Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 872 in total

  1. Halimatunsadiah, A.B., Norida, M., Omar, D., Kamarulzaman, N.H.
    This study investigates pest management practices among lowland farmers on growing
    leafy and fruit vegetables, particularly focusing on the pesticide usage in controlling pest. In
    Malaysia, vegetable productions in lowland areas are to some extent really important as in the
    highland areas due to the wide marketing channel, from local till traded across border. Yet, the
    ignorance of vegetables safety regarding the appropriate of pesticide usage by farmers was
    undeniable, as the market demands only products with good extrinsic quality. Thus a survey
    was conducted among of 85 of lowland vegetable farmers to get information on their pest
    management practices in farms. Result showed that the pesticide application by farmers on
    vegetables crops still indicated a calendar spraying practices. In most cases, farmers tend to
    harvest the vegetable products shortly after a few days of last pesticide spraying. In order to
    enhance the food safety control starting from the primary production, extensive monitoring of
    the current pesticide usage by farmers in vegetable productions is vital to provide an updated
    data on the food safety risk regarding to the pesticide residues. Therefore, the thrust of this
    paper was to get a better understanding on the level of safe pesticide usage among vegetables
    farmers especially in areas of growing vegetables productions.
  2. Roiaini, M., Norhayati, H., Seyed, H.M., Jinap, S.
    Cocoa beans are rich in numbers of beneficial bioactive compounds such as phenolics and
    phytosterols, which benefits to human being. The suitable extraction method is needed to
    produce high quality and quantity of cocoa butter and other bioactive compounds. There are
    many extraction method to extract these compounds such as Soxhlet extraction, supercritical
    fluid extraction, ultrasound extraction method and others. The objective of this study is to
    determine the effectiveness of the different extraction methods producing high yields of cocoa
    butter, lower oxidative value, stable phytosterols and antioxidant content. The cocoa beans were
    subjected to different extraction methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE), Ultrasonic extraction
    method (USE), Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2
    ) and Supercritical carbon dioxide with cosolvent
    -Ethanol). Cocoa butter extracted using SCO2
    -Ethanol has significantly (p
  3. Aida, S.A., Noriza, A., Haswani, M.M., Mya, S.M.Y.
    Knowledge and concerns of the bad health implications of high fat intake in consumers has
    resulted in a rising demand for low-fat foods. Consequently, the use of sweet pre-treatment
    as alternative food source is gaining attention among producers and consumers. The study of
    reducing oil uptake of fried banana chips using sweet pre-treatment was done. In the preparation
    of fried banana chips, the sliced banana was blanched at 80o
    C. Then, the sliced banana was
    dipped in the treatment for 4 g, 8 g and 12 g of sugar solution. Next, the sliced banana was deep
    fried at temperature 180o
    C for 5 minutes. The result showed increased in percentage of moisture
    reduction (86.65 %, 86.99%, 88.37% and 90.51%) for control and other three fried banana
    chips as the concentration of sugar used for treatment was increased. For fat content, it showed
    a decreased in percentage (0.66%, 0.63%, 0.62% and 0.54%) as the sugar concentration used
    for the treatment was increased. Sugar treatment does not affect the colour of fried banana chips
    as p-value for lightness (L*
    ) is 0.426 and the p-value for yellowness (b*
    ) is 0.468. This showed
    that the null hypothesis was accepted and there was no significant difference in lightness and
    yellowness of all four fried banana chips. Finally, sensory evaluation showed that there was a
    significant difference in crispiness, colour, sweetness, oiliness and overall acceptance between
    all four fried banana chips. As the conclusion, sweet pre-treatment gives positive effect on
    reducing fat content in fried banana chips and can be used as one of the alternative method in
    producing banana chips with lower amount of fat.
