Proximate content and fatty acid composition of germinated and non-germinated legumes (kidney, mung, soy bean and peanut) and rice varieties (red, black, Barrio, brown and milled) were evaluated. In germinated samples, moisture content increased significantly while carbohydrate, protein and fat were decreased significantly. Total dietary fibre was increased in germinated samples except germinated kidney and mung bean. Germination also increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in legumes, black, red and brown rice. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) decreased in all samples except germinated kidney, soy and Barrio rice. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased in some germinated samples (mung bean, peanut, red, brown, Barrio and white rice) but decreased in other legume and rice samples. Generally, palmitic acid increased while stearic, oleic and linoleic acids decreased after germination. Overall, the proximate content and fatty acids of legume and rice varieties changed after germination and may be used as alternate resources for individuals with lifestyle diseases.
Palm olein has been commercially used as frying medium in batch deep-fat frying. During
frying, the oil usually deteriorates due to the exposure to high temperature. In this study, a
fluorescence spectroscopy technique was applied to monitor the deterioration of refined,
bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) in batch deep-fat frying. 22.5 kg of French fries
were used as the frying material. In 30 batches, the french fries were intermittently fried at 185
± 5°C for eight hours a day over five consecutive days capturing 40 hours. The fluorescence
intensity of the RBDPO was recorded with excitation at 390 nm and resulting emission of 465
nm. The fluorescence intensity of the RBDPO over five days of frying decreased considering
the wavelength range of emission 430-640 nm and excitation 360-430 nm. The decreased in
intensity of fluorescence emission and excitation spectra were inversely correlated with the FFA
content of the oil samples. This study demonstrates the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy
in monitoring the deterioration of RBDPO during batch deep-fat frying.
Consumers today prefer to purchase ready-to-eat, fresh-cut fruit that is readily available at the markets and retailers. They generally select the fresh-cut fruit base on the quality, freshness, nutrition and safety. The effects of packaging condition on fresh-cut Cantaloupe were studied during 18 days of storage at 2°C and 87% RH. Fresh-cut Cantaloupe pieces were packed in a Polypropylene (PP) container. As a control, the container was cover with lid without film, while Sample 1 (S1) was sealed only by a 40 μm PP film and Sample 2 (S2) was sealed with a 40 μm PP film and then adding the lid cover. Changes in colour, firmness Total Soluble Solids (TSS), pH, Titratable Acidity (TA) and Total Plate Count (TPC) were evaluated over time. During storage, it was found that the firmness significantly decreased from day 0 until day in all packaging conditions. Color parameters Luminosity (L*) and Chromaticity (C) were significantly change at the significance level of 95% (p
Quality degradation is normally judge by monitoring independently the loss of a certain quality
attribute during storage. However, the rate of degradation for each of the quality attributes
present in a food product is not the same. This study focus on deterioration of vitamin C,
lycopene, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of ready-to-drink pink guava juice (PGJ)
during storage at elevated temperatures. Kinetic order, rate constant (k), activation energy
(Ea) and temperature coefficient (Q10) of the degradation were derived by applying Arrhenius
equation. The results obtained showed that freshly made PGJ contain 39.79±2.18 mg/100 mL
of vitamin C, 3.17±0.27 mg/L of lycopene, 28.08±4.11 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic
content (TPC) and 13.20±1.91 mMTE/100 mL of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).
All quality attributes measured in this study showed zero-order kinetic reaction. The results
also showed that FRAP has the highest Ea of 49.52 KJ/mol and Q10 of 1.80, followed by
vitamin C (Ea=41.49 KJ/mol; Q10=1.64), lycopene (Ea=31.75 KJ/mol; Q10=1.46), and lastly
TPC (Ea=14.11 KJ/mol; Q10=1.18). The predicted total depletion of each quality attribute
at refrigerated storage (5o
C) were 266 days for antioxidant activity, 158 days for vitamin C
and lycopene, and 63 days for total phenolics. This study provide useful information on the
degradation rate and availability of health beneficial and bioactive compounds present in fruit
juice beverage during storage.
