Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men
attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still
require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion
and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men
attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
Methods A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public
health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A
validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic
questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation
diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were
Results The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE
15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education
(p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR
1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after
controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological
disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain
namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all
domains with p
Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general
Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
method through the human resource personnel of the participating
Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
=1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
163) =14.94; p
Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
OBJECTIVE. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL), Activity of Daily Living (ADL), Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) and general health symptoms pre and after hospital-based respiratory physiotherapy program among COPD patients. METHODS. Pre and post intervention study was conducted between January and July 2010. A total of 54 subjects aged between 30 to 40 years old were recruited for this study using universal sampling method from Alzawia Teaching Hospital, Libya. Data collected were socio-demographic data, QOL (before and after the intervention) using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, ADL using the Barthel Index and the General Health Symptoms.
RESULTS.. The mean SF-36 score for QOL is 30.13 (SD = 8.06) and 63.46 (SD = 13.53) before and after the physiotherapy respectively (with the p <0.0001). Patients’ Activity of Daily Living mean scores are 70.18, (SD = 16.50) and mean = 88.89 (SD = 13.28) before and after program (p< 0.0001). The general medical condition mean score after respiratory physiotherapy is 3.72 as compared to 4.96 before the respiratory physiotherapy (p< 0.0001). Pulmonary Function Test shows improvement in actual/predicted FEV1 ratio in all 54 cases with mean improvement from 55.85 before to 81.67 after the pulmonary physiotherapy (with the p <0.0001).
CONCLUSION. Hospital based respiratory physiotherapy program had significantly improved QOL, pulmonary function and activities of daily living among the subjects.
Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the aspect of information disclosure by
doctor-investigator during the process of obtaining informed consent in
Methods This research employed a mixed-method data collection that is library
research and interview. A qualitative methodology and analysis were used in
an open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 17 patient-subjects. The
interview questions were based on information that needed to be disclosed to
patient-subjects during the process of obtaining informed consent. Each
interview took place in Kajang Hospital and National Heart Institute and
lasted 25-30 minutes. Interviews were conducted in Bahasa Melayu and
English. The interviews were tape-recorded, and the main points from the
interviews were jotted down to ensure that all information was adequately
gathered. Interviewed occurred in Kajang Hospital and National Heart
Institute. The participants were patients who had been referred to the Kajang
Hospital and National Heart Institute. They were recruited (8 from Kajang
Hospital and 9 from National Heart Institute) by their own doctors to
participate in a study to evaluate the safety and effectivenes of the
investigational stent after been diagnosed with coronary artery disease and
also in a study to investigate drug for antidepressant. respectively.
Results The study revealed that doctor-investigators fail to disclose full information
to patient-subjects. Instead, doctor-investigators only disclosed information
which they thought were necessary for the patient-subjects to know. The
study also showed that there were doctor-investigators who did not disclose
information at all to the patient-subjects.
Conclusions This study implies that the aspect of information disclosure in the process of
obtaining informed consent in clinical trials is rather poor and did not fulfill
the criterion of good medical practice. A random monitoring task to be
conducted by the research ethics commitees during the informed consent
process is suggested.
Introduction In light of the important role of health-promoting expenditure in health, the
objective of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic determinants
of health-promoting expenditure such as purchase of medical equipment and
services, food supplements and health education services and products among
Methods Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) consisting of 28771
observations was used for analysis. It was the latest nationally representative
cross-sectional population-based survey conducted by the Ministry of Health
Malaysia from April 2006 to January 2007. A censored regression model
(Tobit) was applied to examine the factors affecting health-promoting
Results The results showed that age, income, gender, ethnicity, education, marital
status, employment status and location of residence were able to affect healthpromoting
expenditure. In particular, individuals who were younger, poor,
males, Indian/others, less educated, unmarried, unemployed and residing in
rural areas tended to spend less money on health promotion compared to
Conclusions This study reached a conclusion that socio-demographic factors were
significantly associated with individual’s preferences for health promotion.
