The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects of alginate coating combined with repetitive pulsed light (RPL) treatment on the enzymatic activity of fresh-cut cantaloupes during chilled storage. Fresh-cut cantaloupes were coated with alginate (1.86%, w/v) followed by RPL treatment (0.9 J/cm2 at every 48 h up to 26 d) during storage. Untreated samples and samples with alginate or RPL alone were used as controls. Enzymatic activities [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PEL), β-galactosidase (β-Gal), α-arabinofuranosidase (α-AF) and cellulase] of fresh-cut cantaloupes were evaluated every 4 d during storage. Neither alginate coating nor RPL treatment has any effect on the activities of PE and PEL of freshcut cantaloupes during storage. The individual treatment or in combination did not increase the PAL, PPO, PG and cellulase activities of fresh-cut cantaloupes throughout the storage. Alginate coating with or without RPL was effective in maintaining low POD activity of freshcut cantaloupes. In addition, treatments using alginate coating or alginate coating+RPL were effective in reducing the β-Gal and α-AF activities of fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage. Overall, alginate without or with RPL was effective in reducing changes of enzymatic activities in fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage.
Citrus peel essential oils have an impressive range of food and medicinal uses. In the present study we investigated the variation in the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from fresh, ambient-, and oven-dried peels of three Citrus species namely Citrus reticulata (C. reticulata), Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus paradisii (C. paradisii). The hydro-distilled essential oil content from fresh-, ambient-, and oven-dried peels of C. reticulata, C. sinensis and C. paradisii ranged from 0.30-0.50, 0.24-1.07 and 0.20-0.40 g/100 g, respectively. The maximum amount of the oil was determined in oven-dried while the minimum in fresh peel samples. Using GC and GC/MS, a total of 16-27, 17-24 and 18-40 chemical constituents were identified in the peel essential oils of C. reticulate, C. sinensis and C. paradisii, respectively. The content of limonene, the most prevalent chemical constituent, detected in these essential oils, ranged from 64.1-71.1% (C. reticulata), 66.8-80.9% (C. sinensis) and 50.8-65.5% (C. paradisii). The yield and content of most of the chemical components including limonene (the principal chemical compound detected) of the tested essential oils varied significantly (p < 0.05) with respect to drying treatments and species employed.
Malaysia has a rich diversity of medicinal plants and some of them inhibit xanthine oxidase (XO), which can be introduced as new natural sources of gout medication and a substitute for synthetic xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI). The degree of XO inhibitory activity was determined by measuring the absorbance spectrophotometrically at 295 nm, which is associated with uric acid formation. Our preliminary screening study had employed the use of distilled water, 70% methanol and absolute ethanol to extract XOI from twenty parts of five plant species, namely, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Dimocarpus longan malesianus, Manilkara zapota and Salacca zalacca. These plants were selected based on their frequent medicinal usages by local folks. The results have shown that an aqueous extract of Carica papaya mature leaves has promising activity to inhibit XO up to 75.68 ± 0.1%. Statistical experimental design were employed to optimize the selected sample (dried Carica papaya leaves: distilled water) on extraction of XOI and the maximum XOI percentage of 86.93 ± 1.9% was obtained, which exhibited only 6.76% less than the activity exhibited by allopurinol (93.69 ± 0.2%), a commercial XOI. The comparison was made between allopurinol and optimized extract on the basis of IC50concentrations. Allopurinol showed IC50 value of 3.74 μg/ml that is considerably lower as compared to the optimized sample (4.33 μg/ml).
Fish can live healthier in aquarium with good water quality than they do in the wild. Maintaining
the quality of the water in fish facility is needed to avoid fluctuation of physicochemical
parameter values and contamination with pathogenic microorganisms that may cause serious
illness or even death among the fish. Contamination of the water, especially with animal
pathogens which are also pathogenic to human may pose health risk to those who are handling
or in direct contact with the water and fish in the facility. Therefore, there is a need to assess the
water quality and the risk associated with microorganisms in the water and the cultured animals.
