(GTG)5 PCR is a type of repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR which amplifies the (GTG)5 repetitive element that lays throughout the bacterial genome. In this study, fifty, thirty-nine and forty-nine unknown bacteria were isolated from aquaculture farms in Miri, Limbang and Lundu, respectively. (GTG)5 PCR was used to screen for clonal diversity among the isolates according to sampling sites. Banding profiles obtained from electrophoresed (GTG)5 PCR products were analyzed by RAPDistance Software to generate a dendrogram of neighbor joining tree (NJT) format. Based on the constructed dendrogram, representative isolates were selected for further identification. Conserved 16S rRNA region of the selected bacteria isolates were amplified and purified DNA products were sequenced. (GTG)5 PCR is useful in differentiation of unknown bacterial isolates and 16S rRNA analysis species identity of the bacteria in Sarawak aquaculture environment. The high diversity of bacteria in aquaculture environment may be caused by contamination from various sources.
The effects of ethanol concentration (0-100%, v/v), extraction time (60-300 min) and extraction temperature (25-65°C) on the extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Andrographis paniculata was evaluated using single-factor experiments. The following complementary assays were used to screen the antioxidant properties of the crude extracts: total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity. The extraction conditions chosen had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The optimal conditions were 60% ethanol for 60 min at 65oC for phenolic compounds and at 25oC for antioxidant capacity. Strong negative significant (p < 0.05) correlations were observed between the phenolic compounds (TPC, TFC and CTC) and antioxidant capacity comprising ABTS (-0.924, -0.909, -0.887, respectively) and DPPH radical-scavenging capacities (-0.992, -0.938, -0.928, respectively) were determined under the influence of extraction temperature.
This aim of this research is to investigate thermal stability of virgin coconut oil, (VCO) which was heated at 190°C upon 40 days storage as compared to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The changes in fatty acids composition through (GC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, iodine value (IV) and total phenolic content were determined throughout the period of study. Results from GC showed that there was significant changes (P
‘Nasi kandar’ is defined as boiled white rice placed inside a wooden basket and carried on the shoulder using a pole. The rice is served with a variety of pairing dishes that are usually fried, curried or boiled. The tradition of carrying rice and pairing dishes on the shoulder began to die out in the 20th century as seller resorted to a more conventional way of selling ‘nasi kandar’. The ‘nasi kandar’ business in Malaysia has evolved from being sold as a street food into a multi-million dollar franchise business rivalling the fast food business. It is available 24 hours and enjoyed by Malaysians from all walks of life. This study aims to compare ‘nasi kandar’ eating pattern among patrons in the Klang Valley and Penang. Three hundred sets of questionnaires were answered and collected. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed in PASW 18.0 using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for association. Klang Valley patrons (72%) would consume ‘nasi kandar’ once a week. More than half (53.3%) of the patrons from Penang consumed ‘nasi kandar’ more than twice a week. A significant relationship exists between patron’s region and frequency of ‘nasi kandar’ consumption where p = <0.0001 and r = 0.277. A significant but moderate relationship between patron’s region and consumption of ‘nasi kandar’ during breakfast (p = <0.001, r = 0.250), lunch (p = <0.0001, r = 264) and dinner (p = <0.0001, r = 0.336). Patrons in Penang consumed ‘nasi kandar’ more often than their Klang Valley counterparts. Klang Valley patrons were more particular than Penang patrons when it comes to cleanliness, menu pricing, friendly service, air-condition and separate smoking area. Klang Valley patrons tend to consume more chicken based dishes while Penang patrons tend to consume more meat, fish, and squid based dishes.
Megabiodiversity of Malaysian’s flora and fauna which include microorganism could be conserved and served as alternative source indigenous yeast, the leavening agent of commercial bread making. This study was conducted in attempt to exploit the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from 30 different local fruits and plant parts as a leavening agent in bread making. The enrichment was carried out by fermenting the plant samples in medium containing Grape Must at 25°C for 10 days following by isolation of tentative yeasts at 30°C for 3 to 5 days. 20 out of 30 samples tested showed the presence of yeasts was then selected for identification of S. cerevisiae strains through biochemical and physiological tests. Of the 20 yeast strains examined, 13 strains were identified as S. cerevisiae and potentially used as leavening agent in bread making where 5 strains namely SN3, SMK9, SDB10, SRB11 and SS12 showed better fermentative performance compared to commercial strains. Thus, indicated that the local fruits and plant parts could be the potential source of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains for leavening agent in bread making.
