from 8 junior high schools in Johor Bahru participated (96% participation rate). The students answered a questionnaire on health and home environment. Climate, carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured inside and outside the schools. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to study associations between exposure and health. Totally 4.8% were smokers, 10.3% had wheeze, 9.3% current asthma, and had 18.8% any respiratory infection in the past 3 months. Malay students had more dampness or mould (p 
  9. Razzaq A, Sharif A, Aziz N, Irfan M, Jermsittiparsert K
    Environ Res, 2020 Dec;191:110189.
    PMID: 32919963 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110189
    This study draws the link between COVID-19 and air pollution (ground ozone O3) from February 29, 2020 to July 10, 2020 in the top 10 affected States of the US. Utilizing quantile-on-quantile (QQ) estimation technique, we examine in what manner the quantiles of COVID-19 affect the quantiles of air pollution and vice versa. The primary findings confirm overall dependence between COVID-19 and air pollution. Empirical results exhibit a strong negative effect of COVID-19 on air pollution in New York, Texas, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania; especially at medium to higher quantiles, while New Jersey, Illinois, Arizona, and Georgia show strong negative effect mainly at lower quantiles. Contrarily, COVID-19 positively affects air pollution in Pennsylvania at extreme lower quantiles. On the other side, air pollution predominantly caused to increase in the intensity of COVID-19 cases across all states except lower quantiles of Massachusetts, and extreme higher quantiles of Arizona and New Jersey, where this effect becomes less pronounced or negative. Concludingly, a rare positive fallout of COVID-19 is reducing environmental pressure, while higher environmental pollution causes to increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 cases. These findings imply that air pollution is at the heart of chronic diseases, therefore the state government should consider these asymmetric channels and introduce appropriate policy measures to reset and control atmospheric emissions.
  10. Ren T, Chen N, Wan Mahari WA, Xu C, Feng H, Ji X, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 Jan;192:110273.
    PMID: 33002505 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110273
    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of biochar addition and the mechanisms that alleviate Cd stress in the growth of tobacco plant. Cadmium showed an inhibitory effect on tobacco growth at different post-transplantation times, and this increased with the increase in soil Cd concentration. The growth index decreased by more than 10%, and the photosynthetic pigment and photosynthetic characteristics of the tobacco leaf were significantly reduced, and the antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced. Application of biochar effectively alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on tobacco growth, and the alleviation effect of treatments is more significant to the plants with a higher Cd concentration. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids in the leaves of tobacco plants treated with biochar increased by 9.99%, 12.58%, and 10.32%, respectively, after 60 days of transplantation. The photosynthetic characteristics index of the net photosynthetic rate increased by 11.48%, stomatal conductance increased by 11.44%, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration decreased to 0.92. Based on the treatments, during the growth period, the antioxidant enzyme activities of tobacco leaves comprising catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde increased by 7.62%, 10.41%, 10.58%, and 12.57%, respectively, after the application of biochar. Our results show that biochar containing functional groups can effectively reduce the effect of Cd stress by intensifying the adsorption or passivation of Cd in the soil, thereby, significantly reducing the Cd content in plant leaves, and providing a theoretical basis and method to alleviate soil Cd pollution and effect soil remediation.
  11. Mohd Ali MA, Gimbun J, Lau KL, Cheng CK, Vo DN, Lam SS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 06;185:109452.
    PMID: 32259725 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109452
    A synergistic effect of the activated limestone-based catalyst (LBC) and microwave irradiation on the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) was screened using a two-level factorial design and response surface methodology. The catalyst was prepared using a wet-impregnation method and was characterised for its surface element, surface morphology, surface area and porosity. The reaction was performed in a purpose-built continuous microwave assisted reactor (CMAR), while the conversion and yield of biodiesel were measured using a gas chromatography. The results showed that the catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio and the reaction time significantly affect the WCO conversion. The optimum conversion of oil to biodiesel up to 96.65% was achieved at catalyst loading of 5.47 wt%, methanol to oil molar ratio of 12.21:1 and the reaction time of 55.26 min. The application of CMAR in this work reduced the transesterification time by about 77% compared to the reaction time needed for a conventional reactor. The biodiesel produced in this work met the specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751). Engine test results shows the biodiesel has a lower NOx and particulate matters emissions compared to petrodiesel.
  12. Gurdeep Singh HK, Yusup S, Quitain AT, Abdullah B, Ameen M, Sasaki M, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 07;186:109616.