The aim of this study was to determine the water quality with regard to the physicochemical
and microbiological parameters as well as the risk associated with bacteria in the water of the
fish facility. Samples of water from the water source and also from aquariums in the fish facility
were collected and analyzed. The water samples were plated on nutrient agar for bacterial
enumeration then bacterial colonies growing on the agar plates were randomly picked and
-PCR analysis was carried out to analyse the heterogeneity of the genome of the
bacterial isolated and a dendrogram was constructed from the (GTG)5
-PCR profile to determine
the genotypic group of the bacterial isolates. The risk associated with the bacteria from the
water was analyzed with respect to their antibiotic resitance. The result of this study revealed
that the (GTG)5
-PCR analysis was able to group the bacteria into 2 main genotypic clusters
which were further grouped into several sub-clusters. From the dengrogram, 12 representative
isolates were selected and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing. The identification confirmed
the presence of Aeromonas veronii (8 isolates), Aeromonas jandaei (2 isolates), Plesiomonas
shigelloides (1 isolate) and Pseudomonas alcaligene (1 isolate) from the water samples. All
of the isolates exhibited resistant towards ampicillin, penicillin and gentamicin. This study
revealed that the water from the fish facility harboured genetically diverse antibiotic resistance
bacteria which may pose health risk to the fish and also to those who are in direct contact
with the contaminated water and fish in the facility. Therefore, water in fish facility should be
monitored regularly and handled with caution.
The present work sought to investigate the nutritional composition and phytochemical properties of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juices from Malaysia and Australia and to determine the optimum ethanol concentration (in the range of 0 – 100% ethanol) for the extraction of phenolic, flavonoid and betacyanin contents. The predominant macronutrient in red pitaya juice was carbohydrate while potassium and vitamin A were the major mineral and vitamin content. Red pitaya juice from Malaysia achieved optimal total phenolic content at 20% of ethanol (20 mL ethanol in 100 mL water, v/v); total flavonoid content at 60% (v/v); and betacyanin content at 0% (v/v). Red pitaya juice from Australia achieved the maximum total phenolic content at 60% (v/v); total flavonoid content at 20% (v/v); and betacyanin content at 80% (v/v). Nutritional composition and the phytochemical properties of red pitaya in Malaysia and Australia were significantly different suggested the role of environmental factors like soil and climate on the phytochemical properties of red pitaya.
Tropical fruits are of great significance in human diet due to abundant nutritional and antioxidants components. The processing or consumption of these fruits generates waste,which is generally disposed of into the ecosystem. However, efforts are in line to evaluate the nutritional worth and possible reuse of fruit processing waste by valorizing the waste in an optimal way. In this review, by-products of rambutan fruit waste, i.e., seed and peel, are signified with respect to their nutritional values and possible applications. Peel and seed cumulatively share almost around 50% of whole rambutan fruit by weight. Peel that is rich in phenolics and ellagitannins have applications as a natural antioxidant system. However, abundant fat content (14−41%) with high oleic acid, renders the seed a novel source of vegetable fat. Besides, possibilities of using seed fat in chocolate (30 wt.% substitute) and personal care products are also one of the focus. Nanostructured seed fat is reported for encapsulation off at-soluble vitamins (e.g., vitamin E). Additionally, the seed contains the most of the essential and non-essential amino acids that are concentrated as protein concentrate. The physico-functional properties of defatted seed flour and seed mucilage are also elaborated. Similarly, rambutan seed oil and peel utility as filler in packaging, bio-coagulant, bio-sorbent and alternative biodiesel are also mentioned. Despite diverse applications, gaps are still there to further evaluate and validate the potential of rambutan processing by-products. Thus, to avail the manifold potential, fruit by-products’ applications should be scaled up to transform the maximum waste into best.
Banana pulp (BP) noodles prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with green Cavendish banana pulp flour were assessed pH, color, tensile strength and elasticity, and in-vitro hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (GI). BP noodles had lower L* (darker) and b* values (less yellow) but higher tensile strength and elasticity modulus than control noodles. Following an in-vitro starch hydrolysis studies, it was found that GI of BP noodles was lower than control noodles. Partial substitution of green banana pulp into noodles may be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles.
