Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 872 in total

  1. Khai, N.X., Ismail, M.M., Sidique, S.F.
    The aim of this study is to examine the consistency between the Balassa index and Vollrath
    indices in measuring comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products with other
    major shrimp exporting nations as comparator. The study uses Balassa index and Vollrath
    indices to measure comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products. The indices then
    are compared by consistency tests. Malaysia was generally not competitive in shrimp trade;
    however, revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and relative export advantage (RXA) indices
    show some extent of competitiveness on non-frozen shrimp product. Thailand had a remarkable
    competitiveness in shrimp trade as compared to other major exporting countries. Although we
    found that double-counting problem in the Balassa index is insignificant in measuring export
    performance of the Malaysian shrimp sector, import could be an important variable in accessing
    its trade competitiveness. Marginal import of a sector may lead to relative trade advantage (RTA)
    index consistent with RCA and RXA indices. Considering exports and imports of a particular
    commodity in measuring competitiveness is more consistent with the real world phenomenon
    of two-way trade. Selecting measurement of comparative advantage should rigorously base
    on trade behaviour of a sector as well as theoretical constructs. The competitiveness of the
    Malaysian shrimp products remains unclear due to the lack of contemporary analyses backed
    by formal testing procedures. The results and policy implications of this study provide
    stakeholders insights into comparative advantage as well as trade position of the products.
    Better measurement for revealed comparative advantage, particularly for shrimp products, is
    discussed in this paper.
  2. Aishah, B., Hannah, K., Zati Alyani, O.
    Quality degradation is normally judge by monitoring independently the loss of a certain quality
    attribute during storage. However, the rate of degradation for each of the quality attributes
    present in a food product is not the same. This study focus on deterioration of vitamin C,
    lycopene, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of ready-to-drink pink guava juice (PGJ)
    during storage at elevated temperatures. Kinetic order, rate constant (k), activation energy
    (Ea) and temperature coefficient (Q10) of the degradation were derived by applying Arrhenius
    equation. The results obtained showed that freshly made PGJ contain 39.79±2.18 mg/100 mL
    of vitamin C, 3.17±0.27 mg/L of lycopene, 28.08±4.11 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic
    content (TPC) and 13.20±1.91 mMTE/100 mL of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).
    All quality attributes measured in this study showed zero-order kinetic reaction. The results
    also showed that FRAP has the highest Ea of 49.52 KJ/mol and Q10 of 1.80, followed by
    vitamin C (Ea=41.49 KJ/mol; Q10=1.64), lycopene (Ea=31.75 KJ/mol; Q10=1.46), and lastly
    TPC (Ea=14.11 KJ/mol; Q10=1.18). The predicted total depletion of each quality attribute
    at refrigerated storage (5o
    C) were 266 days for antioxidant activity, 158 days for vitamin C
    and lycopene, and 63 days for total phenolics. This study provide useful information on the
    degradation rate and availability of health beneficial and bioactive compounds present in fruit
    juice beverage during storage.
  3. Lim, W. J., Chin, N. L., Yusof, A. Y., Yahya, A., Tee, T. P.
    The increasing amount of food waste in Malaysia in recent years has brought many environmental
    issues in the country where it affects the nation’s solid waste management framework. At the
    moment, the government is limited to other alternatives of food waste disposal besides the
    conventional landfill and incineration methods. This paper provides information on the current
    status of food waste handling, management, regulations, and policies in Malaysia. It helps
    to draw the problem and challenge to a clearer view in efforts of achieving sustainable and
    integrative food waste handling in the country.
  4. Wong, C.W., Lim, W.T.
    The physiochemical characteristics and microbiological study of spray-dried papaya powder
    kept in aluminium laminated polyethylene (ALP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at
    accelerated storage (38 ± 2°C, 90% relative humidity (RH)) for 7 weeks were evaluated. The
    final water activity (Aw) of the spray-dried papaya powder did not exceed 0.6 for both packaging
    materials, which showed that the powder was shelf-stable. The overall adsorbed moisture of