    PMID: 32668556 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109616
    Catalytic cracking of vegetable oil mainly processed over zeolites, and among all the zeolites particularly HZMS-5 has been investigated on wide range for renewable and clean gasoline production from various plant oils. Despite the fact that HZSM-5 offers a higher conversion degree and boost aromatics yield, the isomerate yield reduces due to high cracking activity and shape selectivity of HZSM-5. Hence, to overcome these problems, in this study the transition metals, such as nickel and copper doped over HZSM-5 were tested for its efficiencies to improve the isoparaffin compounds. The catalysts were screened with linoleic acid in a catalytic cracking reaction conducted at 450 ᵒC for 90 min in an atmospheric condition in batch reactor. Then, the gasoline composition of the organic liquid product (OLP) was analysed in terms of paraffin, isoparaffin, olefin, naphthenes and aromatics (PIONA). The results showed that Cu/ZSM-5 produced the highest liquid yield of 79.1%, at the same time reduced the production of gas and coke to 18.8% and 0.7%. Furthermore, the desired isoparaffin composition in biogasoline increased from 1.6% to 6.8% and at the same time reduced the oxygenated and aromatic compounds to 15.4% and 59.7%, respectively. The linoleic acid as model compound of rubber seed oil, in the catalytic cracking reaction provides a clearer understanding of the process. Besides, the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in catalytic cracking reaction provides insitu hydrogen production to saturate the branched olefin into the desired isoparaffin and the aromatics into naphthenes.
  13. Rambabu K, Bharath G, Banat F, Show PL
    Environ Res, 2020 08;187:109694.
    PMID: 32485359 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109694
    Biosorption ability of date palm empty fruit bunch (DPEFB) was examined for the removal of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) ions from synthetic wastewater. The pretreated DPEFB biosorbent was studied for its morphology and surface chemistry through Scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersive elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Effect of biosorption parameters such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, initial feed concentration and agitation speed on the Cr6+ ions removal efficiency by DPEFB was critically evaluated. The isoelectric point for the DPEFB sorbent was observed at pH 2, above which it was dehydronated to capture the positively charged Cr6+ ions. Batch biosorption studies showed that an optimal chromium removal efficiency of 58.02% was recorded by the DPEFB biosorbent for pH 2, dosage 0.3 g, 100 rpm agitation speed, 120 min contact time, 50 mg/L initial feed concentration and 30 °C operational temperature. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding of Cr6+ ions on DPEFB surface was exothermic, stable and favorable at room temperature. Equilibrium behavior of chromium binding on DPEFB was more aligned to Temkin isotherm (R2 = 0.9852) highlighting the indirect interactions between Cr6+ ions and the biosorbent. Kinetic modeling revealed that the biosorption of Cr6+ ions by DPEFB obeyed pseudo-second order model than the pseudo-first order and intra-particle diffusion models. Reusability studies of the DPEFB sorbent showed that NaNO3 was an effective regenerant and the biosorbent can be efficiently reused up to three successive biosorption-desorption cycles for chromium removal. In summary, the results clearly showed that the DPEFB biowaste seems to be an efficient, economic and eco-friendly biosorbent for sustainable removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from domestic and industrial wastewater streams.
  14. Sudheer S, Bai RG, Muthoosamy K, Tuvikene R, Gupta VK, Manickam S
    Environ Res, 2021 Aug 25;204(Pt A):111963.
    PMID: 34450157 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111963
    The demand for the green synthesis of nanoparticles has gained prominence over the conventional chemical and physical syntheses, which often entails toxic chemicals, energy consumption and ultimately lead to negative environmental impact. In the green synthesis approach, naturally available bio-compounds found in plants and fungi can be effective and have been proven to be alternative reducing agents. Fungi or mushrooms are particularly interesting due to their high content of bioactive compounds, which can serve as excellent reducing agents in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Apart from the economic and environmental benefits, such as ease of availability, low synthesis/production cost, safe and no toxicity, the nanoparticles synthesized from this green method have unique physical and chemical properties. Stabilisation of the nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is exceedingly high, even after prolonged storage with unperturbed size uniformity. Biological properties were significantly improved with higher biocompatibility, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. These remarkable properties allow further exploration in their applications both in the medical and agricultural fields. This review aims to explore the mushroom-mediated biosynthesis of nanomaterials, specifically the mechanism and bio-compounds involved in the synthesis and their interactions for the stabilisation of nanoparticles. Various metal and non-metal nanoparticles have been discussed along with their synthesis techniques and parameters, making them ideal for specific industrial, agricultural, and medical applications. Only recent developments have been explored in this review.
  15. Ajab H, Ali Khan AA, Nazir MS, Yaqub A, Abdullah MA
    Environ Res, 2019 09;176:108563.
    PMID: 31280029 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108563
    Environmental monitoring is important to determine the extent of eco-system pollution and degradation so that effective remedial strategies can be formulated. In this study, an environmentally friendly and cost-effective sensor made up of novel carbon electrode modified with cellulose and hydroxyapatite was developed for the detection of trace lead ions in aqueous system and palm oil mill effluent. Zinc, cadmium, and copper with lead were simultaneously detected using this method. The electrode exhibited high tolerance towards twelve common metal ions and three model surface active substances - sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Under optimum conditions, the sensor detected lead ions in palm oil mill effluent in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/L with 0.11 ± 0.37 μg/L limit of detection and 0.37 ± 0.37 μg/L limit of quantification. The validation using tap water, blood serum and palm oil mill effluent samples and compared with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, suggested excellent sensitivity of the sensor to detect lead ions in simple and complex matrices. The cellulose produced based on "green" techniques from agro-lignocellulosic wastes, in combination with hydroxyapatite, were proven effective as components in the carbon electrode composite. It has great potential in both clinical and environmental use.
