The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity and lipolysis effects of Strobilanthes
crispus leaves extract (SCE) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats by administering 1% (w/w) of
SCE in drinking water. Methods: Normal Sprague-Dawley rats were induced obese using a
high-fat (HF) diet formulation for 14 weeks. DIO rats were subsequently treated with 1% (w/w)
SCE while the HF diet was switched to normal rat chow diet. Food intake, water intake and
bodyweight were measured weekly. Other parameters e.g. blood lipid profile were determined
in normal and DIO rats before and after treatment with SCE. Histopathological changes in the
liver were also observed after treatment. Results: Prior to treatment, DIO rats have significantly
The need for nutritional and functional foods has increased. Consumers, these days, do not
eat snacks only to provide satisfaction for their hunger, but also to supply essential nutrients
to body. The objective of this study was to develop six formulations of granolas/cereal bars
using different combination of Sunnah fruits such as dates (Phoenix dactylifera), raisins (Vitis
vinifera L.) and figs (Ficus carica). The cereal bars were formulated using dry raw materials
(glutinous rice, black Cummins, etc.) and binding agents (honey and glucose syrup). The cereal
bars were assessed for water activity and proximate composition. It was observed that the
sample B, made with 70 g of glucose syrup, 100 g honey and 450 g of total fruits had the
highest value of moisture (18.73%) as compared to other formulations (P˂ 0.05). There were no
differences in protein contents of the cereal bars formulated. Ash contents of the formulations
were significantly different (P˂ 0.05) in samples B and F; the values ranged between 0.97%
and 1.88%. The fat contents were significantly different with formulation B having the highest
fat content (10.72%) and carbohydrate contents were affected by fibre contents; samples with
lower crude fibres had higher carbohydrate contents which also reflect in the energy contents
of the granola/cereal bar samples. Lowest aw (water activity) was observed in the samples with
lower fruit contents which could be as a result of their lower moisture contents. According to
the results, incorporation of glutinous rice flakes with different composition Sunnah foods and
binding agents; honey and glucose syrup can be used to formulate cereal bars with appreciable
proximate and energy contents.
The aim of this research is to determine the antiulcer properties and percentage protection of
Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa seed samples towards ulcer-induced Sprague
dawley rats. Rats were divided into six groups each for each ulceration method and fed with
distilled water, Omeprazole, H. cannabinus seed oil (HCSO), H. cannabinus seed extract
(HCSE), H. sabdariffa seed oil (HSSO) and H. sabdariffa seed extract (HSSE), respectively
via oral administration. Among the two plants tested, H. cannabinus showed the best protection
percentage towards ethanol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cold restrain
stress induced ulcers. H. cannabinus seed extract (HSSE) exhibited an exceptionally high ulcer
protection of 74.98 ± 0.78% against NSAIDs induced ulcer. The gastric lesions were controlled
primarily by both mucosal protection and acid inhibition. In conclusion, addition of these seeds
to the daily diet may reduce free radical activity in the body and reduce the risk of developing
peptic ulcer disease.
