The present work aims to optimise chicken skin gelatine/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) blended film formulation at varying concentrations of CMC and plasticiser (glycerol). The influence of CMC and plasticiser concentrations on the mechanical (tensile strength, TS and elongation at break, EAB) and physical (water vapour permeability, WVP) properties of chicken skin gelatine films were studied using central composite design (CCD), a full factorial design with all combinations of the factors at two levels (high, +1, and low, −1 levels), with the centre points (coded level 0) repeated thrice. An optimised formulation obtained as a proportional mixture of CMC (3%) and glycerol (0.78%), with tensile strength of 0.08 MPa, elongation at break of 167.57 and water vapour permeability of 6.08 × 10-9 g m-1s-1Pa-1. A formulation with 3% CMC and 0.78% glycerol yielded high TS and EAB, but lower WVP, which is desirable for production of food packaging. This novel research offers the packaging industry an alternative source for producing biodegradable food packaging films which are more cost-effective and at the same time reduce environmental problems.
Fresh fruits and vegetables are perishable commodities which play vital roles in humans’ diet and health. Unfortunately, the losses along the supply chain of fresh fruits and vegetables are high especially due to the decay caused by pathogens during poor postharvest handling. During postharvest, attempts have been made to combat microbial decay in fresh horticultural industry by avoiding the use of fungicides which threaten consumers’ health. Among those attempts, essential oils extracted from plants have been used as antimicrobial in postharvest and proven to be efficient in prolonging shelf life of fruits and vegetables without affecting their sensory properties. The glandular trichomes of plants are the important site for biosynthesis of essential oils and they act as defence system against herbivores and pathogens. Since essential oils are volatile aromatic compounds, the easily vaporised property has been exploited in postharvest application as fumigants. In addition, essential oils have also been incorporated into chitosan and alginate-based materials as edible coatings. Research in the use of essential oils as antimicrobial in Malaysia is however still lacking.
Volvariella volvacea (Family: Plutaceae), also more commonly known as paddy straw mushroom, is an edible mushroom with high nutritional content. It is usually cultivated using lignocellulosic-based materials for enhanced production. However, V. volvacea is highly perishable and easily deteriorates in terms of quality and appearance after harvest. The present paper thus aimed to provide a critical review on aspects related to the production of V. volvacea using palm oil empty fruit bunch as cultivation substrate. The different stages of V. volvacea development are also highlighted. The present review also provides some information on the preservation techniques and appropriate postharvest management in extending V. volvacea shelf life to further boost the paddy straw mushroom industry
SHAKE Technical Package outlines the policies and interventions in reducing population salt intake which includes five overarching elements needed to create a successful salt reduction programme followed by the five elements of the SHAKE Package for salt reduction that consist of (1) surveillance, (2) harness the industry, (3) adopt the standards for labelling and marketing, (4) knowledge, and (5) environment. The aim for the present work was to critically review the documents related to the dietary sodium reduction strategies in Malaysia as compared to the SHAKE Technical Package. This review involves online and physical document searches of documents related to dietary sodium reduction within the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Visits to each related department via a liaison officer were done for clarification about the documents. Data was sorted according to the SHAKE Framework and a SWOT analysis was done. A total of 32 documents related to salt reduction policies and 15 health education materials were identified. Malaysia’s salt reduction policies comply to four out of five overarching elements of a successful salt reduction program with the presence of political commitment, dedicated programme leadership and governance, partnership with other ministries and stakeholders and integration with iodine deficiency elimination programme. For the SHAKE Package, Malaysia’s policies comply with all the five SHAKE Package elements. However, further investigation revealed that the food products involved in the food reformulation programme were limited. The SWOT analysis revealed that Malaysia has developed a specific plan for a national salt reduction strategy by producing its own Salt Reduction Strategy to Prevent and Control Non-Communicable Diseases for Malaysia Guidelines 2015-2020. Currently, there is no comprehensive database on the salt content of processed foods in Malaysia mainly due to the absence of mandatory labelling for sodium content in processed foods, which is a significant threat to the implementation of salt reduction initiative in the country. Pro-active non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and civil society groups advocating salt reduction in the community is needed to place salt high on the political and developmental agenda Salt reduction strategy as a policy in Malaysia includes almost all recommendations in the SHAKE Framework Malaysia. However, it is still in its early stage.