  4. Lim, S.M., Loh, S.P.
    This study aims to determine the antioxidant capacities (AC) and antidiabetic properties of
    phenolic extracts (free and bound) from white Tambun pomelo peels, kaffir lime peels, lime
    peels and calamansi peels. AC, total phenolic content (TPC) and antidiabetic properties of
    selected citrus peels extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-
    picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
    Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay, respectively. This
    study found that the methanolic extract of kaffir lime showed the best AC with the lowest
    IC50 value of DPPH radical (7.51 ± 0.50 mg/ml) and highest FRAP value [369.48 ± 20.15
    mM Fe (II) E/g DW]. TPC of free phenolic extracts of all citrus peels were significantly (p<
    0.05) higher compared to the bound phenolic extracts with extract of calamansi showed the
    highest TPC. Free- and bound phenolic extract of calamansi also had the highest α-amylase
    inhibition activity (61.79 ± 4.13%; 45.30 ± 5.35%) respectively. The highest inhibitory effect in
    α-glucosidase inhibition assay of free- and bound phenolic extracts were white Tambun pomelo
    (41.06 ± 10.94%) and calamansi (43.99 ± 22.03%) respectively. Hence, the citrus peels could
    be furthered study for their potential in management and/or prevention of diabetes.
  5. Gan, Y.Z., Azrina, A.
    This study aimed to determine total antioxidant and antioxidant activity of selected local varieties
    of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five varieties (iceberg, butterhead, romaine, green coral and
    red coral) were subjected to DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant
    power assay (FRAP) assays for determination of antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content
    and total flavonoid content were determined as total antioxidant. The EC50 values obtained from
    the DPPH radical scavenging assay ranged from 303.56 to 4485.41 μg/ml. The red coral lettuce
    had the lowest EC50 value indicating it possesses the highest antioxidant activity among the
    varieties. This variety also showed the highest FRAP value compared with the other varieties,
    where the values ranged from 48.05 to 2135.82 mM Fe2+/100 g fresh weight. Total phenolic
    content of samples ranged from 4.85 to 76.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g fresh weight,
    with the red coral lettuce had the highest value. Total flavonoid content of the lettuce samples
    ranged from 2.28 to 21.96 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g fresh weight, and were significantly
    different (p
  6. Chang, V.S., Teo, S.S.
    Seaweeds are marine macro algae that can be found attach to the bottom shallow coastal waters.
    There are three major groups of seaweeds namely brown (Phaeophyta), red (Rhodophyta) and
    green (Chlorophyta). One of the edible red seaweeds is Eucheuma cottonii. Red seaweeds have
    been found of consisted several potential pharmaceutical uses such as antitumor, antiviral,
    anticoagulant and immunomodulation functions. In This study, heavy metals content of E.
    cottonii was determined by ICP-OES. Methanol was used as solvent for extraction. The
    phenolic content of the extract was determined by Follin-Ciocalteau method and results were
    expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay.
    Besides, anti-tyrosinase activity was investigated tyrosinase and L-DOPA with kojic acid as
    positive control. For element test, three elements were detected (Ar, Fe and Zn). The phenolic
    contents (3.40±0.013 mg GAE/g extract) and antioxidant activity (38.82±0.99 mg/mL) were
    lower compared to other plants but E. cottonii shows a good tyrosinase enzyme inhibition
    which achieved average 234.33μg/mL in 50% inhibition tyrosinase concentration (IC50). E.
    cottonii could be the potential source of natural anti-tyrosinase.
  7. Akinboro, A., Baharudeen, I., Mohamed, K.
    In this study, toxicological safety (mutagenicity) and therapeutic potential (antimutagenicity)
    of water extract of Centella asiatica Linn., were evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The
    mitotic index (MI) at 6.25% concentration of the extract decreased significantly from 3.13% to
    2.05% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, however, the MI increased significantly by 60% and
    400% at 12.5% and 50.0% concentrations, respectively. There was total arrest of cell division
    at 100% concentration after 24 h and 48 h of onion’s roots exposure to the water extract.
    The chromosomal aberrations (CA) induced by the extract were not significantly different
    from the negative control (p ≥ 0.05) at the tested concentrations. The mutagenic activity of
    cyclophosphamide was significantly suppressed above 50% at the tested concentrations. These
    results suggest non-genotoxic effect, and antimutagenic potency of water extract of C. asiatica
    in A. cepa cells, being desirable characteristics of anticancer therapeutics.