Xylitol is a high value sugar alcohol with anticariogenic properties that is used as an ideal sweetener for diabetic patients. Industrially, xylitol is manufactured by catalytic reduction of pure xylose, which has
some disadvantages. The fermentation process has been studied as an alternative, but its viability is dependent on the optimization of several variables. This fermentation process on an industrial-scale is not feasible due to decreased productivity. Compared to the fermentation process, enzymatic method is expected to make a substantial increase in productivity. Enzymatic xylitol production from xylose exist in lignocellulosics is an attractive and promising alternative method to the chemical process. The enzymatic method might be able to overcome the disadvantages of the chemical process. This article reviews the literature on the processes for xylitol production and identifies further ways for improved xylitol production to compete with the current chemical process.
A study was conducted to determine personal hygiene knowledge among 25 food handlers at 12 selected primary schools in Klang Valley area, Selangor, Malaysia. A qualitative approach using in-depth interviews was employed and respondents were selected by a convenience sampling. The results showed that the respondents had basic knowledge on personal hygiene practices, mainly on hand washing (30.7%) and glove use (18.7%). The food handlers (90%) practiced various good hand washing practices, with only 36% did not practice washing hands after eating or drinking. Most respondents (>70%) practiced glove use, however more than 50% did not wash hands with every glove change, change gloves when change type of products and after preparing raw material. The study showed that the food handlers have basic knowledge one good personal hygiene practices. However, some discrepancies were revealed in the proper hand washing procedure. This study recommended good hand washing procedure to be reiterated among the food handlers. There is also an immediate need for continuous training among food handlers regarding good personal hygiene practices.
This study describes the development of a rapid and sensitive Loop-mediated isothermal
amplification assay for detection of swine DNA in adulterated meat and meat products. The
need to protect consumer’s right to eat foods of their choices, has made it imperative for
researchers to develop efficient means of screening and certification of food products. Six sets
of LAMP primers designed based on porcine tRNA lysine gene and ATPase subunit 8 genes
were used for the assay. Amplification was carried out under constant temperature (630C), using
a simple laboratory water bath. Average time spent in amplification and detection of results was
25 min. All results were visually detected and confirmed by electrophoresis. Detection limit of
the assay was 0.03 femtogram (fg) much high than the PCR assay, and detection probability of
the assay was 100%. Detection of 0.5% of pork spiked with 99.5% of cattle beef is indicative
of the sensitivity and robustness of the assay. This could serve as a prototype for development
of a sensitive and inexpensive Swine DNA LAMP detection kit.
The study aims to determine the optimized condition of eel protein hydrolysate (EPH)
produced using alcalase. The proximate compositions of eel flesh were determined as well.
Enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)
by applying four factors, 3-levels Central Composite Design (CCD) with six centre points. The
model equation was proposed with regards to the time (60min, 120min, 180min), temperature
(40°C, 50°C, 60°C), pH (7, 8, 9) and enzyme concentration (1%, 2%, 3%). The optimum of
hydrolysis condition that be suggested to obtain the optimum yield, degree of hydrolysis (DH)
and antioxidant activity were 84.02 min, 50.18°C, pH 7.89 and 2.26% [enzyme]. The predicted
response values using quadratic model were 10.03% for yield, 83.23% for DH and 89.24%
for antioxidant activity. The chemical composition determination showed that the protein
content increased by more than 5-fold (16.88% to 98.53%) while the fat content was decreased
by 96.48% after hydrolysis. Hydrolysis process had significantly increased the amount of
both hydrophilic (serine and threonine) and hydrophobic amino acids (valine, isoleucine,
phenylalanine, methionine) which contributed to the antioxidant activity of hydrolyzed eel
protein. The enzymatic hydrolysis of eel protein had improved the protein content of EPH with
potential as new natural antioxidant.
This paper reviews reported studies on the hydrolysis of starch especially sago via acid and enzyme. The review begins with overview of sago palm and the starch industry, followed by process of extracting the starch from sago pith. Physicochemical properties of sago starch were tabulated for better understanding of hydrolysis process. Factors or process condition influencing hydrolysis process is discussed based on results from previous researches. Advantages and disadvantages of each hydrolysis is also discussed. Generally, there are very few researches dedicated on sago starch as compared to other starches. It can be concluded that, enzyme hydrolysis gives higher yield at milder process conditions. However, the reaction rate of enzyme hydrolysis is still low compared to acid hydrolysis.