Water kefir is the product of a brown sugar solution fermented with water kefir grains. To produce starter cultures for manufacturing commercial water kefir on an industrial scale, six lactic acid bacteria (LAB), three acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and two yeast strains have been isolated from local water kefir grains, and in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity has been investigated. Five of the 11 isolates (LAB [K65, K9, K67], AAB [A5], and yeast [Y6]) showed high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. They were then tested in an in vitro gastrointestinal tract tolerance test in which all demonstrated tolerance (40‒80% survival rate). These five strains, identified as Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Gluconobacter hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; were then used to ferment water kefir beverages. The storage stability of the fermented beverage products was analysed during 28 days of storage at 4°C by measuring α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, microbial cell viability, and microbial survival in the beverage treated with simulated gastric juice. The water kefir beverage sample containing both pumpkin purée and brown sugar fermented using all five strains (109 CFU/mL LAB strains, 107 CFU/mL yeast strain, and 106 CFU/mL AAB strain) was the most suitable formulation because it achieved >50% α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and microbial survival rates of 106‒1010 CFU/mL viable LAB cells, 106‒107 CFU/mL viable AAB cells, and 105‒108 CFU/mL viable yeast cells during storage. Therefore, these five strains have potential to act as starters in the formulation of water kefir, which is an anti-hyperglycaemic beverage that can be used to manage type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Collagen from shortfin scad (Decapterus macrosoma) bone was extracted using varying concentrations of acetic acid. Yields of extracted collagen were 1.01 ± 0.09% and 1.31 ± 0.07% for 0.5 M and 0.7 M acetic acids, respectively. The pH values of commercial collagen and shortfin scad bone collagen extracted using acetic acids (0.5 M and 0.7 M) were 6.52 ± 0.03, 4.99 ± 0.04, and 5.32 ± 0.01, respectively. The functional group analysis for collagen showed that the Amide A, Amide II and Amide III bands have been detected. The microstructure study showed that the isolated collagen had a porous fibril network. Maximum solubility for the commercial collagen was observed at pH 3, while the collagens extracted with 0.5 M and 0.7 M acetic acids were similar at pH 8. Meanwhile, the relative viscosities for all collagens indicated increasing values with increasing temperatures. In conclusion, the shortfin scad bone collagen showed potential for use as an alternative collagen. Although the values for shortfin scad bone collagen extracted by 0.5 M and 0.7 M acetic acids were lower than the commercial one, the collagens exhibited similar properties.
The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects of alginate coating combined with repetitive pulsed light (RPL) treatment on the enzymatic activity of fresh-cut cantaloupes during chilled storage. Fresh-cut cantaloupes were coated with alginate (1.86%, w/v) followed by RPL treatment (0.9 J/cm2 at every 48 h up to 26 d) during storage. Untreated samples and samples with alginate or RPL alone were used as controls. Enzymatic activities [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PEL), β-galactosidase (β-Gal), α-arabinofuranosidase (α-AF) and cellulase] of fresh-cut cantaloupes were evaluated every 4 d during storage. Neither alginate coating nor RPL treatment has any effect on the activities of PE and PEL of freshcut cantaloupes during storage. The individual treatment or in combination did not increase the PAL, PPO, PG and cellulase activities of fresh-cut cantaloupes throughout the storage. Alginate coating with or without RPL was effective in maintaining low POD activity of freshcut cantaloupes. In addition, treatments using alginate coating or alginate coating+RPL were effective in reducing the β-Gal and α-AF activities of fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage. Overall, alginate without or with RPL was effective in reducing changes of enzymatic activities in fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage.
Malaysia is a surplus poultry producing country with well-established commercial slaughtering and processing plants. Immense quantity of heads, feet, viscera, blood and feathers are usually discarded and not optimally utilized. Chicken heads are rich in protein, and could be a potential source of gelatin. The aim of the present work was therefore to find a simpler, faster, cheaper and greener gelatin extraction technology as compared to current available methods of gelatin extraction from poultry heads. A comparison of three different gelatin extraction methods with alkaline-acid pretreatment (E1), single acid pretreatment (E2) and single alkaline pretreatment (E3) were studied to extract gelatin from chicken heads. E1 and E2 produced gelatins of Type A, while E3 produced gelatin of Type B. High bloom gelatin (>300 g) with
Oil is one of the major components of date seed alongside dietary fibre, carbohydrate, protein, moisture and ash. Therefore, the present work focused on the extraction of oil from five varieties of date seed using Soxhlet extraction method and subsequently characterised their physicochemical and antioxidant properties accordingly. Oil extracted from the seeds ranged between 8 to 9.8%, whereas the iodine values were between 48.7 to 55.5 g I2/100g. Furthermore, oleic and lauric acids were revealed as the main fatty acids present in the date seed oil, with LaOO (La: lauric acid; O: oleic acid) as the main triacylglycerol. The total phenolic content in the oil ranged from 7.96 to 17.72 mg GAE/g oil, while the antioxidant activity, expressed as EC50, ranged from 5.17 to 17.18 mg/mL. Additionally, the highest reducing activity was observed at 4mg/mL. Hence, oil characteristics are dependent on the type of date, thus indicating that different potential applications may be suggested.
