Bee pollen is considered as one of the functional foods due to its complex biochemical
properties. Bee pollen which is collected from pollen grains from various botanical sources
contains almost a complete nutrition such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, vitamins
and minerals. Its beneficial effect on health is thought to be due to the presence of phenolic
compounds with its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic bee pollen extract
(BPE) from three species of Malaysian stingless bee; Trigona thoracica, Trigona itama and
Trigona apicalis in this study were measured using DPPH-HPLC method and gallic acid (GA)
as a standard reference. The percentage of DPPH inhibition by T. apicalis BPE at 1 mg/mL
showed the highest inhibition (39%, GA equivalent to 0.3 mg/mL) compared with T. itama
(14.3%, GA equivalent to 0.1 mg/mL) and T. thoracica (6.7%, GA equivalent to 0.05 mg/mL).
Our result was the first in reporting antioxidant activity of BPE measured using DPPH-HPLC
method from three different species of Malaysian stingless bee.
This work was carried out for determining antimicrobial activity of Pistacia chinensis leaves
methanol extract and identifying the chemical composition of the plant extract. Methanol extract
was tested for antimicrobial activity using disc-diffusion assay and the extract was fractionated
on silica gel column chromatography for the isolation of the bio-active constituents. The leaves
extract of P. chinensis showed a significant antimicrobial effect, it strongly inhibited the growth
of the test bacteria and yeast studied. Chromatograpic separation of the methanol extract of
P. chinensis leaves has led to the isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol, luepol, and
six flavonoids, quercetin, myricetin, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside,
myricetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside and myricetin 3-O-β-glucuronide using various chromatographic
procedures and the interpretation of spectral data in comparison with already existing data
reported in the literature. The results presented here may suggest that the leaves extract of P.
chinensis possess antimicrobial properties, and therefore, can be used as natural preservative
ingredients in food and/or pharmaceuticals.
This study aims to determine the antioxidant capacities (AC) and antidiabetic properties of
phenolic extracts (free and bound) from white Tambun pomelo peels, kaffir lime peels, lime
peels and calamansi peels. AC, total phenolic content (TPC) and antidiabetic properties of
selected citrus peels extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay, respectively. This
study found that the methanolic extract of kaffir lime showed the best AC with the lowest
IC50 value of DPPH radical (7.51 ± 0.50 mg/ml) and highest FRAP value [369.48 ± 20.15
mM Fe (II) E/g DW]. TPC of free phenolic extracts of all citrus peels were significantly (p<
0.05) higher compared to the bound phenolic extracts with extract of calamansi showed the
highest TPC. Free- and bound phenolic extract of calamansi also had the highest α-amylase
inhibition activity (61.79 ± 4.13%; 45.30 ± 5.35%) respectively. The highest inhibitory effect in
α-glucosidase inhibition assay of free- and bound phenolic extracts were white Tambun pomelo
(41.06 ± 10.94%) and calamansi (43.99 ± 22.03%) respectively. Hence, the citrus peels could
be furthered study for their potential in management and/or prevention of diabetes.
