Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 92 in total

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  1. Lee Na
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):131-138.
    MyJurnal
    Pregnancy and childbirth are generally regarded as a turning point for women even though it is not an illness. This is because the physiological and psychosocial adaptation can bring about stress and anxiety. Ontologically a pregnant woman is not merely an object that can be classified as a
    primigravida or according to her obstetric condition. The contention is that she is also a daughter, a working woman, and a wife with her past, present and future. All these determine who she is and influence how she thinks, acts, feels and behaves during childbirth (Polt, 1999). This journal is about Heideggerian hermeneutic study: Malaysian Chinese women’s expectations and lived experiences of childbirth.
  2. Kamal Kenny, Zoharah Omar, El Sheila Kanavathi, Priya Madhavan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):765-773.
    MyJurnal
    Health care systems play a vital role in providing health services and in optimising the population’s health of each nation. The Malaysian health care system primarily consists of the public and private health services. One of the prominent private health care services offered in the General Practitioner’s (GP) Clinic. Despite the prominent role GPs play in the health care system in this country, little is known about their practices, the issues and challenges faced by GPs in this country. The objective of this study was to describe the current GP practice operations in Malaysia in terms of its general operations, financial expenditure and revenue, market competitiveness and laboratory services offered by the clinics.
  3. Suzaily Wahab, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Soo, Tze Hui, Siti Juliana Hussin, Mohd Fekri Ahmat Nazri, Izzatul Izzanis Abd Hamid, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):531-537.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Anxiety and depression were known to bring detrimental outcome in patients
    with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Notwithstanding their high prevalence
    and catastrophic impact, anxiety and depression were unrecognized and
    untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety
    and depression among IHD patients and the association of this condition with
    clinical and selected demographic factors.

    Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 100 IHD patients admitted to medical
    ward in UKMMC. Patients diagnosed to have IHD were randomly assessed
    using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Social
    Support (PSS) Questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were obtained by
    direct interview. Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to
    have anxiety, fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two
    percent was noted to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group
    and the duration of illness were found to have significant association with
    anxiety. Socio-demographic data were obtained by direct interview.

    Results Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to have anxiety,
    fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two percent was noted
    to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group and the duration of
    illness were found to have significant association with anxiety. The other
    clinical and selected demographic factors such as gender, race, marital status,
    education level, occupation, co-existing medical illness and social support
    were not found to be significantly associated with anxiety or depression
    among the IHD patients.

    Conclusions In conclusion, proper assessment of anxiety and depression in IHD patients,
    with special attention to patients’ age and duration of illness should be
    carried out routinely to help avert detrimental consequences.
  4. Ameen Saleh Saleh Sherah, Mohd Hasni Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):597-605.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction An Analysis of a Survey Questionnaire on health care workers’ knowledge
    and practices regarding of infection control and complains them to apply
    universal precautions. Health care workers are at substantial risk of acquiring
    blood borne pathogen infections through exposure to blood or other products
    of patients. To assess of infection control among health care workers in
    Sana'a healthcare centers, Yemen.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the health center to assess
    knowledge and practices regarding of infection control among 237 health
    workers in Sana,a city. A structured self-administered questionnaires were
    used and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the associations were
    tested with chi-square, with p-value of < 0.05.

    Results The health care workers in public centers ware (51.1%) and (48.9%) of them
    works in private centers. One hundred and seventeen (49.4%) respondents
    had poor infection control knowledge, 113 (43.5%) had fair knowledge, and
    17 (7.2%) had good knowledge. The knowledge was significantly associated
    with type of center (P < 0.018), such that the public center had the highest
    proportion with poor knowledge. And nurses and midwife having the highest
    proportion with fair knowledge of infection control. Eight (3.4%) respondents
    had a poor practice of universal precautions, 93 (39.2%) had fair practice, and
    136 (57.4%) good practice. The practice was significantly associated with the
    profession, level of education and work experience (P < 0.001), (P < 0.006),
    (P < 0.001) respectively, and nurses and midwives as the profession with the
    highest proportion with good practice.

    Conclusion We conclude that the practices and knowledge of universal precautions were
    low and that's need for intensive programmes to educate health care workers
    on various aspects of standard precautions and infection control programmes
    and policies.
  5. Hasimah Ismail, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Lim, Kuang Kuay
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):465-471.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Healthy dietary practice is important in preventing diabetes, managing
    existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing the rate of diabetes
    complication development. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes
    prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association of
    dietary practice with glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    (T2DM) patients, who received treatment from an urban Health Clinic in
    Kuala Lumpur.

    Methods A total of 307 patients with T2DM aged 18 years and above participated in
    this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire with guided interview was
    used to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and dietary
    practice. Anthropometric and biological measurements were also taken.
    Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used in the data analysis. Good
    glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c level less than 6.5%.