Recently, fermented foods have been developing huge demand among modern consumers due to their health benefits and pleasant flavour. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of fermentation time and different sugar sources on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of kombucha tea. The sugar sources selected were white refined sugar (WRS), coconut palm sugar (CPS) and molasses sugar (MS). The fermentation substrate was boiled black tea, 10% (w/v) of each sugar, 3% (w/v) of tea fungus (SCOBY) and 10% (v/v) of previously fermented kombucha tea (back slope fermentation). The mixture was incubated in the dark at 24±3°C for 14 days. The sugar and organic acid contents were determined by HPLC, while the antioxidant active was determined by the DPPH and FRAP methods. Results demonstrated significantly higher biomass formation, glucose and sucrose content for kombucha tea fermented with WRS, while kombucha tea fermented with MS showed higher organic acid contents. Moreover, kombucha tea fermented with CPS exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content, followed by those fermented with MS and WRS. The present work demonstrated that kombucha tea fermented with CPS is recommended to be consumed as functional beverage for health benefits and prevention of oxidation related diseases. In addition, CPS and MS are good sugar alternatives to sucrose and other sugars frequently used in kombucha fermentation.
used to substitute rice, particularly in the central part of Java and Madura regions, Indonesia. However, there is limited information regarding the preparation of partially cooked corn grits (PCCG). The objective of the present work was therefore to compare the preparation of PCCG in terms of characteristics and time of preparation using optimised initial moisture content in the traditional process with optimised corn particle size, initial moisture content and processing temperature of the improved process. Water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), yellowness index (YI), and resistant starch (RS) of dried PCCG, as well as textural properties of rehydrated PCCG, were compared between optimised PCCG prepared using traditional and improved processes to obtain the best PCCG. Results showed that the optimum initial moisture content to prepare PCCG by the traditional process was approximately 40%. The optimum conditions to prepare PCCG by the improved process were 300 μm corn particle size, 52.33% initial moisture content and 123.67°C processing temperature. PCCG prepared using the improved process had higher values of YI (99.51) and RS (3.65 g/100 g) but lower WAI value (3.74) than YI (95.78), RS (1.96 g/100 g) and WAI (3.96) of PCCG prepared using the traditional process. The textural properties of rehydrated PCCG, except for adhesiveness and cohesiveness, prepared using the improved process were not different from those of PCCG prepared using the traditional process. The improved process also had a shorter preparation time of PCCG, which was 4-6 h as compared to normally 3-4 d in the traditional process. Therefore, a more rapid process with more consistent qualities for preparing PCCG will be of benefit to the target population.
The present work aimed to determine the best formulation of mixed drink made from red cabbage and roselle extracts. Six mixed drink formulations were prepared based on different ratios of red cabbage to roselle extracts: F1 (30:20); F2 (35:15), F3 (40:10); F4 (20:30); F5 (15:35) and F6 (25:25). Samples were prepared by pasteurising the mixed drinks with the pre-determined amount of ingredients at 90°C for 5 sec. The pH of roselle extract (2.06 ± 0.02) was found to be more acidic as compared to red cabbage extract (6.38 ± 0.03). This contributed to the low pH in mixed drink formulations (2.68-3.48). Total titratable acidity (TTA) (0.44-0.89% malic acid w/v) and total anthocyanin content (247.99-339.77 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/L) were shown to increase significantly with increasing roselle extract concentration. Similarly, total soluble solids (TSS) (12.23-12.83°brix) was found to increase significantly with higher ratio of red cabbage extract due to high TSS content (7.67 ± 0.08°brix) in the extract as compared to roselle extract (4.63 ± 0.09°brix). There were significant differences among all the samples in L*, a* and b* values. Mixed drink formulations that contained higher concentration of red cabbage extract were lighter and redder in colour. Significant differences were observed in sweetness, sourness, taste and overall acceptability of drinks, with F3 yielding the highest mean scores for all attributes. Mean score of sensory attributes of the mixed drinks were related to physicochemical properties. Mean scores of all sensory attributes had negative correlation with TTA. Sweetness mean score was positively correlated to the L* value, sourness mean score was positively correlated with pH, L* and a* values but negatively correlated with b* value, and colour mean score had positive correlation with a* value. Therefore, it can be concluded that panellists preferred less sour drinks, which were lighter and redder in colour.β-carotene onto the PKSAC in a model system but yielded the highest desorption efficiency.