This paper examines relationship between media literacy and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables focusing on consumption of soft drink among adolescents in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In addition, this paper also determines soft drink consumption, level of media literacy and the influences of the TPB variables on the intention of soft drink consumption. A cluster sampling method was used in collecting data within the Klang Valley area. The sample consisted of 436 adolescents from secondary school, aged between 13 to 18 years old. Two main scales utilized were Media Literacy (ML) scale and TPB scale. The descriptive, multiple linear regression and Pearson product-moment correlation analyses were carried out to answer the research objectives. Results revealed that 36% of respondents drank a minimum of 1 can, bottle or glass of soft drink for the past seven days and possess good level of media literacy (35%). Meanwhile, 14% of variance in adolescents’ intention of soft drink consumption is explained by TPB variables. Additionally, the total media literacy score towards soft drink advertisement was significantly positively correlated with attitude (r = 0.250, p
This study was conducted to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes)
and screen for its antibiotic susceptibility characteristic from wildlife and water samples at
Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Samples collected were incubated and streaked on
selective medium PALCAM agar to confirm the presence of Listeria spp. before they were
further tested using molecular analysis. Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay were
performed to target specific virulence gene, haemolysin gene, hlyA to further distinguish the
presence of this pathogenic bacteria in the samples. Overall, out of the 30 samples tested, 10
samples were confirmed as to contain L. monocytogenes strains and selected to subsequent
antibiotic susceptibility test. Susceptibility patterns to 10 antibiotics were investigated
among the L. monocytogenes strains. All strains were uniformly resistant to tetracycline and
erythromycin. On the other hand, all strains were sensitive to gentamycin and tobramycin. The
multiple antibiotic resistance shown by the strains in this study indicate the potential health
hazard associated with the possible transmission between wildlife and water to its surrounding
environment especially visitors and workers of Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Multi-drug resistant staphylococci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) are among the emerging
pathogens and have become a threat to both human and animals. Foods of animal origin can
easily be contaminated by these bacteria if handled unhygienically or exposed to contaminated
environmental surfaces. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MRSA
and MRSE in raw chicken meat sold at wet markets in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. One
hundred fresh raw chicken meat samples were collected from three different wet markets in
Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Routine isolation and identification, selective media (Brilliance MRSA2
agar), antimicrobial sensitivity test (AST), minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC), and
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nucA gene and the resistant gene, mecA
were conducted. Based on bacteriology results and growth on selective media, MRSA and
MRSE were detected in 43% (43/100) of the raw chicken meat samples. Using the PCR assay,
77% (34/43) isolates were positive for nucA gene. The detection of these emerging multidrug
resistant bacteria in chicken meat intended for human consumption implies the potential
contamination of food items by the bacteria which in turn may pose risk to the public health.
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in reducing blood pressure and
gives an anti-hypertensive effect. Inhibition of ACE mainly results in an overall antihypertensive
effect. The objectives of this study were to determine the ACE inhibition activity in edible bird
nest hydrolysates and the effect of different hydrolysis time of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240
minutes. Edible bird nest protein was hydrolysed by enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase and
papain to obtain ACE inhibitory peptides. The results suggested that 60 minutes of hydrolysis
time using alcalase contributed to the best ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.02mg protein/ml)
which shows edible bird nest protein hydrolysate to be a potent ACE inhibitor that may be used
to decrease blood pressure.
Legume is a plant in the family of Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) that is cultivated and consumed
throughout the world. Legume’s role in human health appears to be limited because of several
limiting factors such as low protein and starch digestibility, poor mineral bioavailability and
high antinutritional factors. Germination is defined as a process that occurs during seed growth
that starts with uptake of water until the emergence of radicle through the surrounding structure.
It has been suggested that germination is a cheaper and more effective technology that can
improve the quality of legumes by increasing their nutritional value. This study was conducted
to compare changes in dietary fibre and total sugar compositions after germination process in
kidney, mung, soy beans and peanuts. Total dietary fibre was found to be significantly increased
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajorcaju,
PSC) addition to partially replace coconut milk powder on nutritional composition and
sensory values of Herbal Seasoning (HS). This study evaluates the nutritional composition,
dietary fibre and sensory acceptance of HS that processed using six different formulations
with different levels of PSC powder, namely 0% (A), 20% (B), 40% (C), 60% (D), 80% (E)
and 100% (F). The use of PSC powder substantially brought down the fat content of HS.