Therefore, the government should devote its attention to these factors when
formulating nationwide health policies.
Introduction Low bone mineral density is a significant problem in children with
Thalassemia which may lead to increased risk for fragility fractures and
suboptimal peak bone mass. This cross-sectional study was conducted to
determine the bone health status of Thalassemia children Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Paediatrics Insititute Kuala
Methods A total of 81 respondents diagnosed with transfusion dependant beta
Thalassemia (41 boys and 40 girls) aged between 7 to 19 years old completed
the study. The data collected were demographic information, anthropometric
measurements, dairy frequency questionnaires, dietary habits of the
respondents and their parents, dietary intakes and bone densitometry using
Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.
Results For Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters, T-score of 9.8% participants
were lower than -1.0 and 30.9% of the participants had lower Speed of Sound
(SOS) than healthy SOS. This study showed there was no difference in bone
density by sex (p>0.05). The median bone density of boys was 1616.00 m/
sec (IQR= 39.00) and girls’ was 1579.00 m/ sec (IQR= 116.00). SOS was not
increased with age, height and weight; but girls’ Body Mass Index (BMI).
Malay children had significantly higher SOS than non-Malay children.
Conclusions This study highlights a need of proper intervention for the high risk group to
achieve optimal bone health.
Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.
Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
support planning for prevention and healthcare.
Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
can be beneficial.
Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
Introduction Helminthiasis is a common parasitic condition particularly among children in
rural areas in developing countries where poor hygiene standard is practiced.
The study aimed to determine the prevalence of helminthiasis among Indian
preschoolers in urban areas in Penang and its associated factors.
Methods A total of 194 urban Indian preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years old were selected
randomly from 11 kindergartens in the state of Penang for this cross sectional
study. Data collection was carried out in 2 phases. First, microscopic stool
examinations were done to examine the presence of helminths. Second, self
administered questionnaires which inquired about human, environment and
socioeconomic factors were completed by the parents/guardians.
Results The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 7.2% and the most frequently
encountered infective agent was Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%) and followed
by the tapeworms (42.86%). The logistic regression indicated that habitual
thumb sucking (AOR= 5.6. 95%CI: 1.73-18.39) and families owning
domestic pets (AOR= 3.2; 95%CI: 1.03-10.14) were the significant
contributing factors to helminthiasis among the Indian pre-schoolers in urban
Penang. Although the prevalence of helminth infection among the urban
Indian preschoolers is lower than rural area, it is still a public health concern.
Children habitual thumb sucking and rearing domestic pets at home were the
significant contributing factors in helminthiasis.
Conclusion Prevention strategy should focus on health education and promotion among
adults and children, awareness on domestic animal hygiene and maintaining
good environmental sanitation. Multi agency collaboration is clearly
essential, especially between state health, education and veterinary
departments in curbing this disease.
Mortality estimates are important parameters for health monitoring and are routinely used as evidence for health policy and planning. This study aimed to estimate the mortality component of Burden of Disease in Malaysia in 2008. The 2008 mortality data from the Statistics Department were used to estimate cause-specific mortality (by age and sex) in Malaysia. Data were coded using the ICD10 (International Classification of Disease) coding. Calculation of mortality component of Burden of Disease (ie: Years of Life Lost (YLL) was done using the standard Global Burden of Disease Methodology. The total estimated deaths in Malaysia in 2008 were 124,857, of which 72,202 (57.8%) were males. The total years of life lost (YLL) for the Malaysian population in 2008 was 1.51 million in which 0.92 million (60.7%) was among males. Almost three quarter (68%) of the burden of premature deaths resulted from non-communicable diseases, followed by communicable diseases (20%) and injury (12%). Among the top three leading causes of YLL were ischaemic heart disease (17.1%), stroke (9.6%) and road traffic injuries (8.3%). In Malaysia, premature mortality mainly contributed by non-communicable diseases followed by communicable diseases and injury. A multi-agency collaboration is needed to prevent premature death and to improve quality of life.