    spray-dried powder was significantly (p
  5. Abduhamed, A.J., Adam, N. M., Hairuddin, A. A., Kareem, H. K.
    Heat exchanger H.X.s is the equipment used to transfer the thermal energy between two or more
    fluids at varying temperatures. The nature of this paper is an experimental study of the optimum
    design for shell and tube heat exchanger as a condenser with high productivity of drinking
    water for portable solar water distiller. The elaboration covers the aspects of considerations,
    design, fabrication, and test of the shell and tube H.X. as a portable condenser for solar water
    distiller system. The system consists of a portable stainless steel condenser, which is able to be
    dismantled and assembled without tools. The experimental result establishes that the condenser
    is able to produce 3.8 liter /hour of distilled water from vapor at 99.7˚C of inlet temperature and
    4 liter/hour vapor flow rate, with 130 liter /hour as a condenser coolant water flow rate. The heat
    efficiency of the condenser can be increased by means of minimizing the tube’s thickness and
    vapor inlet pressure. There is no back pressure effect on the system and the pressure drop in
    both sides of the condenser is reportedly of very low value and negligible, therefore, no need
    for a pressure pump is to be eliminated.
  6. Ghiasi, M., Ibrahim, M. N., Kadir Basha, R., Abdul Talib, R.
    The evaluation of a dryer performance in terms of energy consumption, drying capacity and
    quality of final product is the main concern of rice milling industry at any time. A study was
    implemented to investigate on the benefits of common drying practices by studying the drying
    performances of flat-bed and inclined-bed dryers which are popular in rice industry in Malaysia
    and neighbouring countries. For this purpose, flat-bed dryer (FBD) and inclined-bed dryer
    (IBD) were designed, fabricated and operated in the laboratory based on actual industrial
    drying conditions. The results revealed that inclined-bed drying significantly increased drying
    capacity (ton m-2 h-1) of up to 25 % at drying temperature of 42-43°C and almost 29 % at 38-
    39°C drying air temperature compared to flat-bed drying. Furthermore, overall drying energy
    consumption in IBD was found to vary between 78.6 to 91.97 kW.h ton-1, while for FBD the
    energy consumption was more than 200 kW.h ton-1 for both levels of drying air temperatures.
    Both dryers were found to produce rice with desired/ acceptable commercial quality index,
    even though the head rice yields of FBD were higher than that of IBDs.
  7. Karim, N.U., Sadzali, N.L., Hassan, M.
    The effects of squid ink at concentration of 0.10 and 0.25% on the total bacteria count and
    chemical spoilage indicator; total volatile basis nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA)
    of squid (Loligo duvauceli) were analysed. The analysis were performed at interval of 5 days
    during 15 days of chilled storage (4°C). This studies also investigate the antioxidant capacity
    of the squid ink. The melanin-free squid ink were subjected to ferric reducing power (FRAP)
    and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) analysis. The FRAP values found in squid ink were
    0.04±0.01 µmole TE g-1 meanwhile DPPH values were recorded at 0.81±0.00 µmole TE g-1.
    The squid ink at both 0.10 and 0.25% concentration showed a significantly (p
  8. Aznan, A.A., Rukunudin, I.H., Shakaff, A.Y.M.,, Ruslan, R.,, Zakaria, A., Saad, F.S.A.
    Seed purity is a crucial seed quality parameter in the Malaysian rice seed standard. The use of
    high quality cultivated rice seed, free of any foreign seeds, is the prerequisite to sustaining high
    yield in rice production. The presence of foreign seeds such as weedy rice in the cultivated rice
    seeds used by the farmers can adversely affect growth and yield as it competes for space and
    nutrients with the cultivated rice varieties in the field. Being the most dominant and competitive
    element compared to the cultivated rice seeds, the Malaysian seed standard prescribed that the
    maximum allowable of weed seeds in a 20-kilogram certified rice seed bag produced by local
    rice seed processors is 10 weed seeds per kilogram. The current cleaning processes that rely
    mostly on the difference in physical traits do not guarantee effective separation of weedy rice
    seeds from the lots. Seed bags found to contain more than 10 weed seeds upon inspection by
    the enforcing agency will not be approved for distribution to farmers. The paper describes a
    study carried out to explore the use of machine vision approach to separate weedy rice seed
    from cultivated rice seeds as a potential cleaning technique for the rice seed industry. The mean
    classification accuracies levels of the extracted morphological feature model were achieved at
    95.8% and 96.0% for training and testing data sets respectively.