Neptunia oleracea Lour. is a tropical plant cultivated in Southeast Asia. It is consumed as vegetable and traditional herb for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of the present work was to isolate the phenolic compounds from N. oleracea, followed by their bioactivity evaluation and quantitative analysis. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) fractions of N. oleracea were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to isolate the phenolic compounds. The isolated phenolic compounds were characterised by several spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Then, these compounds were subjected to DPPH free radical scavenging as α-glucosidase inhibitory assays for the evaluation of their activities. Their contents in the fractions were analysed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitative analysis. Five phenolic compounds including quercetin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), quercetin-3-O-α-Larabinopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (3), methylgallate (4) and rutin (5) were isolated from N. oleracea for the first time. Evaluation on the DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of these compounds showed that methylgallate (4) was the most potent antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitors among them, with IC50 values of 17.25 and 50.76 μM, respectively. The HPLC quantitative analysis revealed the high content of the quercetin derivatives (compounds 1, 2 and 3) in the EtOAc fraction (ranging from 125.68 to 157.55 μg/mg) and methylgallate (4) in the MeOH fraction (75.25 μg/mg). Comparison of the bioactivities of the isolated phenolic compounds with the fractions indicated their significant contribution for the DPPH free radical scavenging of N. oleracea; while they might be working synergistically for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The results of the present work could help to validate the contribution of phenolic compounds for the studied bioactivities of N. oleracea.
The present work investigated the effect of replacing a fraction of cocoa butter with limonene on fat crystallisation and bloom in the models of limonene-cocoa butter blends and seeded dark chocolate. Limonene was incorporated at a maximum of 6.7% (w/w) of cocoa butter in both types of samples, and were stored at 20 and 29°C changing cyclically every 12 h. Samples were analysed at weekly intervals up to three weeks, and the analysis was carried out by colour measurement for the whiteness index to detect bloom, and by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phase determination. DSC analysis was also carried out to assess the melting behaviour in the samples of the dark chocolate model. While the white colour of cocoa butter limited the bloom detection by colour, a large increase in whiteness index was recorded for the chocolate models. The XRD revealed an acceleration of crystal phase transformation in both types of samples. The changes in the melting behaviour for the dark chocolate model showed that the increased amount of limonene had caused the decrease in melting temperature. Hence, for practical applications, it can be suggested that the use of limonene, either as flavouring or for viscosity reduction in chocolate, can potentially result in increased bloom formation due to its effect on cocoa butter crystallisation and polymorphism transformation rate.
Lard adulteration in processed foods is a major public concern as it involves religion and
health. Most lard discriminating works require huge lab-based equipment and complex sample
preparation. The objective of the present work was to assess the feasibility of dielectric
spectroscopy as a method for classification of fats from different animal sources, in particular,
lard. The dielectric spectra of each animal fat were measured in the radio frequency of 100
Hz – 100 kHz at 45°C to 55°C. The fatty acid composition of each fat was studied by using
data from gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) to explain the dielectric behaviour
of each fat. The principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN)
were used to classify different animal fats based on their dielectric spectra. It was found that
lard showed the highest dielectric constant spectra among other animal fats, and was mainly
affected by the composition of C16 and C18 fatty acids. PCA classification plot showed clear
performance in classifying different animal fats. Finally, ANN classification showed different
animal fats were classified into their respective groups effectively at high accuracy of 85%.
Dielectric spectroscopy, in combination with quantitative analysis, was concluded to provide
rapid method to discriminate lard from other animal fats.
