This study aims to evaluate the antifungal effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a marine biocontrol yeast, Scheffersomyces spartinae W9. The results showed that the VOCs from the yeast inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea mycelium and spore germination by 77.8% and 58.3%, respectively. Additionally, it reduced the disease incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold on the strawberry fruit surface by 20.7% and 67.4%, respectively. Electronic micrographs showed that VOCs caused damage to the morphology and ultrastructure of the hyphae. Based on headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), S. spartinae W9 emitted 18 main VOCs, and the pure substance of VOCs, such as 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, and isoamyl acetate, showed antifungal effects against B. cinerea mycelium growth. Among them, 2-phenylethanol exhibited the strongest antifungal activity. It has been concluded that VOCs are the key antifungal mechanism of S. spartinae W9, and a promising strategy for controlling gray mold on strawberry fruit.
In recent years, the blending of hydrocolloids and natural starch to improve the properties of natural starch has become a research hotspot. In this study, the effects of pectin (PEC) on the retrogradation properties and in vitro digestibility of waxy rice starch (WRS) were investigated. The results showed that PEC could significantly (p < 0.05) reduce the retrogradation enthalpy and reduce the hardness of WRS gel. X-ray diffraction results indicated that PEC could reduce the relative crystallinity of the composite system, and the higher the PEC content, the lower the relative crystallinity. When the PEC content was 10%, the relative crystallinity of the composite system was only 10.6% after 21 d of cold storage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results proved that the interaction between PEC and WRS was mainly a hydrogen bond interaction. Furthermore, after 21 d of cold storage, the T23 free water signal appeared in the natural WRS paste, while only a small free water signal appeared in the compound system with 2% PEC addition. Moreover, addition of PEC could reduce the starch digestion rate and digestibility. When the content of PEC increased from 0% to 10%, the digestibility decreased from 82.31% to 71.84%. This study provides a theoretical basis for the further application of hydrocolloids in starch-based foods.
Meat spoilage caused by temperature abuse is a major problem for producers, retailers, and consumers that can generate large economic losses to industries. Microbial growth of Pseudomonas spp. is the main source of spoilage during storage. Cinnamon has antimicrobial properties that may potentially be used to reduce the spoilage caused by Pseudomonas. The objectives of this study were to determine the inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract (CE) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and evaluate the treatment of CE on meat quality during different storage temperatures (5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C, and 25 °C). The anti-Pseudomonas result showed that 100% (w/v) CE concentration produced a 13.50 mm zone of inhibition in a disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of CE was noted at 25% (v/v), whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was observed at 50% (v/v) concentration of CE. The time-kill showed the growth of P. aeruginosa decreased from 7.64 to 5.39 log CFU/mL at MIC concentration. Total phenolic content and IC50 value of the cinnamon extract was expressed as 6.72 ± 0.87 mg GAE/g extract and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. When the meat was marinated with 50% (v/v) CE and stored at various temperatures, the total viable count (TVC) and growth of Pseudomonas spp. were lowered as compared to the control sample. However, the reduction in microbial count in all samples was influenced by the storage temperature, where the lowered microbial count was noted in the sample treated with CE and stored at 5 and 10 °C for 48 h. The pH of meat treated with or without CE ranged from pH 5.74 to 6.48. The sensory attributes of colour, texture, and overall acceptability have a significant difference, except for odour, between marinated meat and control. The results indicate that the use of cinnamon extract as the marination agent for meat could reduce the growth of Pseudomonas spp. and therefore assist in extending the shelf life of meat at 5 and 10 °C storage temperatures.
Despite growing evidence of increased saturated and trans fat contents in street foods, little is known about their fatty acid (FA) compositions. This study aimed to analyse the saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and trans fatty acids (TFAs) content of 70 selected and most commonly available street foods in Malaysia. The street foods were categorised into main meals, snacks, and desserts. TFAs were not detected in any of the street foods. Descriptively, all three categories mainly contained SFAs, followed by MUFAs, and PUFAs. However, the one-way ANOVA testing showed that the differences between each category were insignificant (p > 0.05), and each FA was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from one to another. Nearly half of the deep-fried street foods contained medium to high SFAs content (1.7 g/100 g-24.3 g/100 g), while the MUFAs were also high (32.0-44.4%). The Chi-square test of association showed that the type of preparation methods (low or high fat) used was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the number of SFAs. These findings provide valuable information about fat composition in local street foods for the Malaysian Food Composition Database and highlight the urgency to improve nutritional composition.