  8. Fu, C.W.F., Tan, T.B., Tan, C.P., Abas, F., Ho, C.W., Yong, W.T.L.
    Algal have attracted attention from biomedical scientists as they are a valuable natural
    source of secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidant activities. In this study, singlefactor
    experiments were conducted to investigate the best extraction conditions (ethanol
    concentration, solid-to-solvent ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time) in extracting
    antioxidant compounds and capacities from four species of seaweeds (Sargassum polycystum,
    Eucheuma denticulatum , Kappaphycus alvarezzi variance Buaya and Kappaphycus alvarezzi
    variance Giant) from Sabah. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC)
    assays were used to determine the phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, respectively, while
    2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picylhydrazyl
    (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of
    all seaweed extracts. Results showed that extraction parameters had significant effect (p < 0.05)
    on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of seaweed. Sargassum polycystum
    portrayed the most antioxidant compounds (37.41 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW and 4.54 ± 0.02 mg
    CE/g DW) and capacities (2.00 ± 0.01 μmol TEAC/g DW and 0.84 ± 0.01 μmol TEAC/g DW)
    amongst four species of seaweed.
  9. Bhat, Rajeev, Nurul Hanida Ismail, Yeoh, T.K.
    Goat milk is a highly nutritious and an ideal wholesome food. Today, an increase in demand by
    consumers is witnessed towards consuming goat milk, mainly owed to their rich nutraceutical
    value. In this study, novel goat milk bar was developed by incorporating rose flower extracts
    as an added ingredient (concentration level: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%), and by using two different
    types of natural sweeteners (cane sugar and palm sugar). The nutrition bars were evaluated
    for proximate composition, texture properties and sensory qualities. Results obtained were
    encouraging and the new goat milk based nutritional bar formulation with added rose extracts
    certainly paves way for future commercial exploitation of the product. Goat milk, owing to its
    rich nutraceutical value, and rose extracts owing to the dual functions of a natural antioxidant
    and antimicrobial agent, can be beneficial for extending the shelf life of this novel product
    under room or refrigerated temperatures, thus attracting better markets.
  10. Aishah, B., Hannah, K., Zati Alyani, O.
    Quality degradation is normally judge by monitoring independently the loss of a certain quality
    attribute during storage. However, the rate of degradation for each of the quality attributes
    present in a food product is not the same. This study focus on deterioration of vitamin C,
    lycopene, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of ready-to-drink pink guava juice (PGJ)
    during storage at elevated temperatures. Kinetic order, rate constant (k), activation energy
    (Ea) and temperature coefficient (Q10) of the degradation were derived by applying Arrhenius
    equation. The results obtained showed that freshly made PGJ contain 39.79±2.18 mg/100 mL
    of vitamin C, 3.17±0.27 mg/L of lycopene, 28.08±4.11 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic
    content (TPC) and 13.20±1.91 mMTE/100 mL of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP).
    All quality attributes measured in this study showed zero-order kinetic reaction. The results
    also showed that FRAP has the highest Ea of 49.52 KJ/mol and Q10 of 1.80, followed by
    vitamin C (Ea=41.49 KJ/mol; Q10=1.64), lycopene (Ea=31.75 KJ/mol; Q10=1.46), and lastly
    TPC (Ea=14.11 KJ/mol; Q10=1.18). The predicted total depletion of each quality attribute
    at refrigerated storage (5o
    C) were 266 days for antioxidant activity, 158 days for vitamin C
    and lycopene, and 63 days for total phenolics. This study provide useful information on the
    degradation rate and availability of health beneficial and bioactive compounds present in fruit
    juice beverage during storage.
  11. Lim, W. J., Chin, N. L., Yusof, A. Y., Yahya, A., Tee, T. P.
    The increasing amount of food waste in Malaysia in recent years has brought many environmental
    issues in the country where it affects the nation’s solid waste management framework. At the
    moment, the government is limited to other alternatives of food waste disposal besides the
    conventional landfill and incineration methods. This paper provides information on the current
    status of food waste handling, management, regulations, and policies in Malaysia. It helps
    to draw the problem and challenge to a clearer view in efforts of achieving sustainable and
    integrative food waste handling in the country.
  12. Karim, N.U., Sadzali, N.L., Hassan, M.
    The effects of squid ink at concentration of 0.10 and 0.25% on the total bacteria count and
    chemical spoilage indicator; total volatile basis nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA)
    of squid (Loligo duvauceli) were analysed. The analysis were performed at interval of 5 days
    during 15 days of chilled storage (4°C). This studies also investigate the antioxidant capacity
    of the squid ink. The melanin-free squid ink were subjected to ferric reducing power (FRAP)
    and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) analysis. The FRAP values found in squid ink were
    0.04±0.01 µmole TE g-1 meanwhile DPPH values were recorded at 0.81±0.00 µmole TE g-1.