The thin layer drying kinetics of pumpkin slices (Cucurbita moschata) were experimentally
investigated in a convective hot air dryer. In order to select the appropriate model for predicting
the drying kinetics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), twelve thin layer semi theoretical,
theoretical and empirical models, widely used in describing the drying behaviour of agricultural
products were fitted to the experimental data. The Page and Two term exponential models
showed the best fit under certain drying conditions. The Hii et al. (2009) model, which was
adopted from a combination of the Page and Two term models was compared to the other 11
selected thin layer models based on the coefficient of determination (R2
) and sum of squares
error (SSE). Comparison was made between the experimental and model predicted moisture
ratio by non-linear regression analysis. Furthermore, the effect of drying temperature and slice
thickness on the best model constants was evaluated. Consequently, the Hii et al. (2009) model
showed an excellent fit with the experimental data (R2 > 0.99 and SSE < 0.012) for the drying
temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and at different sample thicknesses of 3 mm, 5 mm and
7 mm respectively. Thus, the Hii et al. (2009) model can adequately predict the drying kinetics
Colon carcinogenesis is a malignant tumor, and is well-known as the third leading cancer,
which contributes to high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Brewers’ rice, known locally as
temukut, consists of a mixture of broken kernels with rice bran and rice germ which is a byproduct
produced in the rice industry. Although extensive studies on the anti-cancer properties
of rice bran, published data on the cytotoxicity of brewers’ rice are very limited. The present
study was conducted to evaluate the apoptosis induction capability of the water extract of
brewers’ rice (WBR) on human colorectal cancer (HT-29) cell line. The HT-29 cells were
treated with various concentrations (16, 32, and 64 μg/mL) of WBR for 24 and 48 hours. The
morphological analysis of apoptotic cells was evaluated using inverted light microscope and
fluorescence microscope. The apoptotic HT-29 cells was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC and
propidium iodide (PI) staining apoptosis test and cell cycle analyses. The data obtained were
evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and P < 0.05 was considered statistical
significant. Overall analyses indicated that WBR induced typical characteristics of apoptosis in
HT-29 cells, including nuclear fragmentation (NF), nuclear compaction (NC), apoptotic bodies
(AB), cellular shrinkage (CS), and chromatin condensation (CC), as visualized under inverted
light microscope and fluorescence microscope. Cell cycle analyses and Annexin V-FITC and
propidium iodide (PI) staining apoptosis test using flow cytometry revealed that WBR induced
apoptotic population in HT-29 cells. In this study, our findings provide clear evidence that
WBR inhibits the growth of HT-29 cells via induction of apoptosis. Taken together, we suggest
that WBR may be a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer.
Although Malaysia is one of the important pineapple fruit producing and exporting country, the production of MD-2 pineapple fruit only started in 2009. Pineapple fruit has been harvested at different ripening stages for different markets. The information on Malaysian grown MD-2 pineapple fruit quality is lacking. Therefore this work was carried out with the aim to determine physicochemical quality, antioxidant compounds and activity of MD-2 pineapple fruit at five ripening stages. Ripening stage affected physicochemical quality of MD-2 pineapple fruit. Soluble solids concentration of MD-2 pineapple fruit increased from 15.41 to 18.02% SSC when fruit ripened from stage 1 to 4 and no significant difference was found in fruit between stage 4 and 5. The ascorbic acid content decreased while total carotenoids content increased as ripening stage advanced. The total phenolic content of both 80% methanol and water extraction solvents increased significantly as fruit ripened from stage 1 to 3 and reduced as fruit ripened to stage 5. The antioxidant activity of MD-2 pineapple fruit as assayed using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS showed similar trend as total phenolic content. These results suggest that ripening stage affect MD-2 pineapple fruit quality and nutritional values.
The aim of this study were to find out the physicochemical characteristics of cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder and its application in the production of mayonnaises. Cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder (CREYP) were prepared from removal of cholesterol by formation of cholesterol:β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The physicochemical characteristics of CREYP and NEYP were foaming capacity (FC): 1.96%, 4%; foaming stability (FS): 96.48%, 94.55%; emulsion capacity (EC): 59.82%, 58.43% and emulsion stability (ES): 43.94%, 41.48% respectively. Whereas the viscosity of CREY, NEY and commercial mayonnaises were 8000, 4768 and 6747 cP respectively. The lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), saturation (C*) and hue angle (h°) values for CREYP and NEYP results showed significantly different (p>0.05) for all chroma values with CREYP showed higher L* and h° values but lower in a*, b* and C* values showing that the yellow colour of NEYP lessened. Commercial mayonnaise appeared to be lighter and less yellowish than CREY mayonnaises with L* and b* values of
commercial to CREY mayonnaises were L*: 78.34; 63.78% and b*: 8.29; 14.98% respectively. It can be concluded that CREYP can be used as replace to the NEYP and whole liquid egg yolk
with enhance nutritional values. The results obtained from this study will be very useful for producing CREYP.