    Results The prevalence of good glycaemic control was only 27% (n=83). The highest
    percentage of good glycaemic control were among male patients (29.1%),
    aged 60 and above (33.3%), educational level of primary school (35.4%) and
    those with monthly income group between RM1001 to RM1500 (32.0%).
    About three quarter of T2DM patient (n=224) had poor control of HbA1c
    (≥6.5%). Age (p=0.045) and working status (p=0.039) had significant
    relationship with the level of HbA1c. Dietary practice showed no significant
    relationship with the HbA1c level.

    Conclusions Effective interventional health education strategies are needed, focussing on
    modification of dietary behaviour in order to achieve glycaemic control
    among diabetic patients.
  6. Toh, Teck Hock, Nurhilda Abdullah, Chua, Soh Yian, Muhamad Rais Abdullah, Islia Nahazatul, Chieng, Lee Ling
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):66-71.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Special Olympics (SO) Inc. is an organization for people with intellectual disability (ID) to actively engaging in Olympic-type sport and participating in competition. Special Olympic Inc. provides Healthy Athletes Programme (HAP®) in screening and providing health education to Special Olympic Athletes. Objective To study the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), visual acuity and hearing status of children and young adult with ID in Special Olympics Sarawak. Methods Health data were collected by trained health professionals under HAP®held in conjunction with Special Olympics Sarawak State Games on 17th and 18th April 2010 in Sibu. Health data collected were athletes' weight, BMI, BP, ear canal screen and hearing status (oto-acoustic emission, pure tone audiometry), as well as eye health and visual acuity, using guidelines set by HAP®. Results 195 athletes attended the State Games in 2010 of which 138 were screened. Significant number of athletes was considered overweight / obese (31.5% for children and 36.9% for adult). More than 20% of the adult athletes were hypertensive or at risk of hypertension. Sixteen percent of the adult athletes had hearing loss. More than half of the adult and children athletes never had eye checks, and a significant numbers of them had abnormal eye tests results. Conclusions Health screening conducted during the HAP® is a useful screening program in this population. Health data collected can bring awareness to athletes and their family, and corrective measures in hearing and visual impairment can be taken immediately.
  7. Yeo Pei Sien, Suzana Shahar, Roslee Rajikan, Noor Aini Mohd Yusoff
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):399-404.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Low bone mineral density is a significant problem in children with
    Thalassemia which may lead to increased risk for fragility fractures and
    suboptimal peak bone mass. This cross-sectional study was conducted to
    determine the bone health status of Thalassemia children Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Paediatrics Insititute Kuala
    Lumpur Hospital.

    Methods A total of 81 respondents diagnosed with transfusion dependant beta
    Thalassemia (41 boys and 40 girls) aged between 7 to 19 years old completed
    the study. The data collected were demographic information, anthropometric
    measurements, dairy frequency questionnaires, dietary habits of the
    respondents and their parents, dietary intakes and bone densitometry using
    Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.

    Results For Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters, T-score of 9.8% participants
    were lower than -1.0 and 30.9% of the participants had lower Speed of Sound
    (SOS) than healthy SOS. This study showed there was no difference in bone
    density by sex (p>0.05). The median bone density of boys was 1616.00 m/
    sec (IQR= 39.00) and girls’ was 1579.00 m/ sec (IQR= 116.00). SOS was not
    increased with age, height and weight; but girls’ Body Mass Index (BMI).
    Malay children had significantly higher SOS than non-Malay children.