An Antarctic soil bacterial consortium (reference BS14) was confirmed to biodegrade canola oil, and kinetic studies on this biodegradation were carried out. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of BS14 to produce biosurfactants during the biodegradation of canola oil. Secondary mathematical equations were chosen for kinetic analyses (Monod, Haldane, Teissier-Edwards, Aiba and Yano models). At the same time, biosurfactant production was confirmed through a preliminary screening test and further optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). Mathematical modelling demonstrated that the best-fitting model was the Haldane model for both waste (WCO) and pure canola oil (PCO) degradation. Kinetic parameters including the maximum degradation rate (μmax) and maximum concentration of substrate tolerated (Sm) were obtained. For WCO degradation these were 0.365 min-1 and 0.308%, respectively, while for PCO they were 0.307 min-1 and 0.591%, respectively. The results of all preliminary screenings for biosurfactants were positive. BS14 was able to produce biosurfactant concentrations of up to 13.44 and 14.06 mg/mL in the presence of WCO and PCO, respectively, after optimisation. The optimum values for each factor were determined using a three-dimensional contour plot generated in a central composite design, where a combination of 0.06% salinity, pH 7.30 and 1.55% initial substrate concentration led to the highest biosurfactant production when using WCO. Using PCO, the highest biosurfactant yield was obtained at 0.13% salinity, pH 7.30 and 1.25% initial substrate concentration. This study could help inform the development of large-scale bioremediation applications, not only for the degradation of canola oil but also of other hydrocarbons in the Antarctic by utilising the biosurfactants produced by BS14.
Rapeseed protein is not currently utilized for food applications, although it has excellent physicochemical, functional, and nutritional properties similar to soy protein. Thus, the goal of this study was to create new plant-based extrudates for application as high-moisture meat analogs from a 50:50 blend of rapeseed protein concentrate (RPC) and yellow pea isolate (YPI) using high-moisture-extrusion (HME) cooking with a twin-screw extruder to gain a better understanding of the properties of the protein powders and resulting extrudates. The effects of extrusion processing parameters such as moisture content (60%, 63%, 65%, 70%), screw speed (500, 700, and 900 rpm), and a barrel temperature profile of 40-80-130-150 °C on the extrudates' characteristics were studied. When compared to the effect of varying screw speeds, targeted moisture content had a larger impact on textural characteristics. The extrudates had a greater hardness at the same moisture content when the screw speed was reduced. The specific mechanical energy (SME) increased as the screw speed increased, while increased moisture content resulted in a small reduction in SME. The lightness (L*) of most samples was found to increase as the target moisture content increased from 60% to 70%. The RPC:YPI blend was equivalent to proteins produced from other sources and comparable to the FAO/WHO standard requirements.
In recent years, downstream bioprocessing industries are venturing into less tedious, simple, and high-efficiency separation by implementing advanced purification and extraction methods. This review discusses the separation of proteins, with the main focus on amylase as an enzyme from agricultural waste using conventional and advanced techniques of extraction and purification via a liquid biphasic system (LBS). In comparison to other methods, such as membrane extraction, precipitation, ultrasonication, and chromatography, the LBS stands out as an efficient, cost-effective, and adaptable developing method for protein recovery. The two-phase separation method can be water-soluble polymers, or polymer and salt, or alcohol and salt, which is a simpler and lower-cost method that can be used at a larger purification scale. The comparison of different approaches in LBS for amylase purification from agricultural waste is also included. Current technology has evolved from a simple LBS into microwave-assisted LBS, liquid biphasic flotation (LBF), thermoseparation (TMP), three-phase partitioning (TPP), ultrasound-assisted LBS, and electrically assisted LBS. pH, time, temperature, and concentration are some of the significant research parameters considered in the review of advanced techniques.