    The squid ink at both 0.10 and 0.25% concentration showed a significantly (p
  13. Abduhamed, A.J., Adam, N. M., Hairuddin, A. A., Kareem, H. K.
    Heat exchanger H.X.s is the equipment used to transfer the thermal energy between two or more
    fluids at varying temperatures. The nature of this paper is an experimental study of the optimum
    design for shell and tube heat exchanger as a condenser with high productivity of drinking
    water for portable solar water distiller. The elaboration covers the aspects of considerations,
    design, fabrication, and test of the shell and tube H.X. as a portable condenser for solar water
    distiller system. The system consists of a portable stainless steel condenser, which is able to be
    dismantled and assembled without tools. The experimental result establishes that the condenser
    is able to produce 3.8 liter /hour of distilled water from vapor at 99.7˚C of inlet temperature and
    4 liter/hour vapor flow rate, with 130 liter /hour as a condenser coolant water flow rate. The heat
    efficiency of the condenser can be increased by means of minimizing the tube’s thickness and
    vapor inlet pressure. There is no back pressure effect on the system and the pressure drop in
    both sides of the condenser is reportedly of very low value and negligible, therefore, no need
    for a pressure pump is to be eliminated.
  14. Ghiasi, M., Ibrahim, M. N., Kadir Basha, R., Abdul Talib, R.
    The evaluation of a dryer performance in terms of energy consumption, drying capacity and
    quality of final product is the main concern of rice milling industry at any time. A study was
    implemented to investigate on the benefits of common drying practices by studying the drying
    performances of flat-bed and inclined-bed dryers which are popular in rice industry in Malaysia
    and neighbouring countries. For this purpose, flat-bed dryer (FBD) and inclined-bed dryer
    (IBD) were designed, fabricated and operated in the laboratory based on actual industrial
    drying conditions. The results revealed that inclined-bed drying significantly increased drying
    capacity (ton m-2 h-1) of up to 25 % at drying temperature of 42-43°C and almost 29 % at 38-
    39°C drying air temperature compared to flat-bed drying. Furthermore, overall drying energy
    consumption in IBD was found to vary between 78.6 to 91.97 kW.h ton-1, while for FBD the
    energy consumption was more than 200 kW.h ton-1 for both levels of drying air temperatures.
    Both dryers were found to produce rice with desired/ acceptable commercial quality index,
    even though the head rice yields of FBD were higher than that of IBDs.
  15. Wong, C.W., Lim, W.T.
    The physiochemical characteristics and microbiological study of spray-dried papaya powder
    kept in aluminium laminated polyethylene (ALP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at
    accelerated storage (38 ± 2°C, 90% relative humidity (RH)) for 7 weeks were evaluated. The
    final water activity (Aw) of the spray-dried papaya powder did not exceed 0.6 for both packaging
    materials, which showed that the powder was shelf-stable. The overall adsorbed moisture of
    spray-dried powder was significantly (p
  16. Aznan, A.A., Rukunudin, I.H., Shakaff, A.Y.M.,, Ruslan, R.,, Zakaria, A., Saad, F.S.A.
    Seed purity is a crucial seed quality parameter in the Malaysian rice seed standard. The use of
    high quality cultivated rice seed, free of any foreign seeds, is the prerequisite to sustaining high
    yield in rice production. The presence of foreign seeds such as weedy rice in the cultivated rice
    seeds used by the farmers can adversely affect growth and yield as it competes for space and
    nutrients with the cultivated rice varieties in the field. Being the most dominant and competitive
    element compared to the cultivated rice seeds, the Malaysian seed standard prescribed that the
    maximum allowable of weed seeds in a 20-kilogram certified rice seed bag produced by local
    rice seed processors is 10 weed seeds per kilogram. The current cleaning processes that rely
    mostly on the difference in physical traits do not guarantee effective separation of weedy rice
    seeds from the lots. Seed bags found to contain more than 10 weed seeds upon inspection by
    the enforcing agency will not be approved for distribution to farmers. The paper describes a
    study carried out to explore the use of machine vision approach to separate weedy rice seed
    from cultivated rice seeds as a potential cleaning technique for the rice seed industry. The mean
    classification accuracies levels of the extracted morphological feature model were achieved at
    95.8% and 96.0% for training and testing data sets respectively.