Honey is a sweet liquid food of high nutritional value and it provides immense health benefits. It is highly concentrated with sugar and contains mostly glucose and fructose, which will crystallize over a period of time. Crystallisation of honey will affect its quality, as well as consumers’ acceptability. Storage condition is one of the factors that influence the crystallisation of honey. Different types of honey may need different storage conditions to retain the quality. This research was conducted with the aims to study the crystallisation behaviour of the selected Malaysian honeys and to determine the storage conditions that influence the formation of crystal. The crystallisation of Malaysian honeys (Hutan, Kelulut, Acacia, Gelam) stored at 25, 4 and -20oC for different storage times of 0, 5, 14, 30, 60 and 180 days was analyzed by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and sugar composition was analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that Hutan honey had the greatest crystal formation at the storage temperature of 4oC even after 14 days of storage. Glucose compositions in Hutan and Gelam honeys were also high which were 33.49 ± 0.53% and 33.93 ± 0.15 %, respectively. The enthalpy value for the storage temperature of 25oC, which represents the amount of heat needed to melt crystals present in honey, was the lowest (0.37 ± 0.1 – 2.56 ± 0.5 J/g) compared to other storage temperatures, which showed only a small amount of crystals was formed at this temperature. Thus, this study suggested that the crystallisation behaviour of Malaysian honeys is influenced by the storage condition and will be different for each type of honey.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. STEC is an implicated in the vast majority of outbreaks, widely via consumption of STEC contaminated beef, as important vehicle of transmission of this organism to human. The E. coli O157:H7 serotype is traditionally identified by serological identification of the somatic antigen (O157) and structural flagella (H7). In this study, the bacteria were identified as STEC serotype O157:H7 with three primer pairs that amplified fragments of secD, rfbE and fliC genes in PCR assays. These primer pairs specifically amplified different sizes of target genes: a 244bp region of the E. coli diagnostic marker gene (secD); a 317bp region of the O157 lipopolysacharide (LPS) gene (rfbE); and a 381bp region of the H7 flagellin gene (fliC). The singleplex, duplex and triplex PCR assay developed in this study have a sensitivity limit at 2.8 x 103, 2.8 x 105 and 2.8 x 107 CFU/ml of E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Sensitivity to detect trace amount of E. coli O157:H7 DNA was reduced as the number of primer used was increased for competing to the same DNA template.
The use of polyclonal antibody (IgG) has recently been applied to the detection of bacteria. We developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) strip using a specific IgG in combination with colloidal gold on a nitrocellulose membrane. A conjugate, gold-anti Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 IgG was developed in this study for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in food. The 40 nm in size of colloidal gold nanoparticles was used to conjugate the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG. The optimal concentration, 12.0 µg/ml of the anti-E. coli O157:H7 IgG was determined by standard curve generated in titration method. The serially diluted of E. coli O157:H7 was detected and clearly visualized on the LFA strip as low as 106 CFU/ml (result not shown). The IgG raised in rabbit have shown specific binding capacity against E. coli O157:H7. No other genus of bacteria, including Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni reacted to the IgG. The LFA strip could also detect E. coli O157:H7 in different food samples matrices after 18 h-enrichment and this result were in accordance with the results of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colony count.
Raw goat milk is recognized as one kind of nutritious food owed to its originality and
medicinal values. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological
qualities of locally produced raw goat milk prior any processing steps during storage. Milk
samples passed organoleptic test and C.O.B. test were mostly (88.89 %) failed in alcohol test.
AOAC Official method of oven drying method, Kjeldahl method and Soxhlet method were
performed in physico-chemical analysis where results obtained were partially in lined with
reported literature due to subjective factors of breeds, geographical areas and feeds. The locally
produced raw goat milk’s compositions are high in water content and low in fat percentage.
Initial total plate count, coliform count and proteolytic count tested were 3.44 log cfu/ml, 1.87
log cfu/ml and 1.97 log cfu/ml, respectively. Storage time showed significant effect on the
bacterial counts (p>0.05) of milk samples. Shelf-life of milk samples were kept up to 12 hours
under ambient temperature (3.95 log cfu/ml) had not exceeded the standard limit. The shelflife
of the milk samples were extended up to 16 days storage under refrigerated temperature
of 4°C. The microbiological quality of the milk samples showed a significant bacteriological
growth upon prolonged storage and high initial coliform count indicates possible poor hygienic
practices at farm level.
This article summarises the current methods for total malachite green (MG) detection which is known as a sum of MG and leuco-malachite green (LMG) that has been used extensively in aquaculture as fungicide, dye color in textile and other purposes in food industries. LMG is a reducing form of MG, where the MG is easily reduced due to the photo-oxidative de-methylation process. Nevertheless, the use of MG had become an issue due to its toxicity effects. Many analytical instruments such as HPLC, LC—MS/MS, GC—MS, and spectrometry have been widely used for detection of MG. However, these methods require long time sample preparation and analysis, expensive, use hazardous reagents and indirect measurements. Hence, other analytical methods which are more sensitive, safe, rapid, inexpensive and portable are required. Alternatively, biosensors promise a more sensitive and rapid detection method for MG and LMG.