Volvariella volvacea (Family: Plutaceae), also more commonly known as paddy straw mushroom, is an edible mushroom with high nutritional content. It is usually cultivated using lignocellulosic-based materials for enhanced production. However, V. volvacea is highly perishable and easily deteriorates in terms of quality and appearance after harvest. The present paper thus aimed to provide a critical review on aspects related to the production of V. volvacea using palm oil empty fruit bunch as cultivation substrate. The different stages of V. volvacea development are also highlighted. The present review also provides some information on the preservation techniques and appropriate postharvest management in extending V. volvacea shelf life to further boost the paddy straw mushroom industry
This study was conducted to investigate and compare the fatty acids and tocopherols of lipid extracted from marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata (NO) and Tetraselmis suecica (TS) using solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Fatty acids and tocopherols were determined in the extracted lipid as functions of the temperature (40, 80oC) and pressure (3000, 5000, 7000, 9000psi). Dichloromethane/methanol and hexane were the chosen conventional solvent for fatty acids and tocopherols extraction respectively. The results obtained showed that there were differences in the fatty acid composition of various lipid extracts of NO and TS. Extracts of NO were high in myristic acid (C14:0) (17-35%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (14-47%) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) (11-42%) whereas extracts of TS were high in C14:0 (21-34%) and C16:0 (29-49%). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was detected only under certain SFE conditions in NO but was not detected in TS. α-, β- and γ-tocopherol were detected in various SFE extracts of NO but only α- and β-tocopherol were detected in TS. Hexane extraction of both NO and TS resulted in the detection of only α-tocopherol. In conclusion, the use of different extraction methods resulted in different compositions and concentrations of fatty acids and tocopherols in the microalgae studied.
Studies indicate that bacterial cross-contamination occurs during food preparation where bacteria can retent on the food contact surfaces and cause illness. The study evaluated the adherence of Campylobacter spp. to cutting boards, blades of knives and hands after cutting chilled, raw broiler parts (thighs + drumsticks, wings and livers). The adherence to cucumber cuts that were cut using the unwashed boards and knives was also analyzed. Generally, utensils have higher mean of Campylobacter spp. retained to them (1.4-223.3 MPN/ml rinse) than hands (0.7-43.4 MPN/ml rinse); however, Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant differences in the bacterial numbers found among the different surfaces. The transfer rates of Campylobacter spp. from utensils to cucumber cuts varied from 0% to more than 100%. The bacteria detected could be from the utensils and cucumber contamination before purchase or due to other factors where further investigation is required. The possibility is there for Campylobacter to spread to contact surfaces during chilled broiler handling; therefore, utensils and hands involved should be washed thoroughly especially before ready-to-eat food preparation.
Knowledge and concerns of the bad health implications of high fat intake in consumers has
resulted in a rising demand for low-fat foods. Consequently, the use of sweet pre-treatment
as alternative food source is gaining attention among producers and consumers. The study of
reducing oil uptake of fried banana chips using sweet pre-treatment was done. In the preparation
of fried banana chips, the sliced banana was blanched at 80o
C. Then, the sliced banana was
dipped in the treatment for 4 g, 8 g and 12 g of sugar solution. Next, the sliced banana was deep
fried at temperature 180o
C for 5 minutes. The result showed increased in percentage of moisture
reduction (86.65 %, 86.99%, 88.37% and 90.51%) for control and other three fried banana
chips as the concentration of sugar used for treatment was increased. For fat content, it showed
a decreased in percentage (0.66%, 0.63%, 0.62% and 0.54%) as the sugar concentration used
for the treatment was increased. Sugar treatment does not affect the colour of fried banana chips
as p-value for lightness (L*
) is 0.426 and the p-value for yellowness (b*
) is 0.468. This showed
that the null hypothesis was accepted and there was no significant difference in lightness and
yellowness of all four fried banana chips. Finally, sensory evaluation showed that there was a
significant difference in crispiness, colour, sweetness, oiliness and overall acceptance between
all four fried banana chips. As the conclusion, sweet pre-treatment gives positive effect on
reducing fat content in fried banana chips and can be used as one of the alternative method in
producing banana chips with lower amount of fat.