Food contamination leading to the spoilage and growth of undesirable bacteria, which can occur at any stage along the food chain, is a significant problem in the food industry. In the present work, biopolymer polybutylene succinate (PBS) and polybutylene succinate/tapioca starch (PBS/TPS) films incorporating Biomaster-silver (BM) and SANAFOR® (SAN) were prepared and tested as food packaging to improve the lifespan of fresh chicken breast fillets when kept in a chiller for seven days. The incorporation of BM and SAN into both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity and could prolong the storability of chicken breast fillets until day 7. However, PBS + SAN 2%, PBS/TPS + SAN 1%, and PBS/TPS + SAN 2% films showed the lowest microbial log growth. In quality assessment, incorporation of BM and SAN into both film types enhanced the quality of the chicken breast fillets. However, PBS + SAN 1% film showed the most notable enhancement of chicken breast fillet quality, as it minimized color variation, slowed pH increment, decreased weight loss, and decelerated the hardening process of the chicken breast fillets. Therefore, we suggest that the PBS + SAN and PBS/TPS + SAN films produced in this work have potential use as antimicrobial packaging in the future.
Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLN) were prepared using medium- and long chain diacylglycerol (MLCD) or glycerol tripalmitate (TP) as lipid matrix and three kinds of surfactants including Tween 20 (T20), quillaja saponin (SQ) and rhamnolipid (Rha). The MLCD-based SLNs had a smaller size and lower surface charge than TP-SLNs with a Cur encapsulation efficiency of 87.54-95.32% and the Rha-based SLNs exhibited a small size but low stability to pH decreases and ionic strength. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction results confirmed that the SLNs with different lipid cores showed varying structures, melting and crystallization profiles. The emulsifiers slightly impacted the crystal polymorphism of MLCD-SLNs but largely influenced that of TP-SLNs. Meanwhile, the polymorphism transition was less significant for MLCD-SLNs, which accounted for the better stabilization of particle size and higher encapsulation efficiency of MLCD-SLNs during storage. In vitro studies showed that emulsifier formulation greatly impacted on the Cur bioavailability, whereby T20-SLNs showed much higher digestibility and bioavailability than that of SQ- and Rha-SLNs possibly due to the difference in the interfacial composition. Mathematical modeling analysis of the membrane release further confirmed that Cur was mainly released from the intestinal phase and T20-SLNs showed a faster release rate compared with other formulations. This work contributes to a better understanding of the performance of MLCD in lipophilic compound-loaded SLNs and has important implications for the rational design of lipid nanocarriers and in instructing their application in functional food products.
Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant activities. DIP1 was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.04 ± 0.39 mM), which could be due to the binding interactions between its aromatic amino acid residues (Y2 and D7) with tyrosinase hotspots (H85, V248, H258, H263, F264, R268, V283 and E322) and its ability to chelate copper ion within the substrate-binding pocket. The conjugated planar rings of tyrosine and tryptophan may interact with histidine within the active site to provide stability upon enzyme-peptide binding. This postulation was later confirmed as the Lineweaver-Burk analysis had identified DIP1 as a competitive inhibitor and DIP1 also showed 36.27 ± 1.17% of copper chelating activity. In addition, DIP1 provided the highest SPF value (11.9 ± 0.04) as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (5.09 ± 0.13 mM FeSO4), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (11.34 ± 0.90%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (29.14 ± 1.36%) free radical scavenging activities compared to other peptides. These results demonstrated that DIP1 could be a multifunctional anti-tyrosinase agent with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications.
The present field-based study aimed to determine the levels of six potentially toxic metals (PTM)s (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn determined using a flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometer) using transplanted green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from a polluted site at Kampung Pasir Puteh (KPP) to unpolluted sites at Kampung Sungai Melayu (KSM) and Sungai Belungkor (SB) in the Johore Straits (SOJ), and to estimate the human health risks of the PTMs after the depuration periods. Interestingly, after 10 weeks of depuration in the two unpolluted sites, there were 55.6-88.4% and 51.3-91.7% reductions of the six PTMs after transplantation from KPP to SB and KSM, respectively. Lower risks of health assessments were recorded and judged on the present findings of significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of safety guidelines, significantly (p < 0.05) lower values of target hazard quotient, and significantly (p < 0.05) lower values of estimated weekly intake, of all the six PTMs after 10 weeks of depuration of the transplanted polluted mussels to the two unpolluted sites in the SOJ. Thus, further reducing the noncarcinogenic risks of the PTMs to the consumers. From an aquacultural point of view, this depuration technique can be recommended to reduce the health risks of PTMs to mussel consumers.
This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 μg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 μg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC50 value of 190.03 μg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC50 values of 37.92 and 13.43 μg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, P. frutescens leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent.