The fat content of PSC-based HS was ranged from 13.82±0.84% to 8.16±0.74%. The protein
content showed an increasing trend in line with increasing of PSC powder ranging from 7%
to 12%.Substitution of coconut milk powder with PSC powder resulted in significantly higher
(p0.05).The panels preferred HS formulated with PSC powder since its
enhance colour and viscosity attributes of the products. In brief, HS formulated with more than
40% PSC powder is recommended since it has significant nutrients and palatably accepted by
Fruit industries require convenient peeling method, especially during puree processing to prevent deterioration of fruit quality and product loss. Therefore, manual, chemical (sodium hydroxide/NaOH) and enzymatic (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) peeling methods were compared to determine the peeling efficiencies of ‘Chok Anan’ mangoes. The effect of different peeling parameters (concentrations [chemical peeling: 1.6-7.3% of 0.4M-1.83M; enzymatic peeling: 0.005-0.095%], temperatures [chemical peeling: 80-95oC; enzymatic peeling: 25-40°C], and duration of soaking [chemical peeling: 5-10 min; enzymatic peeling: 30-120 min]) were evaluated for peeling yield, peeling time, absorption of chemical and enzyme solution, the penetration depth of NaOH and enzyme activities (reducing sugar analysis). The enzymatic peeling had significantly (p0.05) in peeling yield (>86%), but there was significant (p
Starch and hydrocolloids were often used together in food industry to modify the rheological properties with the aim to enhance the starch tolerance to processing conditions. As such, the rheological properties of xanthan gum (XG), carrageenan, high (HMP) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP), with native corn starch (NCS) and modified corn starch (MCS) at different temperature were evaluated in this study. The flow behavior index (n) of corn starch-hydrocolloid mixtures were observed in the range from 0.160 to 0.604 where indicated the shear thinning behavior. The addition of hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity of the starch system. NCS mixtures showed consistency index (K) and apparent viscosities (na,100) decreased with increase in the temperature. The addition of XG and carrageenan increased the storage (G’) and loss (G”) moduli. Among the hydrocolloids, the XG addition to the NCS exhibited superior viscoelastic properties as evidenced by the highest G’ and lowest tan δ values. XG was observed capable to increase while pectin reduced the solid-like starch system. This result provides pragmatic data for food engineer in process design and food product development by minimizing the cost of trial and error.
The aim of this study was to determine hydrolytic stability [acid value (AV)] and oxidative stability [peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD)] of selected blended oils during potato frying. The blended oils were prepared by blending palm oil with corn oil (POCO), sesame oil (POSO) and rice bran oil (PORBO). Blended vegetable oils were prepared in a ratio of 1 to 1 (v/v) and tested for 0, 10 and 20 times after frying potato. AV and PV were determined by titration method, while CD was determined using the spectrophotometric method. Increasing frequency of oil frying contributed to increased level of AV in all blended oils. PVs were increased in all samples, with most noticeable increment observed in POSO, followed by PORBO and POCO. CD levels of the blended oils were also increased after 20 times of potato frying compared with the unused oil and after 10 times of frying. POCO was the most stable oil in terms of hydrolytic and oxidative stabilities. It is most suitable for deep-fat frying of potato chips and industrial application.
Okra plant particularly its fruit is highly mucilage which composed of pectin and high content of carbohydrate. Byproducts of okra plant such as leaves and matured fruits will be discarded whenever the young fruits are harvested which eventually leads to environmental pollution. Those byproducts have potential to become plant-based alternative for bovine and pork related gelatin. This study aimed to determine the gel formation of pectin extracted from okra plant byproducts particularly the leaves, pulp (skin without seeds) and seeds. Pectin was extracted using a sequential extraction with the applications of hot buffer (HB) and hot buffer with chelating agents (CH). CH extraction gave the highest pectin yield (>40%) compared to HB and DA. The HB fraction harbored highly purified pectin due to high anhydro uronic acid content and degree of esterification. The highest pectin yield was extracted from seeds with an overall fraction yield of 86%, followed by the leaves (75%) and pulp (71%). The pectin was blended with konjac glucomannan (KG) in 5.0:1.6 ratio to form gel and stored for 16 - 18hr at 4°C ± 1.0. The gel formed using HB extraction was found to have significantly lower (p < 0.05) gel strength than HB with CH extraction. This study concluded that HB and CH pectin extracts derived from okra leaves, pulp and seeds have good potential to become gelling agent.