In the present work, the influence of microwave power and heating times on the quality
degradation of corn oil was evaluated. Microwave heating test was carried out using a domestic
microwave oven for different periods at low- and medium-power settings for the corn oil sample.
The changes in physicochemical characteristics related to oil degradation of the samples during
heating were determined by standard methods. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid
content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, viscosity and total polar compound
of the oils all increased with increasing heating power and time of exposure. In GLC analysis,
the percentage of linoleic acid tended to decrease, whereas the percentage of palmitic, stearic
and oleic acids increased. The C18:2/C16:0 ratio decreased in all oil samples with increasing
heating times. Exposing the corn oil to various microwave power settings and heating periods
caused the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The heating reduced
the various tocopherol isomers in corn oil and highest reduction was detected in γ-tocopherol.
Longer microwave heating times resulted in a greater degree of oil deterioration. Microwave
heating caused the formation of comparatively lower amounts of some degradative products in
the oil samples heated at low-power setting compared to medium-power setting. The present
analysis indicated that oil quality was affected by both microwave power and heating time.
The study aimed to isolate and elucidate the chemical compounds that are found in banana
(Musa balbisiana cv. Saba) inflorescences. Banana inflorescence buds were extracted using
methanol and the resulted methanolic extract was partitioned using chloroform, ethyl acetate
and butanol against deionized water. The chloroform partition was further separated into
fractions using column chromatography assisted by thin layer chromatography. The structure
elucidation was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). Three
triterpenes were isolated namely 31-norcyclolaudenone (1), cycloartenol (2) and (24R)-4a,24-
trimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,25(27)-dien-3b-ol (3). This is the first report on the isolation of these
triterpenes from Musa balbisiana inflorescence. The discovery of new triterpenes from banana
inflorescence should be further explored to open a new perspective that banana by-products
might serve as new source of natural products for food and pharmaceutical applications.
This study aimed to develop and validate whole grain KAP questionnaire among children. A
guided self-administered questionnaire was developed. In this cross sectional study, a total
of 207 children aged 9 to 11 years in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited. Knowledge
domain was considered as optimal level of difficulty and able to discriminate performance of
good and poor children. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis with
principle components method and varimax rotation. Four factor-solutions emerged for attitude
domain whereas 3 factor-solutions were constructed for practice domain. Internal consistency
was acceptable for knowledge (KR20=0.70), attitude (CA=0.72) and practice (CA=0.73).
Test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficients for knowledge, attitude and practice
domains were 0.80, 0.78 and 0.79 (p
The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are
Cockle (Anadara granosa) meat wash water precipitate was hydrolyzed using bromelain. Experiments were carried out to determine optimum conditions for temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to obtain the highest value of nitrogen content (NC) and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Results revealed that the optimum conditions for temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time were 33.7°C, 1.45% (E/S) and 28.42 hrs, respectively. At the optimum condition, hydrolysis of cockle meat wash water precipitate using bromelain resulted in a NC of 0.6% and DH of 48%. The NC and DH were significantly influenced by temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time. When the bromelain concentration, hydrolysis time and temperature were increased, the values of NC and DH also increased. The hydrolysate produced contained flavor compounds found in clam and oyster which were 3-methylbutanol and 1-pentanol. The compound 3-MCPD was not found in the hydrolysate.
Henna plant (Lawsonia inermis) is an Indian medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, besides its popularity as a natural dye to colour hand and hair. Research in the recent past has accumulated enormous evidence revealing henna plant to be an excellent source of antioxidants such as total phenolics. In this study, the extraction of total phenolics from henna stems was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A set of single factor experiments was carried out for identifying the optimum condition of each independent variable affecting total phenolic content (TPC) extraction efficiency of henna stems, namely the solvent type, solvent concentration (v/v, %), extraction time (min) and extraction temperature (oC). Generally, high extraction yield was obtained using aqueous acetone (about 40%) as solvent and the extraction yield could further be increased using a prolonged time of 270 min and a higher incubation temperature of 55°C. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of TPC of 5554.15 ± 73.04 mg GAE/100 g DW was obtained.