Single-use synthetic plastics that are used as food packaging is one of the major contributors to environmental pollution. Hence, this study aimed to develop a biodegradable edible film incorporated with Limosilactobacillus fermentum. Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of chitosan (CS), sodium caseinate (NaCas), and chitosan/sodium caseinate (CS/NaCas) composite films allowed us to determine that CS/NaCas composite films displayed higher opacity (7.40 A/mm), lower water solubility (27.6%), and higher Young's modulus (0.27 MPa) compared with pure CS and NaCas films. Therefore, Lb. fermentum bacteria were only incorporated in CS/NaCas composite films. Comparison of the physical and mechanical properties of CS/NaCas composite films incorporated with bacteria with those of control CS/NaCas composite films allowed us to observe that they were not affected by the addition of probiotics, except for the flexibility of films, which was improved. The Lb. fermentum incorporated composite films had a 0.11 mm thickness, 17.9% moisture content, 30.8% water solubility, 8.69 A/mm opacity, 25 MPa tensile strength, and 88.80% elongation at break. The viability of Lb. fermentum after drying the films and the antibacterial properties of films against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 were also evaluated after the addition of Lb. fermentum in the composite films. Dried Lb. fermentum composite films with 6.65 log10 CFU/g showed an inhibitory effect against E. coli and S. aureus (0.67 mm and 0.80 mm inhibition zone diameters, respectively). This shows that the Lb.-fermentum-incorporated CS/NaCas composite film is a potential bioactive packaging material for perishable food product preservation.
Cancer is exerting an immense strain on the population and health systems all over the world. Green tea because of its higher simple catechin content (up to 30% on dry weight basis) is greatly popular as an anti-cancer agent which is found to reduce the risks of cancer as well as a range of other diseases. In addition, several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that green tea possesses copious health benefits like anti-diabetic, anti-obese, anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, etc. This review highlights the anti-carcinogenic effects of green tea catechins integrating the recent information to gain a clear concept. Special emphasis was given to the effectiveness of green tea polyphenols (GTP) in the prevention of cancer. Overall, green tea has been found to be effective to reduce the risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, skin cancer, prostate cancer, oral cancer, etc. However, sufficient information was not found to support that green tea consumption reduces the risk of lung cancer, esophageal cancer, or stomach cancer. The exciting data integrated into this article will increase interest in future researchers to garner more fruitful information on the relevant topics.
The aim of this study was to compare the relative nutritional benefit of edible Malaysian fishes from the coast of Terengganu in Malaysia, as well as to perform a taxonomical characterization and metal assessment. Discrimination between species was carried out by a morphological and molecular approach by evaluating the total concentrations of metals by ICP-MS analyses and the fatty acids (FA) composition using the GC-MS approach on the fish fillet tissues. The taxonomical studies detected fishes of 11 families and 13 species. The heavy metal assessment showed that all detected elements did not exceed the regulatory limit stated by Malaysian Food Regulations. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) ranged from 33 to 58.34%, followed by the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) values from 24 to 51.8%, and the lowest proportion was of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), ranging from 12.7 to 35.9%. The ω-3/ω-6 PUFA and PUFA/SFA ratios were determined in the range 1.1 to 7.4 and 0.35 to 1.6, respectively. The C20:5 ω-3 and C22:6 ω-3 acids were detected at levels comparable to those found in the corresponding species from similar tropical marine ecosystems. The high FA values can be useful biochemical tools for comparing the relative nutritional benefits of these biodiverse and non-toxic edible Malaysian fishes.
Pediococcus acidilactici has gained research and commercial interest due to its outstanding probiotic properties, yet its survival during storage and consumption requires improvement. This study aims to enhance P. acidilactici survival using spray drying encapsulation. Different inlet air temperatures (120 °C, 150 °C, and 170 °C) and whey protein isolate (WPI):gum arabic (GA) ratios (1:1, 3:1, 1:3) were tested. Cell viability was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the inlet temperature but not the WPI:GA ratio. Increasing the inlet temperature to 170 °C significantly decreased P. acidilactici viability by 1.36 log cycles, from 8.61 log CFU/g to 7.25 log CFU/g. The inlet temperature of 150 °C resulted in a powder yield (63.12%) higher than at 120 °C (58.97%), as well as significantly (p < 0.05) lower moisture content (5.71%) and water activity (aw 0.21). Viable cell counts in all encapsulated P. acidilactici were maintained at 5.24−6.75 log CFU/g after gastrointestinal tract (GIT) simulation, with WPI:GA of 3:1 and inlet temperature 150 °C having the smallest log reduction (0.3 log cycles). All samples containing different WPI:GA ratios maintained sufficient viability (>7 log CFU/g) during the first three weeks of storage at 25 °C. These results could provide insights for further developing P. acidilactici as commercial probiotic products.