  9. Abdul Rashid, Z., Alias, A.B., Ku Hamid, K.H., Wan Abdul, K. G.
    It is well known that there is a significant increased in the quantity of Municipal Solid Waste
    (MSW) generated every year. Therefore, the management of MSW must be handled carefully
    by experts. Malaysia as one of the developing country with population nearly 30 millions
    also facing problems related to MSW management and this issue is quite critical. Even though
    various programmes were established and few model technologies were introduced by the
    government to manage MSW effectively, but the impact remain unsatisfaction. For example,
    the energy facility recovery project which use MSW gathered around Kajang as an alternative
    fuel still not successful to provide energy according to the design capacity of that particular
    facility. This failure was observed due to the impact composition of MSW collected which
    consists huge amount of food waste (57%), 16% plastic, 15% diaper, 9% mixed papers and
    the remaining 3% textile. The existing process technology at Refused Derived Fuel (RDF)
    facility is no designed to create a new economic benefit from abundant incoming food waste
    to the facility. Therefore in this paper, the analysis and suggestion of technology on existing
    RDF recovery energy facility will be discussed especially on how to overcome the abundant
    composition of food waste.
  10. Ibrahim, N.U.A., Abd Aziz, S., Zude, M.
    Palm olein has been commercially used as frying medium in batch deep-fat frying. During
    frying, the oil usually deteriorates due to the exposure to high temperature. In this study, a
    fluorescence spectroscopy technique was applied to monitor the deterioration of refined,
    bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) in batch deep-fat frying. 22.5 kg of French fries
    were used as the frying material. In 30 batches, the french fries were intermittently fried at 185
    ± 5°C for eight hours a day over five consecutive days capturing 40 hours. The fluorescence
    intensity of the RBDPO was recorded with excitation at 390 nm and resulting emission of 465
    nm. The fluorescence intensity of the RBDPO over five days of frying decreased considering
    the wavelength range of emission 430-640 nm and excitation 360-430 nm. The decreased in
    intensity of fluorescence emission and excitation spectra were inversely correlated with the FFA
    content of the oil samples. This study demonstrates the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy
    in monitoring the deterioration of RBDPO during batch deep-fat frying.
  11. Balami, A. A., Dauda S. M., Mohammed, I. S., Agunsoye, J. K., Abu, H., 1 Abubakar, Ahmad, D.
    The processing of cocoyam tubers for industrial or human use involves different operations
    of which peeling is the major problem. This study was aimed at designing, fabricating and
    carrying out performance evaluation of a cocoyam peeling machine, taking into consideration
    some physical and mechanical properties of the cocoyam tubers. The machine was evaluated
    based on the following parameters which includes; throughput capacity and peeling efficiency
    at the speeds of 400 rpm, 700 rpm and 933 rpm. Results revealed that, for all the speeds tested
    in the experiment, the corresponding peeling efficiencies of the machine were 50%, 64% and
    68% respectively while that of the throughput capacities were 63.20 kg/hr, 84.90 kg/hr and
    112.92 kg/hr respectively. It was observed that 933 rpm speed was the most suitable speed for
    the operation of this machine, as it had higher peeling efficiency of 68% with a throughput
    capacity of 112.92 kg/hr. These results showed appreciable improvement over manual method
    which is 20 – 35 kg/hr.
  12. Marikkar, J.M.N., Tan, S.J., Salleh, A., Shukri, M.A.M., Azrina, A.
    Consumption of banana flower as a vegetable is popular among many countries in Southeast
    Asia. In this study, banana flowers of six different Malaysian cultivars namely, pisang Abu
    (Musa balbisiana cv P. Abu), pisang Berangan (Musa acuminata cv P. Berangan), pisang
    Nipah (Musa balbisiana cv P. Nipah), pisang Susu (Musa acuminata cv P. Susu), pisang
    Mas (Musa acuminate cv P. Mas) and pisang Rastali (Musa paradisiaca cv P. Rastali) were
    investigated for their antioxidant and anti-hyperglyemic properties. The total poly phenolic
    content and antioxidant activities, the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of the
    banana flower extracts were studied in vitro using relevant assays. Among the six cultivars,
    cultivar Susu was found to have the highest phenolic content (80.13 ± 4.64 mg of GAE/g of
    extract) and displayed the highest ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging activities (24.73 ±
    0.04 and 25.10 ± 0.15 µmole of Trolox equivalent/g of extract). The anti-amylase and antiglucosidase
    activity of the banana flowers extracts were in the range of 47.31-62.58% and
    74.98-91.62%, respectively. All banana flower extracts inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase
    better than α-amylase at the concentration of 200 µg/ml. This study concluded that the extracts
    of Malaysian banana flowers were potent sources of natural antioxidants, which can be used as
    postprandial hyperglycemia regulators.