Developmental disabilities in young children are common, and the prevalence is estimated as high as 0.1-1.75% in the children population for each disabilities. With increasing awareness and health expectation, more children with Developmental disabilities are presenting to health care professionals, and at earlier age. Literatures also suggested the importance of early intervention programme in determining the outcome of this group of children. Therefore, it is vital for health professionals who have direct contact with young children are competent in detecting children with possible Developmental disabilities, and have the basic knowledge about some of the common disorders in order to discuss the issues with the parents. It is also important to work with the various resources available in the local community, such as non-governmental organisations for children with special needs, schools offering special education programmes and inclusive classes, and the allied health who provide cares to this group of young children and their family. A lot of information are also available online, and may be offered to help parents gaining more understanding regarding these Developmental disabilities.
Introduction More school children were referred for learning difficutly (LD), especially after the introduction of LINUS sccreening programme by Ministry of Education Malaysia.
Aims To study the clinical diagnosis and non-verbal ability of primary-one school children with LD after paediatric assessment, as well as associated behavioural issues and socio-economincal background.
Methods Assessment findings by Paediatricians and Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test®(NNAT®) results of all primary-one school children referred in year 2010 with LD were studied retrospectively.
Results Ninety-three children were included (62.4% male), and 72.0% of them failed the LINUS screening programme. The commonest diagnoses were Borderline Intellectual Disability (ID, 37.6%) and Mild ID (19.4%). Other diagnoses included Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD, 11.8%), Specific Learning Disability (SLD, 10.8%), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 5) and Severe Language Disorder (n = 3). Mean NNAT scores were 84.6 ± 11.8 (n = 85), of which 9.4% children scored less than 70 (
Introduction Special Olympics (SO) Inc. is an organization for people with intellectual disability (ID) to actively engaging in Olympic-type sport and participating in competition. Special Olympic Inc. provides Healthy Athletes Programme (HAP®) in screening and providing health education to Special Olympic Athletes. Objective To study the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), visual acuity and hearing status of children and young adult with ID in Special Olympics Sarawak. Methods Health data were collected by trained health professionals under HAP®held in conjunction with Special Olympics Sarawak State Games on 17th and 18th April 2010 in Sibu. Health data collected were athletes' weight, BMI, BP, ear canal screen and hearing status (oto-acoustic emission, pure tone audiometry), as well as eye health and visual acuity, using guidelines set by HAP®. Results 195 athletes attended the State Games in 2010 of which 138 were screened. Significant number of athletes was considered overweight / obese (31.5% for children and 36.9% for adult). More than 20% of the adult athletes were hypertensive or at risk of hypertension. Sixteen percent of the adult athletes had hearing loss. More than half of the adult and children athletes never had eye checks, and a significant numbers of them had abnormal eye tests results. Conclusions Health screening conducted during the HAP® is a useful screening program in this population. Health data collected can bring awareness to athletes and their family, and corrective measures in hearing and visual impairment can be taken immediately.
In the cold winter month of January 2012, two post graduate students from the Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), went on a two weeks field attachment with the Division of International Health (Public Health), Niigata University Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences (NU). This report is an account of our first hand learning experience about the public health system and culture in Niigata, Japan. Famously known as the 'Snow Country', Niigata prefecture is approximately 350 kilometers north of Tokyo, in the middle of the west coast of Honshu island, facing the Sea of Japan. It borders on the east with Fukushima prefecture, which was badly affected by the great tsunami disaster in March 2011. Niigata has a population of two and a half million, of which 21.3% is above the age of 65. Niigata University is located in Niigata City, the capital of Niigata prefecture. This attachment was under the UKM-Global Student Mobility Programme (Outbound) and it was taken as an opportunity to improve the memorandum of understanding between UKM and NU. The objectives were to gain knowledge and experience in various public health issues in a developed nation like Japan. Specifically, we were interested to learn about the local public health programmes, the influenza surveillance system, public health programmes for the elderly population, the Geographical Information System (GIS) and the Japanese culture in general. (Copied from article).