Silkworm pupae, a waste product from the silk production industry, can be an alternative source of edible oil, thus reducing the industry's waste. In the present work, frozen silkworm pupae were used as raw material to extract oil via an aqueous saline process. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction process. The extraction conditions with the highest oil yield and a low peroxide value were obtained when using a saline solution concentration of 1.7% w/v, a ratio of aqueous liquid to silkworm pupae of 3.3 mL/g, and a 119 min stirring time at the stirring speed of 100 rpm. Under these conditions, silkworm oil with a yield of 3.32%, peroxide values of approximately 1.55 mM, and an acid value of 0.67 mg KOH/g oil was obtained. The extracted oil contained omega-3 acids (α-linolenic acid), which constituted around 25% of the total fatty acids, with approximate cholesterol levels of 109 mg/100 g oil. The amounts of β-carotene and α-tocopherol were approximately 785 and 9434 μg/100 g oil, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated that oil extracted from silkworm pupae has good quality parameters and thus can be used as a new valuable source of edible lipids.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been utilized as a pH-responsive component in various products. In this present work, palm tocotrienols-rich fraction (TRF) was successfully entrapped in a self-assembled oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system by using CaCO3 as the stabilizer. The emulsion droplet size, viscosity and tocotrienols entrapment efficiency (EE) were strongly affected by varying the processing (homogenization speed and time) and formulation (CaCO3 and TRF concentrations) parameters. Our findings indicated that the combination of 5000 rpm homogenization speed, 15 min homogenization time, 0.75% CaCO3 concentration and 2% TRF concentration resulted in a high EE of tocotrienols (92.59-99.16%) and small droplet size (18.83 ± 1.36 µm). The resulting emulsion system readily released the entrapped tocotrienols across the pH range tested (pH 1-9); with relatively the highest release observed at pH 3. The current study presents a potential pH-sensitive emulsion system for the entrapment and delivery of palm tocotrienols.
Urea is naturally present in milk, yet urea is added intentionally to increase milk's nitrogen content and shelf life. In this study, a total of 50 Ultra heat treatment (UHT) milk samples were spiked with known urea concentrations (0-5 w/v%). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and multiple linear regression (MLR) were used for the discrimination and quantification of urea. The PCA was built using 387 variables with higher FL > 0.75 from the first PCA with cumulative variability (90.036%). Subsequently, the DA model was built using the same variables from PCA and demonstrated the good distinction between unadulterated and adulterated milk, with a correct classification rate of 98% for cross-validation. The MLR model used 48 variables with p-value < 0.05 from the DA model and gave R2 values greater than 0.90, with RMSE and MSE below 1 for cross-validation and prediction. The DA and MLR models were then validated externally using a test dataset, which shows 100% correct classification, and the t-test result (p > 0.05) indicated that the MLR could determine the percentage of urea in UHT milk within the permission limit (70 mg/mL). In short, the wavenumbers 1626.63, 1601.98, and 1585.5534 cm-1 are suitable as fingerprint regions for detecting urea in UHT milk.
Globally, village chicken is popular and is known as a premium meat with a higher price. Food fraud can occur by selling other chicken breeds at a premium price in local markets. This study aimed to distinguish local village chicken from other chicken breeds available in the market, namely, colored broiler (Hubbard), broiler (Cobb), and spent laying hen (Dekalb) in pectoralis major and serum under commercial conditions using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Both pectoralis major and serum were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) results distinguished four different chicken breeds into three main groups for pectoralis major and serum. A total of 30 and 40 characteristic metabolites were identified for pectoralis major and serum, respectively. The four chicken breeds were characterized by the abundance of metabolites such as amino acids (L-glutamic acid, L-threonine, L-serine, L-leucine), organic acids (L-lactic acid, succinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid), sugars (D-allose, D-glucose), sugar alcohols (myo-inositol), and fatty acids (linoleic acid). Our results suggest that an untargeted metabolomics approach using GC-MS and PCA could discriminate chicken breeds for pectoralis major and serum under commercial conditions. In this study, village chicken could only be distinguished from colored broiler (Hubbard) by serum samples.