Nutritive qualities of patties prepared from chicken, beef and oyster mushroom were determined. Three groups of rats were fed with patty diets prepared with either a combination of 75% chicken + 25% oyster mushroom (CMP) or 75% beef + 25% oyster mushroom (BMP) or 100% chicken patty + 0% oyster mushroom (CP). There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in total tryglyceride (0.3-0.5 mmol/L), total cholesterol (1.7-1.9 mmol/L) LDL-cholesterol (0.3-0.4 mmol/L) and HDL-cholesterol (1.2-1.4 mmol/L) for all groups except for protein free. Protein effeciency ratio (PER) values of CMP and BMP groups were significantly lower than casein group but significantly higher than chicken patty (CP) group. Both CMP and BMP fed groups recorded PER values at 1.73 and 1.69 while CP had PER value at 1.52. The AD of rats fed with CMP, BMP and CP diets were closely ranged from 98.3-98.9% but not significant as compared to casein diet group (98.5%). The close AD values between CMP, BMP and CP indicated that the mixture of patty protein from either chicken or beef with protein of oyster mushroom did not affect digestibility aspect. In summary, addition of oyster mushroom into either chicken or beef patties did not changed AD but improved PER value, thus proving that oyster mushroom could be used as an alternative ingredient to replace meat partially in the making of patties.
Pectin is a heterogeneous branched polysaccharide with complex structure. Microwave-assisted
extraction (MAE) is more efficient in extracting pectin compared to conventional method. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of microwave-assisted pectin extraction against conventional extraction method. This study was also to investigate the effect of power level on yield and quality of extracted pectin from jackfruit rinds. Water-based extraction method was performed with the extraction duration for conventional extraction and MAE were 1 h and 10 min, respectively. The temperature of conventional extraction was set at 90°C and the power levels of MAE were 450 W, 600 W and 800 W. High yield of pectin was obtained from conventional extraction (14.59%) and MAE (16.72-17.63%). All quality characteristics determined were found to be insignificant different for pectin extracted from both conventional extraction and MAE except moisture and ash content. Increase in microwave power did not affect yield and quality characteristics of pectin from jackfruit rinds significantly. In conclusion, MAE requires shorter time than conventional extraction in extracting comparable amount and quality of pectin from jackfruit rinds. Microwave-assisted extraction at 450 W was the most effective and economic extraction condition among the different power levels tested.
The advantage of cooking cannot be summarized just as the better food digestion. Some investigations showed the effect of cooking on reduction of food anti-nutrients such as oxalate. This study was aimed to determine the effect of cooking on oxalate content and its negative effects on calcium availability in eight Malaysian soy-based dishes. Since there is few data which examined the effects of cooking on food oxalate content globally, thus this study was designed as the first in Malaysia. Oxalate in this research was analyzed by using enzymatic methods, while calcium content was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The oxalate concentration was in the range of 6.43-19.40 mg/100 g for whole cooked samples, 9.03-11.90 mg/100 g for raw soy products, and 4.36-7.99 mg/100 g for cooked ones. There were 5 out of 12 samples containing oxalate, which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in cooked products compared to the raw ones. The rest of the samples were also lower in oxalate but not significantly different (p > 0.05). Oxalate in raw/cooked fermented soy products (tempeh) was slightly lower compared to the non-fermented ones. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in oxalate amount between fermented and non-fermented soy products. As Oxalate/Calcium ratio was below 1, oxalate did not have an effect on availability of calcium in the studied samples. Optimal cooking and food processing might be effective in reducing oxalate content in soy products. There is a need for more investigations about the effect of cooking on soy products to confirm the present results.