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has become a popular method for packaging foods as it can extend the shelf life of food with minimal quality defect. Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide are the common gases used in MAP, Oxygen and carbon dioxide inclusive as only these two gaseous have the preservative effects on the packed food product. Their effect on microbial changes of any food product throughout storage period is highly depend on type of the product and packaging materials, appropriate gas composition, storage temperature, the ratio between gas and product volume, and hygienic manner during processing and packaging. MAP with highest percentage of carbon dioxide is proven to be more effective than vacuum packaging in inhibiting the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in many fishery products. This article reviews the consequences of MAP towards microbial changes in fishery products.
Endotoxins (chemically known as Lipopolysaccharide) from gram-negative microorganisms initiates clot formation in blood when it is accidentally encountered by horseshoe crab blood stream. This property was extensively studied by various researchers as a result Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test was established. The LAL tests in general, 3 to 300 times more sensitive than the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test method. It is apparent that major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the same endotoxin. Based on the above perspective, a portable Kit (Endo sensor) was developed to detect the presence of bacterial endotoxin in liquid biological samples using Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL) as a source. Sensitivity of the Kit was determined using various concentrations of prepared endotoxin standards and pyrogen free water samples. It was observed that Endo sensor could detect up to nano gram level of endotoxin in liquid biological samples which could be expressed in (EU/ml) and the labeled sensitivity of the lysated product was 0.125 EU/ml. The gel clotting principle method was utilized for the detection of bacterial endotoxin in liquid biological samples.
This work was investigated the protein solubility properties of meat from chicken in different
body part. The effects of fresh and freezing condition were studied on the protein solubility as
a functional property of slaughter and non slaughtering chicken meat. Solubility of proteins
was significantly reduced for slaughtering fresh meat and in contrast, non slaughtering fresh
meat shows the higher protein solubility. On the other hand, frozen storage meat showed the
difference amount of protein solubility between slaughtering and non slaughtering condition
meat. Freezing condition also showed that the different solubility of different body part meat.
The protein solubility of some parts was significantly increased and some were decreased
between the slaughtering and non slaughtering condition.
In determining consumer’s acceptance of any products in the market, packaging appearance, branding and pricing of the products are important. This study focused on consumer’s perception towards the outlook of the coffee packaging which resulted in influencing their purchasing decision through survey study. This current study was done on three main issues namely appropriateness of appearance, branding and pricing as reflected by the first impression towards the product’s packaging. Survey was done targeting on consumers (n = 100) reside in Kelantan, Malaysia through printed and online questionnaires distribution. Results obtained shows that consumers notice the differences possessed by each coffee packaging in the market and they purchase what they like based on their perception. According to Pearson Correlation, respondents also have the opinion that appearance, branding and pricing are correlated to each other in order to convey the correct messages to the correct group of people (p-value > 0.5). Response from the respondents reflected the behaviour of consumers reside in Kelantan that the overall outlook (packaging appearance, branding and pricing) of a coffee packaging were taken into consideration during their buying process. Therefore, it is crucial for the packaging itself to be able to create emotional attachment in consumers’ mind during their first glimpse.
Bioprotein is one of the useful products obtained from biotechnology invention. It is a promising replacement for the commercial fish feed supplement. In this study, the enrichment of the bioprotein content after solid state fermentation using palm kernel cake and seaweed by the white rot fungus: Phanerochaete chrysoporium and yeast: Candida utilis was carried out. The growth media components were selected from 11 types of media using Plackett-Burman design (hereinafter PBD) and were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method with bioprotein concentration (mg/g) as the response. From the screening result using PBD, three media components, namely K2HPO4, CuSO4.5H2O and MnSO4.H2O were selected for further optimization using OFAT method because of their positive contributions to the response. The final results showed that 5.0 g/L K2HPO4, 3.0 g/L CuSO4.5H2O and 0.1 g/L MnSO4.H2O were there to be the optimum media constituents with 9.0 g/L, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1 g/L, CaCl2.H2O, 3.0 g/L FeSO4.7H2O and 3.0 g/L peptone as fixed compositions. At this optimum concentration, the protein increment of 11% was observed as compared to the results determined in the screening using PBD. The study revealed the benefits of using mixed cultures in improving the protein concentrations which can be used as nutritious fish feed.