Introduction Anxiety and depression were known to bring detrimental outcome in patients
with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Notwithstanding their high prevalence
and catastrophic impact, anxiety and depression were unrecognized and
untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety
and depression among IHD patients and the association of this condition with
clinical and selected demographic factors.
Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 100 IHD patients admitted to medical
ward in UKMMC. Patients diagnosed to have IHD were randomly assessed
using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Social
Support (PSS) Questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were obtained by
direct interview. Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to
have anxiety, fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two
percent was noted to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group
and the duration of illness were found to have significant association with
anxiety. Socio-demographic data were obtained by direct interview.
Results Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to have anxiety,
fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two percent was noted
to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group and the duration of
illness were found to have significant association with anxiety. The other
clinical and selected demographic factors such as gender, race, marital status,
education level, occupation, co-existing medical illness and social support
were not found to be significantly associated with anxiety or depression
among the IHD patients.
Conclusions In conclusion, proper assessment of anxiety and depression in IHD patients,
with special attention to patients’ age and duration of illness should be
carried out routinely to help avert detrimental consequences.
The aim of this study was to determine the profile of patients referred to a specialist oral medicine and oral pathology unit in Kuala Lumpur by reviewing clinical dental records received in Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service (OPDS) in Faculty of Dentistry, UKM from 2001 until 2010. A total of 547 archival biopsy clinical dental records were reviewed and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Oral and maxillofacial diseases were frequently seen in female (1.3:1), young adults (30.0%) of Malay ethnicity (64.6%). Most of the acquired specimens were from dental specialists (n=451, 84.8%), particularly from oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) (n=349, 63.8%) compared to general dental practitioners (GDPs) (n=81, 14.8%). Almost all of the biopsy specimens were of soft tissue origin (n=462, 84.4%), derived from lining mucosa (n=197, 36.0%) and were biopsied excisionally (n=325, 59.4%) more often than by incisional biopsy (n=207, 37.8%). A large proportion of the oral and maxillofacial diseases were of reactive (n=188, 34.4%) and inflammatory (n=121, 22.1%) cause. Tumours are mainly benign (n=69, 12.6%) with only small cases are malignant (n=34, 6.2%). The most common histological diagnoses were accounted by mucocele (n=56, 10.2%), pyogenic granuloma (n=47, 8.6%), fibroepithelial polyp (n=38, 6.9%), radicular cyst (n=33, 6.0%) and periapical granuloma (n=29, 5.3%). This study characterizes the clinical profile of patients seen in our oral medicine and oral pathology unit. Present findings can be used as a reference to the clinicians and pathologists in effective patient management and organization in the future.
Introduction Physical activity reduces risk of non-communicable diseases. Physical
activity prevalence is low due to barriers to physical activity. This study was
conducted to translate the Barrier to Physical Activity (BPA) questionnaire
into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the translated version
Methods The Malay version of BPA was developed after translating the English
version of BPA through back to back translation process. The Malay BPA
was distributed among 306 volunteered nurses from 5 government hospitals
in Selangor state. Factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and test – retest
reliability was conducted to determine psychometric properties of BPA.
Results Chronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 for perceived benefits items and 0.51
for perceived barrier items (overall was 0.73). The ICC was 0.88 (95% CI:
0.78-0.93) for test-retest testing after 7 days. Two factors components were
yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.9 and 2.0
respectively. Both the factors accounts for 31.4 % of the variance. Factor 1
included 14 items and explained 19.9% of the variance. Factor 2 consisted of
5 items and explained 11.5% of variance. CFA yielded two factor structures
with acceptable goodness of fit indices [x2/df = 23.99; GFI = 0.82, SRMR =
0.09; PNFI = 0.49 and RMSEA = 0.10 (90%CI = 0.09-0.11)].
Conclusions The Malay version of BPA had demonstrated satisfactory level of validity
and reliability to assess barriers to physical activity. Therefore, this
questionnaire is valid in assessing barriers to physical activity among
Introduction Pneumococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and mortality,
including among adults. Adult pneumococcal vaccines help to prevent these
burdens, yet, they are underutilized. Our objective is to systematically collect
and summarize the available evidence on the potential factors that lead to
pneumococcal vaccination acceptance among of adult community.