  13. Othman, N. F.,, Ya’acob, M. E., Abdul-Rahim, A.S., Mohd. Shahwahid, O., Hizam, H., Ramlan, M.F.
    This paper embarks on the evolution of green economy approach to support the increasing
    food commodity expenses by adapting Solar Photovoltaic (PV) as the suitable renewable
    energy technology for Natural Resource Management (NRM). The crops for cash trend and
    continuously decreasing market price in solar technologies are highlighted with strong effort
    by Malaysian Government through Renewable Energy (RE) policy and National Key Economy
    Area (NKEA). Reviews on the benefits of solar dryer technologies in crop production and agrobusiness
    are presented with highlights on high value herbal crops (HVHc) and some potentials
    of high-performance solar dryer technology.
  14. Chattha, S.H., Hasfalina, C.M., Mirani, B.N., Mahadi, M.R., Lee, T.S.
    The deterioration of wheat grains in terms of various quality parameters was observed during
    storage in traditional and designed structures for 12 months. As a result of the laboratory analysis
    and statistical data evaluation, protein (11.78%), lipid (2.4%), ash (1.76%) and starch (64.87%)
    were found maximum in grain samples taken from straw-clay bin followed by concrete block
    bin, ferrocement bin, earthen bin, bulk covered and room type store after 12 months of storage.
    The highest moisture (15.12%), insect-damage (26%), fungi (25%) and aflatoxin (13.3 μg kg-1)
    was observed in grains stored in room store followed by bulk covered, earthen bin, ferrocement
    bin, concrete bin and straw-clay bin.
  15. Ibrahim, M. G., Ahmad, D., Shehu, A. A., Dauda, S.M.
    Sheanut (Butyrospernum paradoxum) is an oil rich tropical tree crop, which is indigenous to
    the West African savannah zone. In Nigeria, most of the sheanuts shelling are done manually
    by rural women and children, which is labour demanding and tedious. This research work
    was carried out to determine some physical and mechanical properties of sheanut in order
    to minimize economic losses associated with its processing. The mean values recorded
    for the physical properties at 25% moisture content (wb) are; major diameter (29.20 mm),
    intermediate diameter (21.90 mm), minor diameter (15.00 mm), geometric mean diameter
    (21.90 mm), arithmetic mean diameter (21.20 mm), angle of repose (30.280). The mean
    values for the mechanical properties are; linear limit force (0.80 kN), linear limit deformation
    (4.60 mm), bioyield point force (1.40 kN), bioyield point deformation (6.50 mm), rupture
    point force (2.10 kN) and rupture point deformation (9.60 mm). Based on the physical and
    mechanical properties, a sheanut shelling machine was developed that is capable of addressing
    the aforementioned problems. Putting into consideration better shelling and efficient separation
    of shea nuts so as to encourage more utilization and processing of shea nuts and its products.
    The machine was designed to be powered by 5 hp electric motor. It was tested to shell, separate
    and clean sheanuts. The result of the performance evaluation showed that the machine had
    shelling efficiency of 96%; cleaning efficiency of the machine was 69.56% while the recovery
    efficiency was 82.7%. The successful development of this machine will reduce drudgery and
    time taken associated with the traditional method of sheanut shelling and therefore will increase
    productivity and utilization.
  16. Zolfagharnassab, S., Vong, C.N.,, Ehsani, R.,, Jaafar, H.Z.E., Mohamed Shariff, A.R., Aris, I.
    Thermal imaging is widely utilized in agricultural applications such as examining plant
    physiology, yield prediction, irrigation scheduling, bruises and pathogen determination in
    fruits and vegetables. There is a need for a cost effective thermal device for this wide range
    of applications. In this study, a low-cost prototype thermal device was used to measure the
    temperature of FFBs at three maturity levels, that are under-ripe, ripe and over-ripe. The
    experiment was repeated using a commercial thermal camera. Then, the mean temperature
    obtained from both the prototype and commercial thermal sensors was compared. Our results
    showed the prototype thermal device is capable of estimating the mean temperature of oil palm
    FFBs with the values analogous to the mean temperature from commercial thermal camera
    with R2 = 0.71.
  17. Tan, W. L., Azlan, A., Noh, M.F.M.
    The study was undertaken to determine and compare the sodium and potassium contents in
    selected salts (table salt, coarse salt, French sea salt, Himalayan pink salt and bamboo salt)
    and sauces (light soy sauce, sweet soy sauce, chili sauce, tomato sauce and mayonnaise).