  16. Ma NL, Peng W, Soon CF, Noor Hassim MF, Misbah S, Rahmat Z, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 Feb;193:110405.
    PMID: 33130165 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110405
    The recently emerged coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has been characterised as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), is impacting all parts of human society including agriculture, manufacturing, and tertiary sectors involving all service provision industries. This paper aims to give an overview of potential host reservoirs that could cause pandemic outbreak caused by zoonotic transmission. Amongst all, continues surveillance in slaughterhouse for possible pathogens transmission is needed to prevent next pandemic outbreak. This paper also summarizes the potential threats of pandemic to agriculture and aquaculture sector that control almost the total food supply chain and market. The history lesson from the past, emerging and reemerging infectious disease including the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) in 2009, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012 and the recent COVID-19 should give us some clue to improve especially the governance to be more ready for next coming pandemic.
  17. Lim GP, Soon CF, Ma NL, Morsin M, Nayan N, Ahmad MK, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 10;201:111592.
    PMID: 34175291 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111592
    MXene based nanomaterial is an uprising two-dimensional material gaining tremendous scientific attentions due to its versatile properties for the applications in electronic devices, power generation, sensors, drug delivery, and biomedicine. However, the cytotoxic effects of MXene still remained a huge concern. Therefore, stringent analysis of biocompatibility of MXene is an essential requirement before introduction to human physiological system. Several in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies have been reported to investigate the interactions between MXenes with living organisms such as microbes, mammalian cells and animal models. The biological response and cytotoxicity reported were dependent on the physicochemical properties of MXene. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MXene were dependent on size, dose, and surface coating. This review demystifies the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies associated with MXene. Various methods proposed to mitigate the cytotoxicity of MXene for in vivo applications were revealed. The machine learning methods were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of experimentally synthesized MXene compounds. Finally, we also discussed the current research gaps of applying MXenes in biomedical interventions.
  18. Cheng Z, Li HH, Wang HS, Zhu XM, Sthiannopkao S, Kim KW, et al.
    Environ Res, 2016 Oct;150:423-30.
    PMID: 27372065 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.06.011
    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia.
  19. Anugerah AR, Muttaqin PS, Purnama DA
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:111164.
    PMID: 33872645 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111164
    The variation in the concentration of outdoor air pollutants during the COVID-19 lockdown was studied in Jakarta, Indonesia. The term lockdown was replaced by large-scale social restrictions (PSBB) in Indonesia by more flexible regulations to save the economy. Data on five air pollutants, namely, PM10, SO2, CO, O3, and NO2, from five monitoring stations located in five regions in Jakarta (West, East, Central, North, and South Jakarta) were utilized. We analyzed the changes in the concentrations of outdoor air pollutants before lockdown from January 1 to April 9, 2020, and during lockdown from April 10 to June 4, 2020. Overall, the CO concentration (39.9%) demonstrated the most significant reduction during lockdown, followed by NO2 (7.5%) and then SO2 (5.7%). However, we unexpectedly found that during lockdown, the PM10 concentration in Jakarta increased by 10.9% due to the southwest monsoon during the seasonal change in Jakarta. Among the five cities in Jakarta, East and Central Jakarta experienced the maximum improvement in their air quality, whereas North Jakarta had the least air quality improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first to study the effect of lockdown on outdoor air quality improvement in Indonesia using ground-level measurement data. The findings of the study provide additional strategies to the regulatory bodies for the reduction of temporal air pollutants in Jakarta, Indonesia, by restricting people mobility as a supplementary initiative.
  20. Reddy KHP, Kim BS, Lam SS, Jung SC, Song J, Park YK
    Environ Res, 2021 04;195:110876.
    PMID: 33592225 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110876
    In this study, the role of manganese precursors in mesoporous (meso) MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts was examined systematically for toluene oxidation under ozone at ambient temperature (20 °C). The meso MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts developed with Mn(CH3COO)2, MnCl2, Mn(NO3)2.4H2O and MnSO4 were prepared by an innovative single step solvent-deficient method (SDM); the catalysts were labeled as MnOx/Al2O3(A), MnOx/Al2O3(C), MnOx/Al2O3(N), and MnOx/Al2O3(S), respectively. Among all, MnOx/Al2O3(C) showed superior performance both in toluene removal (95%) as well as ozone decomposition (88%) followed by acetate, nitrate and sulphated precursor MnOx/Al2O3. The superior performance of MnOx/Al2O3(C) in the oxidation of toluene to COx is associated with the ozone decomposition over highly dispersed MnOx in which extremely active oxygen radicals (O2-, O22- and O-) are generated to enhance the oxidation ability of the catalysts greatly. In addition, toluene adsorption over acid support played a vital role in this reaction. Hence, the properties such as optimum Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio, acidic sites, and smaller particle size (≤2 nm) examined by XPS, TPD of NH3, and TEM results are playing vital role in the present study. In summary, the MnOx/Al2O3 (C) catalyst has great potential in environmental applications particularly for the elimination of volatile organic compounds with low loading of manganese developed by SDM.
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