Coconut oil (CNO) is a vegetable fat that can be applied as a cocoa butter substitute (CBS) due to its similar physical characteristics to cocoa butter. However, it must be fractionated or hydrogenated to be used as CBS. The aims of the present work was to fractionate CNO using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and determine the potential fraction which is suitable as CBS. CNO was fractionated by SFE at 48.3 MPa and 80°C into four different fractions, F1, F2, F3 and F4. Fraction 1 had the highest yield (48.9%) as compared to the other fractions. Fraction 4 had the lowest content of lauric acid, C12 (31.12%) and the highest amount of palmitic acid, C16 (16.43%); stearic acid, C18:0 (4.99%); and linoleic acid, C18:1 (17.44%). Fraction 4 also had the highest melting profile (25.24°C) and amount of solid fat content (state) closest to CB. Therefore, F4 was selected as a potential fraction for the application of CBS. This finding reveals that CNO can be fractionated by SFE and applied as CBS to help diversify the application of coconut products.
Nowadays, stingless bee honey (meliponine honey) or locally known as ‘madu lebah kelulut’ is becoming popular among Malaysian consumers due to its acclaimed health benefits and advantages such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Usually, stingless bee honey is used as a supplement to modern medicine, and the increase in health awareness among consumers has also increased the demand for stingless bee honey. However, due to the low production of stingless bee honey in the local market, Malaysia continues to import honey from other countries. As there is an abundant of imported honey products, local beekeepers are facing stiff competition, and consumers also need to make a difficult purchasing decision on the most preferable honey products in the market. Therefore, the main objective of the present work was to determine the consumers’ quality preferences towards stingless bee honey based on sensory characteristics. A total of 406 respondents of honey consumers were selected to test stingless bee honey sample based on its appearance, aroma, texture and flavour. The respondents responded based on a structured questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale statements about their responses towards stingless bee honey sensory characteristics. The responses of the respondents were analysed based on descriptive analysis, factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. The results revealed nine factors that influenced consumers’ preferences towards stingless bee honey such as granularity, colour, bitterness, sweetness, viscosity, spice aroma, sourness, herbal aroma and fruity aroma, with viscosity being the most influential factor. The present work concluded that sensory characteristics were important to determine the consumers’ quality preferences towards stingless bee honey on purchasing decision.
The aim of the present work was to produce a new soy milk-based cake. Soy milk was added at different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) during cake making to replace milk. Nutritional composition, batter characteristics, physical, and sensory properties, as well as the stability of cake during storage, were investigated. Sensory results indicated that cake with 50% soy milk had the most favourable acceptance scores with the highest score in the aroma, colour, and taste attributes. The addition of soy milk up to 50% produced a cake with higher protein content and lower carbohydrate content, along with lower density and higher specific volume compared to control. Cake with 50% soy milk addition had lower microbial counts as compared to control. Therefore, soy milk has the potential to act as a milk replacer in cake production.
The present work was aimed to isolate and characterise collagen from fringescale sardinella (Sardinella fimbriata) waste materials using two extraction methods; acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC). The physical and chemical properties of extracted collagens were characterised in terms of protein concentration, structural, solubility and morphological properties. The yields of extracted collagen were 7.48 ± 4.84% for ASC and 0.94 ± 0.22% for PSC. The protein concentrations for ASC and PSC were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than commercial collagen (from tilapia scale). Functional groups for extracted collagens such as amide A (3400-3440 cm-1), amide II (1400-1600 cm-1), and amide III (1200-1500 cm- 1) bands were in the same range as commercial collagen. A higher solubility of commercial collagen and ASC was observed under acidic conditions while PSC was highly soluble under alkaline conditions. Morphological study showed that the collagen had a flaky and fibrillary structure. ASC and PSC exhibited similar properties to the commercial collagen, albeit being of lower values. Therefore, the collagen extracted from fringescale sardinella demonstrated potential for use as an alternative collagen from marine sources
Plants constitute a major ingredient in traditional or folk medicine. The therapeutic claims made on the use of these traditional medicinal plants range from simple conditions such as fevers and migraines, to more complex diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. The aqueous ethanolic extracts of five medicinal plant species; Cosmos caudatus, Leucaena leucocephala, Momordica charantia, Pereskia bleo and Averrhoa bilimbi were assessed for glucose lowering effect via the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Their antioxidant potential, represented by their DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents were also measured. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was recorded for the leaf extract of C. caudatus with IC50 of 21.90 ± 3.60 μg/mL, followed by L. leucocephala with IC50 value of 30.80 ± 2.50 μg/mL. Momordica charantia, P. bleo and A. bilimbi did not show any significant inhibition of α-glucosidase. Meanwhile C. caudatus also gave the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 272.46 ± 8.98 μg/mL, and the highest total phenolic content with a value of 0.263 ± 0.02 g GAE/g DW. The present work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of diabetes.