  17. Abdul Rashid, Z., Alias, A.B., Ku Hamid, K.H., Wan Abdul, K. G.
    It is well known that there is a significant increased in the quantity of Municipal Solid Waste
    (MSW) generated every year. Therefore, the management of MSW must be handled carefully
    by experts. Malaysia as one of the developing country with population nearly 30 millions
    also facing problems related to MSW management and this issue is quite critical. Even though
    various programmes were established and few model technologies were introduced by the
    government to manage MSW effectively, but the impact remain unsatisfaction. For example,
    the energy facility recovery project which use MSW gathered around Kajang as an alternative
    fuel still not successful to provide energy according to the design capacity of that particular
    facility. This failure was observed due to the impact composition of MSW collected which
    consists huge amount of food waste (57%), 16% plastic, 15% diaper, 9% mixed papers and
    the remaining 3% textile. The existing process technology at Refused Derived Fuel (RDF)
    facility is no designed to create a new economic benefit from abundant incoming food waste
    to the facility. Therefore in this paper, the analysis and suggestion of technology on existing
    RDF recovery energy facility will be discussed especially on how to overcome the abundant
    composition of food waste.
  18. Ibrahim, N.U.A., Abd Aziz, S., Zude, M.
    Palm olein has been commercially used as frying medium in batch deep-fat frying. During
    frying, the oil usually deteriorates due to the exposure to high temperature. In this study, a
    fluorescence spectroscopy technique was applied to monitor the deterioration of refined,
    bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) in batch deep-fat frying. 22.5 kg of French fries
    were used as the frying material. In 30 batches, the french fries were intermittently fried at 185
    ± 5°C for eight hours a day over five consecutive days capturing 40 hours. The fluorescence
    intensity of the RBDPO was recorded with excitation at 390 nm and resulting emission of 465
    nm. The fluorescence intensity of the RBDPO over five days of frying decreased considering
    the wavelength range of emission 430-640 nm and excitation 360-430 nm. The decreased in
    intensity of fluorescence emission and excitation spectra were inversely correlated with the FFA
    content of the oil samples. This study demonstrates the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy
    in monitoring the deterioration of RBDPO during batch deep-fat frying.
  19. Marikkar, J.M.N., Tan, S.J., Salleh, A., Shukri, M.A.M., Azrina, A.
    Consumption of banana flower as a vegetable is popular among many countries in Southeast
    Asia. In this study, banana flowers of six different Malaysian cultivars namely, pisang Abu
    (Musa balbisiana cv P. Abu), pisang Berangan (Musa acuminata cv P. Berangan), pisang
    Nipah (Musa balbisiana cv P. Nipah), pisang Susu (Musa acuminata cv P. Susu), pisang
    Mas (Musa acuminate cv P. Mas) and pisang Rastali (Musa paradisiaca cv P. Rastali) were
    investigated for their antioxidant and anti-hyperglyemic properties. The total poly phenolic
    content and antioxidant activities, the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of the
    banana flower extracts were studied in vitro using relevant assays. Among the six cultivars,
    cultivar Susu was found to have the highest phenolic content (80.13 ± 4.64 mg of GAE/g of
    extract) and displayed the highest ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging activities (24.73 ±
    0.04 and 25.10 ± 0.15 µmole of Trolox equivalent/g of extract). The anti-amylase and antiglucosidase
    activity of the banana flowers extracts were in the range of 47.31-62.58% and
    74.98-91.62%, respectively. All banana flower extracts inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase
    better than α-amylase at the concentration of 200 µg/ml. This study concluded that the extracts
    of Malaysian banana flowers were potent sources of natural antioxidants, which can be used as
    postprandial hyperglycemia regulators.
  20. Othman, N. F.,, Ya’acob, M. E., Abdul-Rahim, A.S., Mohd. Shahwahid, O., Hizam, H., Ramlan, M.F.
    This paper embarks on the evolution of green economy approach to support the increasing
    food commodity expenses by adapting Solar Photovoltaic (PV) as the suitable renewable
    energy technology for Natural Resource Management (NRM). The crops for cash trend and
    continuously decreasing market price in solar technologies are highlighted with strong effort
    by Malaysian Government through Renewable Energy (RE) policy and National Key Economy
    Area (NKEA). Reviews on the benefits of solar dryer technologies in crop production and agrobusiness
    are presented with highlights on high value herbal crops (HVHc) and some potentials
    of high-performance solar dryer technology.
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links