    Findings of the present study showed that the sodium content of salts was highest in table salt
    (35870.0 mg/100 g) and lowest in French sea salt (31235.0 mg/100 g), whereas the potassium
    content was highest in bamboo salt (399.4 mg/100 g) and lowest in table salt (43.7 mg/100
    g). There was no significant difference between sodium amounts of the salts. Bamboo salt
    was significantly higher in potassium than other salts. The ranking of sodium and potassium
    in sauces was similar, where light soy sauce contained the highest amount (4402.0 and 395.4
    mg/100 g) and mayonnaise contained the least (231.3 and 63.6 mg/100 g). Both sodium and
    potassium contents of light soy sauce were significantly higher than other sauces. Bamboo salt
    is a better choice instead of other salts in terms of the potassium level. Among sauces, although
    light soy sauce is high in potassium; however, its high sodium has offset the beneficial effect
    of potassium.
  18. Ethaib, S., Omar, R., Mazlina, M., Radiah, A., Syafiie, S., Harun, M. Y.
    Agriculture residues are a promising feedstock for value-added products from lignocellulosic waste. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials is essential to facilitate enzymatic
    hydrolysis and improve sugar yield. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of acid or alkali during microwave-assisted pretreatment of dragon fruit foliage (DFF) that
    would make hydrolysis process more efficient. In the present study, distilled water and three chemicals were examined for their effects on releasing monomeric sugar during microwave
    treatment. Microwave-assisted pretreatment namely microwave-distilled water (M-H2O) (control); microwave-sulfuric acid (M-H2SO4); microwave-sodium hydroxide (M-NaOH); and
    microwave-sodium bicarbonate (M-NaHCO3) pretreatment were performed using 5% (w/v) of DFF as substrate at 800 watt microwave power for 5 minutes exposure time. Highest yield
    of monomeric sugar was found at 15.56 mg/g using M-NaOH pretreatment at 0.1N NaOH. For M-H2SO4 pretreatment, 0.1N H2SO4 produced 8.2 mg/g of monomeric sugar. Application
    of M-NaHCO3 pretreatment using 0.05N NaHCO3 solution released 6.45 mg/g of monomeric sugar. While, soaking DFF in distilled water and subjecting to microwave irradiation released
    6.6 mg/g of monomeric sugar. Treatments with the lowest concentration (0.01 N) of the three chemicals released only small quantities of total monomeric sugars and less than that with distilled water. The changes in the physical structure of DFF prior to and after the microwaveassisted pretreatment are also reported.
  19. Mhd Abd Kader, K. A., Ab. Aziz, N., Aziz, A., Talib, A. T., Ahmad, N. H., Tan, C. P., et al.
    Pink Guava Puree (PGP) factory produces tons of residues from its unit operation [refiner (R),
    siever (S), and decanter (D)]. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and can contribute
    to environmental problem. However, it can benefit related industries if the properties of the
    residues are known. Thus, this research aims to determine the compositions of the residues
    from PGP processing factory in order to evaluate possible value-added by-product and energy
    sources. The residues from each unit operation were being tested for proximate composition,
    dietary fibre components, pH value, emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsifying stability (ES),
    carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and sugar analysis. The sugar content was analysed using High
    Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-RI detector). Results showed that the residues
    have good composition of carbohydrate (11.82–12.18%), and thus potential as carbon source
    and can be a good substrate for fermentation. These residues may also benefit the food industry
    as a good source of dietary fibre (18.63–29.86%). The pH value for these PGP residues is 4;
    thus they were considered as acidic food by-product. The low pH value also contributed to the
    low EA and ES value other than the low content of protein in the sample. C/N ratio for PGP
    residue from R (46:1) is the lowest compared to the C/N ratio from S (84:1) and D (115:1). The
    amount of sugars detected in the PGP residues in descending order were fructose > glucose >
  20. Boon, Y. T., Naim, M. N., Zakaria, R., Abu Bakar, N. F., Ahmad, N.
    A study on the feasibility of using gel electrophoresis technique in grading the agarwood oil
    quality was investigated. Prior to electrophoresis, the emulsified agarwood oil droplets were
    screened by a diffuse layer of ions that have equal absolute charge to that of the droplets surface
    charge in aqueous phase. The condition was obtained by varying the concentrations of nonionic
    surfactant; Tween 80 until the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) value of 0.0167%
    (v/v) was achieved. The prepared droplets suspended in the aqueous within nano-metre size and
    had ability to migrate through the agarose gel with its own specific electrophoretic mobility.
    However, due to the limitation of gel pore size, only large oil droplets (>200 nm) indicated
    visible bands. Overall, a novel work for grading the emulsified agarwood oil droplet with its
    own electrical properties was feasible.
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