Enterobacteriaceae is a large family within the Gram-negative bacteria that primarily inhabits in the gastrointestinal tract of human and animals. The bacteria within this group are readily survived in the environment with some species found living free in the water where energy sources are scarce, making them ideal indicators for faecal contamination of the river water. Some species within the family have been used as indicator for the presence of pathogenic bacteria whilst on the other hand some species have been directly associated with various diseases in human and animals. The main aim of this research study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of the Enterobacteriaceae in water samples collected from river and waterfalls within a community resort. The health risk associated with the bacteria was analysed with regard to their susceptibility to antibiotics. Samples were collected from surface water and water falling down directly from waterfalls of river within the community resort. The samples collected were plated onto Eosine Methylene Blue agar (EMBA) for the isolation of the Enterobacteriaceae. Bacterial colonies growing on the agar were randomly picked, purified, stocked and then identified using API 20E identification kit. DNA fingerprinting using (GTG)5-PCR was utilised to determine their genetic profiles before the isolates were grouped into a dendrogram using RAPDistance software package. The level of antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria isolates was analysed using disc diffusion technique. This study confirmed the presence of Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Pantoea and Serratia in the water samples with their single and multiple antibiotic resistance and susceptible characteristics. The dendrogram presented in this study shows genetic similarities and differences among the strains, suggesting while there is a potential for single distribution of a clone, there is also possibility of the distribution of different strains within species in the water environment. Therefore, awareness on the potential risk associated with genetically diverse intermediate and resistant enteric bacteria in the recreational water should be communicated to the public especially communities within the study area.
Plants have been used recently to eliminate bacterial growth in food products. This study was undertaken to test the in vitro sanitizing effect of crude extract from bitter gourd (BG) fruit on the growth of native microorganisms in raw chicken leg meat. Hot air dried BG and extrudate extracts at 1% concentration and exposure times of (5, 10 and 15 min) were used to treat the samples using dilution method. Results showed that BG extrudate had a slightly stronger bactericidal activity against the microflora than the B.G. hot air drying treatment, especially, on E. coli at all exposure time. Overall, there is no significant difference between the treatments; Total Plate Count (TPC), Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus. The best reduction time of microflora by hot air dried extract was at (15 min) except for B. cereus was at (5 min) and for extrudate extract was at (5 min) except for E. coli was at (10 min). In conclusion, bitter gourd extract could be used as an important natural sanitizer for rinsing raw food matrials such chicken meat.
In the present study, evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis
CF4MRS bacteriocin-like substances (BLIS) against various fish pathogens was performed
using an agar well diffusion assay. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) was first pre-treated using
four different bioassays. In the first treatment T1, CFS was treated with catalase, and the pH
was adjusted to 6.5 with NaOH to eliminate the inhibitory effect of H2
and/or lactic acid.
In T2, CFS was treated with only 1 mg/mL catalase. In T3, only the pH was modified and
adjusted (6.5). For T4, no pretreatment was done on the CFS. Our results showed all tested
pathogens: Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Klebsiella
pneumonia ATCC 10031, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 49140,
Edwardsiella tarda BCRC 16703 and Serratia marcescens (Monash culture collection), were
susceptible to L. lactis CFS (T4). This bacterial inhibition activity was presumably due to
BLIS present in CFS. However, the CFS lost its antimicrobial activity when pH was adjusted
and treated with enzyme catalase (T1 and T3). This inhibitory effect would be attributed to
either organic acid or H2
produced by the bacterium. On the other hand, CFS treated with
only catalase (T2) exerted similar inhibitory effect against the pathogens as showed by the
untreated CFS (T4). BLIS in CFS were subsequently determined using HPLC method. Our
results revealed that lactic acid in BLIS indeed plays the important role in bacterial inhibition,
suggesting the bacteria could be potentially used in managing and controlling fish diseases.