The present work was aimed to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Acacia honey lime ice cream incorporated with various types of hydrocolloids, including guar gum (GG), xanthan gum (XG), and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The overrun, melting rate, hardness, colour, total soluble solid, microstructure, moisture content, pH, and sensory acceptability of the ice creams produced were characterised. The addition of 15% Acacia honey to the ice cream led to improvements in several characteristics as the hydrocolloids were incorporated. There were no significant differences in terms of total soluble solids, lightness, yellowness, pH and moisture content among all ice cream formulations. However, the overrun, melting rate, hardness, and redness values of ice cream experienced significant changes as hydrocolloids were added. Ice cream incorporated with GG had the highest overrun (9.30%), melting rate (48.33 mL/min) and a* (-1.68 ± 0.13) values. Meanwhile, ice cream incorporated with CMC was higher in hardness (1729.30 g), but lowest in terms of overrun (5.00%), melting rate (28.33 mL/min) and a* (-2.03 ± 0.35) values. An examination of the microstructure found differences in air cell sizes at the interfaces of different types of hydrocolloids. Sensory acceptability showed a significant difference between GG and other formulations. In conclusion, CMC in Acacia honey lime ice cream led to strong improvements in its physicochemical properties.
There is an increasing demand for fibre rich food and food ingredients. In this study, pumpkin pulp, unripe banana pulp, unripe mango pulp and peel which are high in dietary fibre were processed into flour and substituted at 5% level for wheat flour in a composite flour crackers formulation. The control crackers comprised of 100% wheat flour. Sensory evaluation was conducted using a 9-point hedonic scale with 31 panelists evaluating the crackers based on colour, crrispiness, taste and overall acceptance. Different types of composite flour crackers were not significantly different (p≤0.05) in term of crispiness. For colour, taste and overall acceptance, the pumpkin, banana and control crackers differ significantly (p≤0.05) with the mango pulp and mango peel crackers.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different storage conditions of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) juice on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in various organs of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The effect of oral administration of star fruit on serum lipid profiles was also examined in this study. A total of 15 female rats were assigned into three groups with five animals per group (n=5). The first group served as control group and given only distilled water (vehicle) while the other two groups were given different star fruit preparations, i.e. freshly prepared star fruit juice and after 3 hours storage, respectively. From the results obtained, a significant decrease in the hepatic acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in rats treated with star fruit juice. In conclusion, the star fruit juice at different storage conditions is selectively targeted on the acetylcholinesterase activity in rat liver but not in kidney and heart.
Nowadays, the incidence rate of foodborne disease has increased and become one of the global burdens affecting all individual ages in South East Asia region. Foodborne disease is responsible for mortality and morbidity worldwide thus affecting socio-economic and quality of life. Major causes of foodborne hazards diseases include diarrheal and invasive infectious disease agent, helminthes and chemicals. However, in developing countries, data and record is insufficient with poor surveillance systems leading to incomplete information on the real burden of foodborne disease. The introduction of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as tools for assessing and analyzing the food safety issues has drawn attention from various researcher as it is proven to be able to point out and identify the human and non human actors which is directly and contingently involved. The interaction between the actors such as a worker in an organization, student in school, and peoples in public provide information that can be used to minimize the risk of foodborne disease. The ultimate use of ANT is it helps the researcher to draw a framework of the source of contamination, agent responsible, factors involved, and idea to control the spread.
The role of adolescents in family decision making related to food consumption in Malaysia has received comparatively little or no attention by researchers although there were evidences of differences in influences found in other countries. This study addressed the research gap by testing adolescents’ bilateral strategies in influencing their family decision using family power theory. A survey of 500 adolescents from urban area was conducted to investigate their influence based on their involvement in family consumer tasks. Key findings include strong relationship between perception of influence and rewards thus indicate the existence of strategies in adolescents influence attempt.
Bioactive compounds are one of the natural products used especially for medicinal, pharmaceutical and food application. Increasing research performed on the extraction, isolation and identification of bioactive compounds, however non to date has explored on the identification of flavonoids classes. Therefore, this study was focused on the development of algorithm for rapid identification of flavonoids classes which are flavanone, flavone and flavonol and also their derivatives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis, which is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was utilized. The results exhibited that few significant wavenumber range provides the identification and characterization of the flavonoids classes based on PCA algorithm. The study concluded that FTIR coupled with PCA analysis can be used as a molecular fingerprint for rapid identification of flavonoids.