Yellowstripe scad fish (YSF) or Selaroides leptolepis belongs to the small pelagic group that is abundantly found in South China Sea and is categorised as low value fishes. This study is designed to explore the physicochemical properties of YSF protein hydrolysate extracted using sodium phosphate buffer followed by 0.5%-2.0% of Alcalase at a series of hydrolysis time (1 hr and 2 hr). The properties of freeze and spray dried protein hydrolysate were evaluated for yield, degree of hydrolysis, protein content, microstructure and water holding capacity. Results showed that prolonged hydrolysis time exhibited increasing yield (0.6%-1.6% for spray drying and 12-16% for freeze drying) and high degree of hydrolysis (80-95%). Protein content recovered from hydrolysis process is within 20-29%. Microstructure of freeze dried YSF protein hydrolysate had ‘collapsed-building’ structure (irregular shapes with edges) while spray dried had small and spherical structure. Freeze dried protein hydrolysates were significantly (p
The sea cucumber (Stichopus vastus) is an underutilized species, as most of its parts, including the integument (high collagen content) are thrown away during processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different hydrolysis conditions (substrate to enzyme ratio (S/E), reaction temperature, and hydrolysis time) on the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and radical scavenging (RSc) activities of the hydrolysates produced from trypsin hydrolysis of S. vastus collagen. Optimal conditions predicted by Box-Behnken Design modelling for producing ACE inhibitory and RSc hydrolysates were found to be S/E ratio (15), reaction temperature (55°C), and hydrolysis time (1 h). Under optimal conditions, ACE inhibitory and RSc activities were estimated to be as high as 67.8% and 77.9%, respectively. Besides, some novel bioactive peptides were identified through mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicate that S. vastus hydrolysates might be used as a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products.
The objective of this research is recovery of squalene from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The extraction process was performed by using the SFE and recovered squalene was analyzed from total lipid extracts using HPLC. A central composite design was used to study the effect of SFE variables namely pressure (X₁) from 200 to 400 bar and temperature (X₂) from 40 to 60⁰C on the total lipid extracts (Y₁) and squalene concentration (Y₂) and optimize the SFE conditions. The nonlinear regression equations were significantly (p < 0.05) fitted for both responses with high R₂ (> 0.965), which had no indication of lack of fit. The results indicated that a combined pressure (200 bar) and temperature (50⁰C) was predicted to provide the optimum region in terms of total lipid extracts (13.84 ± 0.52%) and squalene concentration (418.31 ± 18.40 ppm) studied.
This study was conducted to develop an edible coating containing combined hydrophilic (chitosan) and hydrophobic (palm stearin) components which demonstrated gas barrier and moisture barrier properties, respectively, to prolong the post harvest life of star fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.). The emulsions of chitosan (C) and palm stearin (S) were prepared by using different ratios of C:S which were 1:0, 1:1, 1;2, 1:3, 2:1, 3:1 and 0:1. Viscosity of emulsions was studied. The physicochemical properties of coated star fruits were also evaluated in terms of weight loss, firmness, visual appearance, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration and ethylene concentration during storage at room temperature (26-28˚C) for 18 days. The results obtained showed that coating reduced weight loss, maintained firmness and appearance, slowed down the production of respiratory gases and reduced ethylene production. The most recommended coating for star fruits was C:S of 1:1 ratio as it showed good water barrier and gas barrier properties and could extend the post harvest life of star fruits up to 20 days as compared to the control samples which had a post harvest life of 12 days.
This study investigated the effect of annealing treatment (at 50°C for 72 h) on hydrolysis of tapioca and sweet potato starches using a raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme namely STARGEN 001 (a blend from fungal α-amylase and glucoamylase) at sub-gelatinization temperature (35°C) for 24 h. The degree of hydrolysis of the starches was evaluated based on the dextrose equivalent (DE) value. The hydrolyzed starches were then characterized in terms of its morphology, swelling power and solubility, gelatinization and pasting properties, amylose content and x-ray diffraction pattern. After 24 h of hydrolysis, annealed starches were hydrolyzed to a greater degree with higher DE value compared to native starches (40% vs 33% for tapioca; and 29% vs 24% for sweet potato starch). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed a more porous granules and rougher surface in annealed starches than their native counterparts. The swelling power and solubility of annealed starches decreased significantly. Annealing was found to affect the pasting properties of the starches appreciably and increase the starch gelatinization temperature. The amylose content in hydrolyzed annealed tapioca and sweet potato starches increased while no significant changes observed in the X-ray diffraction of those starches. This study shows that the annealing treatment can be used as a way to increase the degree of hydrolysis of tapioca and sweet potato starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using a raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme.
Starch blend films made from sago and mung bean were prepared by casting with glycerol as the plasticizer and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for 2 h. The films were characterized by thickness, moisture sorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. All films produced were colorless while incorporation of glycerol resulted in more flexible and manageable films. Moisture sorption isotherms for all films showed sigmoidal shape and the control films showed slightly higher curve than treated films. While for X-ray analysis, the control and treated films for all formulations showed similar pattern, however for treated films showed more crystalline character. UV radiation showed affect on X-ray diffraction and sorption isotherms; however the UV radiation did not affect the spectra pattern of FTIR.