The toxigenic strains of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) produce toxins such as haemolytic and nonhaemolytic
toxins. Fresh milk, pasteurized milk and swab samples were collected from milking
utensils in a diary farm. Routine microbiological examination for B. cereus, antimicrobial
sensitivity tests and PCR detection of the Bacillus group specific genes and genes encoding
for haemolytic enterotoxin and non-hemolytic eneterotoxin genes were conducted. Bacillus
cereus was isolated from raw bulk mlik, pasteurized milk and milking utensils swabs collected.
Detection of B. cereus was higher in milking utensils compared to raw and pasteurized milk.
Bacillus cereus was also detected in corn-flavoured pasteurized milk and milking utensils of
dairy colonies. There were non-hemolytic enterotoxin gene positive isolates and most of them
were susceptible to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin compare to other beta
lactam antibiotics. As control and prevention stratgies, increase in public awareness through
public education, proper hygiene practices in farms and dairy processing plants, regular
surveillance and quality control including intensive screening for milk and milk products need
to be in place. However, further in-depth study based on larger and diversified sample and
detection of other toxigenic genes are recommended.
The aim of this study was to investigate the functional properties of chicken skin gelatin films with varied concentrations of a hydrophilic plasticizer. Gelatin film solutions with different glycerol concentrations A(control), B(5%), C(10%), D(15%) and E(20%), were stirred at 45°C for 20min and oven dried at 45°C. Film characterization determination were included, tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility, transparency, moisture content, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Diffraction (X-RD). Glycerol added resulted in improvement of TS and WVP properties. Film B (5% glycerol) demonstrated low EAB (106%), WVP (0.0175 g.mm/h.m2.k.Pa) and solubility (58.64%), but with high TS (3.64 MPa), moisture content (16.0%), UV light transmission (0.04%) and transparency (0.81) compared to films C, D and E. FTIR spectrum analyses demonstrated an aliphatic alcohol group only for Film E (20% glycerol). Hence, chicken skin gelatin film at 5% glycerol concentration showed the most promising potential for industrial food processing applications.
This study investigated the effect of annealing treatment (at 50°C for 72 h) on hydrolysis of tapioca and sweet potato starches using a raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme namely STARGEN 001 (a blend from fungal α-amylase and glucoamylase) at sub-gelatinization temperature (35°C) for 24 h. The degree of hydrolysis of the starches was evaluated based on the dextrose equivalent (DE) value. The hydrolyzed starches were then characterized in terms of its morphology, swelling power and solubility, gelatinization and pasting properties, amylose content and x-ray diffraction pattern. After 24 h of hydrolysis, annealed starches were hydrolyzed to a greater degree with higher DE value compared to native starches (40% vs 33% for tapioca; and 29% vs 24% for sweet potato starch). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed a more porous granules and rougher surface in annealed starches than their native counterparts. The swelling power and solubility of annealed starches decreased significantly. Annealing was found to affect the pasting properties of the starches appreciably and increase the starch gelatinization temperature. The amylose content in hydrolyzed annealed tapioca and sweet potato starches increased while no significant changes observed in the X-ray diffraction of those starches. This study shows that the annealing treatment can be used as a way to increase the degree of hydrolysis of tapioca and sweet potato starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using a raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme.
This study aims to determine the effect of tapioca and potato starch added at 3, 6 or 9%w/w
on the physical properties of Spanish mackerel (Scomberomoru guttatus) fish balls. Water
holding capacity, gel strength and four attributes of texture profile analysis, namely hardness,
springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness increased with increasing starch concentration for
both fish balls added with tapioca or potato starch after 6th freeze-thaw cycles. Both tapioca
or potato starch-added samples showed decrease in drip loss and colour with increasing starch
concentration up to 9% (w/w) after 6th freeze-thaw cycles. Drip loss and colour of fish balls
made from the two types of starch decreased with increasing starch concentration. Overall,
gel strength, drip loss, and color of fish balls added with starch showed no significant changes
(p≥0.05) after 6th freeze-thaw cycle. The results suggested that starch plays an important role
in improving freeze-thaw stability of fish balls.