Guava is a climacteric fruit which has high nutritional content. It is a highly perishable fruit, undergoes rapid postharvest ripening in a few days under ambient condition. This paper aims to determine the effect of palm stearin and palm kernel olein blends on maintaining the quality of guava during storage. Two different coating formulations of palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel olein (PKOo) blends (1:1 and 3:2) were analysed for their slip melting point (SMP), cohesiveness, viscosity and density. Beeswax was used as a commercial coating for comparison whiles the uncoated guava was used as control. These coatings were applied onto guavas by hand-wipe technique using a sponge. Guavas were dried in corrugated fibre board boxes and stored in an air-conditioned room maintained at 20°C while a chiller maintained at 10°C was used for chilled temperature. Coating pick up, thickness and surface area were measured while guava properties were analysed for coating effect on weight loss, O2 and CO2 gases, firmness and glossiness during storage at ambient temperature (20°C) for 21 days and chilled temperature (10ºC) for 30 days. Microstructure analysis was conducted within 2 days of coating at ambient temperature (20ºC). The results obtained indicated that 1:1 PSPKOo blends had higher cohesiveness compared to beeswax. Both PSPKOo blends significantly (p
Fresh fruits and vegetables are perishable commodities which play vital roles in humans’ diet and health. Unfortunately, the losses along the supply chain of fresh fruits and vegetables are high especially due to the decay caused by pathogens during poor postharvest handling. During postharvest, attempts have been made to combat microbial decay in fresh horticultural industry by avoiding the use of fungicides which threaten consumers’ health. Among those attempts, essential oils extracted from plants have been used as antimicrobial in postharvest and proven to be efficient in prolonging shelf life of fruits and vegetables without affecting their sensory properties. The glandular trichomes of plants are the important site for biosynthesis of essential oils and they act as defence system against herbivores and pathogens. Since essential oils are volatile aromatic compounds, the easily vaporised property has been exploited in postharvest application as fumigants. In addition, essential oils have also been incorporated into chitosan and alginate-based materials as edible coatings. Research in the use of essential oils as antimicrobial in Malaysia is however still lacking.
On-campus foodservices were thought to be the first choice for university students to dine in. However, these seemingly captive consumers have been opting for off-campus foodservice as their preferred outlet. This paper aims to uncover specific factors that motivate undergraduate students to dine-in at university foodservice facilities using Profile Accumulation Technique (PAT). PAT is a semi-quantitative method that provides freedom for informants to answer in their own terms and words, alternatively the data could be analyzed statistically. 115 questionnaires were distributed to students and staff of a local university. Findings include a list of factors (positive perception, negative perception and expectations) that the students considered to be significant in determining their choice of food outlet. These factors are then descriptively analyzed to determine attributes influencing university customer preferences. This paper significantly contributes in providing a deeper insight into factors that influences dining choice of university foodservice's customers in Malaysia.
This paper examines relationship between media literacy and the Theory of Planned Behavior
(TPB) variables focusing on consumption of soft drink among adolescents in Klang Valley,
Malaysia. In addition, this paper also determines soft drink consumption, level of media
literacy and the influences of the TPB variables on the intention of soft drink consumption. A
cluster sampling method was used in collecting data within the Klang Valley area. The sample
consisted of 436 adolescents from secondary school, aged between 13 to 18 years old. Two main
scales utilized were Media Literacy (ML) scale and TPB scale. The descriptive, multiple linear
regression and Pearson product-moment correlation analyses were carried out to answer the
research objectives. Results revealed that 36% of respondents drank a minimum of 1 can, bottle
or glass of soft drink for the past seven days and possess good level of media literacy (35%).