Diacylglycerol at 1 or 6% was added into refined bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) and crystallized from the melt in a thermally controlled water bath at 22°C for 90 min. Slurries were withdrawn after 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of crystallization for solid fat content (SFC) and crystal morphology studies. Crystallization was also performed in a similar manner using a Labmax reactor connected to a FBRM detector to obtain the information on crystal count and size distribution during crystallization. SFC of the slurries increased with increase in crystallization time up to a certain level followed by a plateau. SFC of RBDPO added with DAG was also higher with the increase in percentage of DAG added and no induction time was observed to initiate crystallization in RBDPO added with DAG. The addition of DAG caused rapid crystallization of RBDPO as observed by enhance nucleation and larger crystal size with increase in the percentages of DAG added.
The aim of this work is to study the effect of hydrocolloids; guar gum (GG), xanthan gum (XG) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physicochemical properties, microbiological quality and sensory properties in order to investigate the potential of applying fermented cassava (tapai ubi) in ice cream. Fermented cassava ice cream (FCI) incorporated with the three types of hydrocolloid was prepared and the protein content, pH value, overrun, colour, hardness, microstructure, FTIR spectrum and sensory acceptance of all samples were determined. Fermented cassava ice cream incorporated with XG showed the highest protein content (14.88%), pH value (pH 6.07), and overrun value (4.27%) as compared to the fermented cassava ice cream incorporated with GG and CMC. Meanwhile, ice cream incorporated with GG possessed the highest L* (94.43) and hardness (3693.15 g) value as compared to XG and CMC. The microstructure study showed that the difference in uniformity at the interface obtained with different types of the hydrocolloids added demonstrated the effect of fat absorption at the air interfaces. The FTIR spectrum investigated indicated that the addition of the fermented cassava to FCI had increased the OH group in the ice cream as compared to the control. All samples were microbial safe as the total plate counts in all samples were below the standard as prescribed in Food Act 1983 with no presence of E. coli . In conclusion, fermented cassava ice cream with XG showed the good quality in terms of its pH value, overrun, total plate count and overall acceptability.
The impacts on both rheological parameters; Casson yield stress and Casson viscosity were determined. The interactions among blend’s components; xanthan gum (XG), corn starch (CS), glycerin (GL) and their relationship with both flow parameters were also investigated by using D-Optimal mixture design. Three levels of cocoa butter substitution assigned in chocolate production were at 5%, 10% and 15% level with random proportions of each component generated by Design Expert software. An appropriate mathematical model was applied to evaluate each response as a function of the proportions of the components enabling in prediction of future response by using any blend of components. As the incorporation of the blends (XG/CS/GL) in chocolate production was elevated from 5% to 15%, both parameters; viscosity and yield stress of chocolate were gradually increased, as in range 7.819 to 10.529 Pa, and 2.372 to 3.727 Pa.s, respectively. Neither binary nor ternary component-component interaction exhibited synergistic effect. Nevertheless, strongest antagonistic effect on both rheological parameters of substituted chocolate at 5% level and 10% level were respectively observed at ternary interaction region for the former, and at binary interaction area of CS:GL, closer to CS corner as for the latter. This study somehow provides ideas on how component-component interactions influence experimented response.
Proximate, functional and pasting properties of a new variety of sweet potato, VitAto, flour, known for its high vitamin A contents, were compared with two other commercial sweet potatoes, Bukit Naga and Okinawan, flour available in Malaysia. The recoveries of each sweet potato from milling were not significantly different at about 20% but in proximate analysis, the VitAto presented the highest protein (5.7%) and dietary fiber (14.8%) contents with more energy 399.6 kcal/100 g produced. The VitAto flour has average particle size of 132.04 μm. The pasting temperature of the VitAto flour was 65oC, with highest setback and trough viscosity values of 530.90 and 197.20 mPa.s, respectively. The flour is classified as easy flowing and stable powders. This study provides information which helps in the handling, packing and storage of sweet potato flours. It also shows that the VitAto flour has an array of functional, pasting and proximate properties that can facilitate its uses in many areas with better nutritional properties.