Methods A systematic literature search was conducted involving studies published
from January 1999 to December 2015. The studies were identified by
searching electronic resources (PubMed/MEDLINE and Pro Quest database)
and manual searches of references. The keywords “vaccine/ immunization”,
“uptake/ coverage”, “determinant/ factor”, and “Streptococcus pneumoniae/
pneumococcus/ pneumococcal” were used. Final studies result and data were
reviewed by two independent authors. Disagreement was resolved through
discussion and consensus.
Results A total of 171 studies were identified, only 17 studies were included in final
discussion with 10 domains identified in the paper. 7 studies (41%) had
reported that the provider domain, patients’ perception and
socio-demographic factor have had the most effect on the pneumococcal
vaccination acceptance rate. In addition, only 18% (3) of reviewed papers had
highlighted that socio-economic was a factor influenced the pneumococcal
vaccination acceptance while 24% (4 studies) were attributed to the comorbid
Conclusions Healthcare provider and patients’ perception about pneumococcal vaccination
for adult population are significant domains which influence the acceptance
towards vaccination. Strong recommendations from healthcare provider for
pneumococcal vaccination would be an important step to increase vaccination
acceptance among the population.
Accepted 10 August 2011.
Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most prevalent female cancer in Malaysia. Almost 70% of its’ causal factors are attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and other risk factors. HPV genotypes distributions are also noted to differ by geographical area.
Methods This was cross sectional study conducted in 2007, to determine the influencing factors of HPV positivity and prevalence of HPV infections among patients with cervical cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Patients’ paraffin-embedded cervical tissues kept in the Pathology Department from 1999 to 2007 were randomly selected. A total of 81 medical records with complete information were chosen as samples and patients were contacted for consent. Tissue samples were further derived for PCR DNA for HPV genotyping. Analyses included descriptive statistics; bivariate χ2 test and correlation were used to determine relationship between factors and HPV positivity. Significance level of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
Results Mean age of cancer diagnosis was at 52 ± 12.2 years. Women of Chinese ethnicity was the highest ethnicity to be HPV positive at 65.4% and squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly found (59.3%) compared with other types of cancers. The prevalence of HPV positivity was 92.6% with type 16 being the most common (74.1%), followed by type 33 (30.9%) and 18 (22.2%). Multiple HPV infections were a common finding at 54.3%. Factors thought to influence positivity i.e. age of intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of parity, smoking status of patients and their partners, oral contraceptive usage, presence of chronic illnesses and cancer stage were not significantly associated with HPV positivity. Increased CC severity level was not associated with increased number of HPV infections (Pearson correlation 0.58; p =0.607).
Conclusions High HPV positivity at 92.6% was found among ICC patients. Factors thought to influence HPV positivity were not significant. The top three HPV genotypes were type 16 followed by type 33 and 18. However, local women HPV serotypes findings need to be replicated in a larger population sample.
Introduction The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia shows a
rising trend that influences the society in many respects. Country specific
evidence is vital for effective intervention. The aims of this study were to
identify the role of gender and urbanisation status on NCDs prevalence and
its effect on health care demand, specifically doctor visits among elderly in
Malaysia. We focused on two of the highest occurrence NCDs in the country
– diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
Methods A total of 1,414 respondents aged 60 years and above were selected using a
multistage sampling for face-to-face interview. We started the analysis with
descriptive analysis of the prevalence, taking the effect of gender and
urbanisation status of residing area. We extended the study with parametric
analysis to find the effect of these health problems on the likelihood of doctor
visits as it reflects the equity for access and utilisation issues.
Results Results showed that there were no significant difference of prevalence by
gender and urbanisation for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By utilising
probit model, we found that those with diabetes mellitus or hypertension,
controlling for other variables, were more likely to utilise doctor services.
Conclusion This result implies that the prevalence of NCDs may further increase demand
for health care, especially in the state with a high proportion of older age