Meanwhile, 14% of variance in adolescents’ intention of soft drink consumption is explained
by TPB variables. Additionally, the total media literacy score towards soft drink advertisement
was significantly positively correlated with attitude (r = 0.250, p
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied for the extraction of bioactive valuable compounds from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seeds. Effects of amplitude (25-75%), temperature (40-60°C) and sonication time (20-60 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) and radical scavenging activities (RSA, % inhibition of DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ free radicals) of extracts were determined using complete randomised design (CRD). The results showed that the CEY and RSA of extracts significantly affected by independent variables. The maximum value of CEY (97.14±0.36 mgg-1), scavenging of DPPH˙ radicals (32.12 ± 0.38%) and scavenging of ABTS˙+ radicals (40.52±0.73%) were obtained at the combined treatment conditions of 75%, 55°C and 40 min. The UAE results obtained were compared with those achieved by using conventional Soxhlet extraction (CSE) method. It was found UAE allowed extraction at lower temperature and the extracts obtained posses higher quality compare with CSE. UAE is a promising environment friendly technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seeds.
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) was treated with or without sonication and/or hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Hydrolysis effects on KGM were studied for properties such as degree of hydrolysis, fluidity, molecular mass, and creep properties. The degree of hydrolysis for sonicated KGM and acid treated KGM were not significantly different. However, the combination treatment of acid hydrolysis and sonication was found effective in yielding a smaller molecular weight fraction of KGM and solution with higher fluidity. From the creep analysis, KGM treated with combination treatment exhibited the highest compliance among samples tested. In general, ultrasound mediated acid hydrolysis was found to be a promising technique in degrading high molecular weight biopolymer. This could be attributed to a localized high temperature and high shear forces generated during cavitation that facilitated the endothermic acid hydrolysis.
Ninety one leaf samples of Josapine pineapple cultivar (Kelantan, n=8; Pahang, n=20; Perak, n=11; Sabah, n=15; Johor, n=37) showing symptoms of heart rot disease were collected to determine the incidence of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Sixteen strains of E. chrysanthemi were isolated from 13 leaf samples from Pahang (n=4), Sabah (n=2) and Johor (n=7). All of the E. chrysanthemi strains displayed resistance to bacitracin with two strains showing resistance to sulfamethoxazole. None of the E. chrysanthemi strains were resistant toward ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, penicillin G, streptomycin and tetracycline. All of the E. chrysanthemi strains were plasmidless. The dendrogram generated from the ERIC-PCR fingerprinting showed that the E. chrysanthemi strains formed 4 clusters and 7 single isolates at 80% similarity level. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for 16 strains of E. chrysanthemi with HinfI and HaeIII endonuclease, 2 and 4 restriction profiles were obtained, respectively. The combinations of the four techniques were able to differentiate the 16 E. chrysanthemi strains into 14 genome types, suggesting a wide diversity of strains examined. ERICPCR fingerprinting method is found to be more discriminating and useful for the determination of the E. chrysanthemi strains relatedness.
This paper presents a transparency phenomenon that occurred in hot air and heat pump dried flatrice
noodles, which is explained by the higher colour changes, glassy puffing microstructures,
and lower fat content in comparison to the freeze dried flat-rice noodles. Hot air drying and
heat pump drying recorded the colour changes at an average of 43.87 ± 1.5 twice than colour
change caused by freeze drying at 19.33 ± 1.12 to verify the transparency caused by employing
high temperature to eventually increase the sample lightness. However, the microstructures
study suggested that freeze drying produced distinct pores ranging from 2.05 μm to 27.68
μm whereby hot air drying and heat pump drying merely produced glossy transparent texture.
Indeed, the pores disclose the fat content recorded by freeze drying in flat-rice noodles at 5.62%
± 0.2 twice than the fat content recorded by hot air and heat pump drying at 2.48% ± 0.49.
Therefore, by learning the transparency phenomenon in hot air and heat pump dried noodles
approves that freeze drying eventually preserves the quality attributes of flat-rice noodles as
closest to the fresh flat-rice noodles in terms of colour, microstructures, and fat content.
High intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may cause adverse changes in blood lipids as shown in many epidemiological studies. The major sources of TFA in human diet come from bakery products such as cookies, cakes, muffins, breads and pastries. In this study, total fat of baked products was determined using Soxhlet method while TFA content was determined on gas chromatograph using a highly polar capillary column and flame ionization detector. Exposure to TFA from the baked product was estimated based on Food Consumption Statistics of Malaysia 2003. High level of TFA was observed in muffins (3.21-7.34 g per 100 g food) followed by pastries (2.90-6.03 g per 100 g food) and cakes (2.26-8.36 g per 100 g food) regardless of products having brand name or not. Among the TFA isomers, trans 18:1 6t was the most abundant followed by trans 18:1 9t, trans 16:1 9t, trans 18:2 and small quantities of trans 18:1 11t. Exposure to TFA based on the Malaysian Food Consumption Statistics 2003 of the baked products was ranging from 0.14-0.18 g/day. Even with the low estimated exposure, actual intake of baked products must be monitored closely as other high fat food as these products is one of main contributor to TFA in the diet following their high frequency of daily intake.
The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid (TFA) contents of biscuits products were determined by gas chromatography, using a highly polar 100m capillary column (HP-88) and flame ionization detection. Total TFA ranged from 0.00 – 0.52 g/100 g total fatty acids and 0.12 – 0.68 g/100 g total fatty acids for local packed and unpacked biscuits, respectively. In imported biscuits, total TFA was higher ranging from 0.03 – 3.09 g/100 g of total fatty acids. Trans 16:1 was the most abundant, with values ranging from 0.01% to 38% followed by trans 18:1 Δ11 (0.01% - 13.11%), trans 18:1 Δ9 (0.01% - 4.68%), trans 18:2 (0.23% - 2.77%) and small quantities of trans 18:1 Δ6. CLA, the natural TFA constituted from 0.1% to
The influence of variety (Cavendish and Dream), stage of ripeness (green and ripe) and parts (pulp and peel) on antioxidative compounds and antioxidant activity of banana fruit was investigated. The TPC and TFC ranged widely from 75.01 to 685.57 mg GAE/100 g and 39.01 to 389.33 mg CEQ/100 g of dry matter respectively. Cavendish banana flour contained higher TPC and TFC compared to Dream variety. TPC and TFC values of banana peel were higher than those of banana pulp. Also, green banana showed higher TPC and TFC values than those of ripe fruit. Radical scavenging activities (inhibition of DPPH) of the extracts ranged from 26.55 to 52.66%. Although Dream banana peel extracts appeared to have low TPC and TFC, its antioxidant activities were ranked moderate to high. This implies that antioxidative compounds other than phenolics and flavonoids were probably responsible for inhibition of DPPH.
The aim of this study is to determine the total phenolic content and primary antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of four aromatic plants’ leaves namely knotweed (Polygonum minus), curry (Murraya koenigii), kaffir lime (Citrus hysrix) and fragrant screwpine (Pandanus odurus). Total phenolic content (TPC) assay using Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to assess the presence and level of phenolic compounds in each sample. The present study showed that both methanolic and ethanolic extracts of P. minus had the highest TPC and followed by M. koenigii, C. hystrix and P. odorus. Primary antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging activities of both methanolic and ethanolic extracts was then measured by 2, 2, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The lowest EC50 values based on the DPPH. radical scavenging activity were shown by P. minus extracts as compared to the other samples. For both ethanolic and methanolic extracts, the correlations between TPC and EC50 based on the DPPH. radical scavenging activity assay were negative and weak. Relatively, the present results suggest that of the four aromaticplants, P. minus and M. koenigii have shown potential as sources of natural antioxidants.
Vigna sinensis also known as long-podded cowpea or Chinese long bean (Family:Fabaceae) is most widely grown in Southeast Asia. They are a good source of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. The antioxidant potential of crude methanol extract, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of Vigna sinensiswas screened for in- vitro antioxidant activity using total phenolic content, ferric reducing power, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests. It was found that ethyl acetate fraction have maximum amount of polyphenolics compounds (2.69 mg/g GAE in concentration 0.5 mg/mL); more effective than methanol and chloroform extract.This fraction also exhibited fairly good antioxidant activity with in both TBA (17.39% mg/g GAE) and FTC (12.65% mg/g GAE) methods.