    Conclusions This study highlights a need of proper intervention for the high risk group to
    achieve optimal bone health.
  8. Ummi Nadiah Yusoff, Diana Mahat, Azahadi Omar, Teh, Chien Huey, Norzawati Yoep, Riyanti Saari
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):249-258.
    MyJurnal
    Mortality estimates are important parameters for health monitoring and are routinely used as evidence for health policy and planning. This study aimed to estimate the mortality component of Burden of Disease in Malaysia in 2008. The 2008 mortality data from the Statistics Department were used to estimate cause-specific mortality (by age and sex) in Malaysia. Data were coded using the ICD10 (International Classification of Disease) coding. Calculation of mortality component of Burden of Disease (ie: Years of Life Lost (YLL) was done using the standard Global Burden of Disease Methodology. The total estimated deaths in Malaysia in 2008 were 124,857, of which 72,202 (57.8%) were males. The total years of life lost (YLL) for the Malaysian population in 2008 was 1.51 million in which 0.92 million (60.7%) was among males. Almost three quarter (68%) of the burden of premature deaths resulted from non-communicable diseases, followed by communicable diseases (20%) and injury (12%). Among the top three leading causes of YLL were ischaemic heart disease (17.1%), stroke (9.6%) and road traffic injuries (8.3%). In Malaysia, premature mortality mainly contributed by non-communicable diseases followed by communicable diseases and injury. A multi-agency collaboration is needed to prevent premature death and to improve quality of life.
  9. Rozita Hod, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Nazarudin Safian, Mohd Hasni Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):1-6.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 21 July 2011.
    Introduction The extensive and intensive use of pesticides in agricultural practices has exposed farmers to various hazards resulting in varying degrees of health
    outcomes.
    Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among paddy farmers in Sabak Bernam district, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to gather baseline information on chlorpyrifos blood level and its relationship with pesticides exposure symptoms.
    Results We detected chlorpyrifos in farmers’ blood in 7 percent of the respondents, with mean 7.29 nanogram per millilitre blood (sd 5.84 nanogram per millilitre). The percentage of farmers who experienced at least one pesticide exposure symptoms was 75 percent. However, we found no significant association between chlorpyrifos blood level and its exposure symptoms. The farmers had low scores on safe practice of pesticide use even though they have high marks on knowledge and attitude. We found no significant association between the scores on knowledge, attitude and practice on pesticide use and the chlorpyrifos blood level.
    Conclusions The presence of pesticide exposure symptoms proved that most of the farmers were exposed to hazardous effects of pesticides. Specific trainings on safe use and handling of pesticides should be given on regular basis to these farmers to ensure they are protected from hazardous effects of pesticides exposure.
  10. Toh, Teck Hock, Wong, See Chang, Muhamad Rais Abdullah
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):33-40.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction More school children were referred for learning difficutly (LD), especially after the introduction of LINUS sccreening programme by Ministry of Education Malaysia.
    Aims To study the clinical diagnosis and non-verbal ability of primary-one school children with LD after paediatric assessment, as well as associated behavioural issues and socio-economincal background.
    Methods Assessment findings by Paediatricians and Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test®(NNAT®) results of all primary-one school children referred in year 2010 with LD were studied retrospectively.
    Results Ninety-three children were included (62.4% male), and 72.0% of them failed the LINUS screening programme. The commonest diagnoses were Borderline Intellectual Disability (ID, 37.6%) and Mild ID (19.4%). Other diagnoses included Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD, 11.8%), Specific Learning Disability (SLD, 10.8%), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 5) and Severe Language Disorder (n = 3). Mean NNAT scores were 84.6 ± 11.8 (n = 85), of which 9.4% children scored less than 70 (
  11. Aniza Ismail, Saperi Sulung, Syed Mohamed AlJunid, Nor Hamdan Mohd Yahaya, Husyairi Harunarashid, Oteh Maskon, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(2):153-160.
    MyJurnal
    Clinical pathways have been implemented in many healthcare systems with mix results in improving the quality of care and controlling the cost. CP is a methodology used for mutual decision making and organization of care for a well-defined group of patients within a well-defined period. In developing the CPs for a medical centre, several meetings had been carried out involving expert teams which consist of physicians, nurses, pharmacists and physiotherapists. The steps used to develop the pathway were divided into 5 phases. Phase 1: the introduction and team development, Phase II: determining the cases and information gathering, Phase III: establishing the draft of CP, Phase IV: is implementing and monitoring the effectiveness of CP while Phase V: evaluating, improving and redesigning of the CP. Four CPs had been developed: Total Knee Replacement (TKR), ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (AMI), Chronic Obstructive Airways Diseases (COAD) and elective Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS). The implementation of these CPs had supported the evidence-based medicine, improved the multidisciplinary communication, teamwork and care planning. However, the rotation of posts had resulted in lack of document ownership, lack of direction and guidance from senior clinical staff, and problem of providing CPs prior to admission. The development and implementation of CPs in the medical centre improved the intra and inter departmental communication, improved patient outcomes, promote patient safety and increased patient satisfaction. However, accountability and understanding of the CPs must be given more attention.
  12. Toh, Teck Hock
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):57-65.
    MyJurnal
    Developmental disabilities in young children are common, and the prevalence is estimated as high as 0.1-1.75% in the children population for each disabilities. With increasing awareness and health expectation, more children with Developmental disabilities are presenting to health care professionals, and at earlier age. Literatures also suggested the importance of early intervention programme in determining the outcome of this group of children. Therefore, it is vital for health professionals who have direct contact with young children are competent in detecting children with possible Developmental disabilities, and have the basic knowledge about some of the common disorders in order to discuss the issues with the parents. It is also important to work with the various resources available in the local community, such as non-governmental organisations for children with special needs, schools offering special education programmes and inclusive classes, and the allied health who provide cares to this group of young children and their family. A lot of information are also available online, and may be offered to help parents gaining more understanding regarding these Developmental disabilities.
  13. Rohaya Mohd-Nor, Rose Nanju@Manju, Samuel Lihan, Sidiah John Siop, Rekaya Vincent Balang, Constance Rinen Justin Wah, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(2):334-346.
    MyJurnal
    To date, there has been no systematic research that investigates the rural community awareness and attitudes towards pandemic influenza H1N1 and its prevention measures in the context of Sarawak. There is also no systematic study about whether the initiatives to educate the public undertaken by the government and other agencies have empowered the rural communities to practice an effective self-care within the context of community, that assist to curb the potential spread of this disease. Our research aims to address these limitations. In this paper, we report a survey finding about the awareness and attitudes of the Serian community with regard to this area of research interest. We also investigate the relevant sources of information that the community relies on in understanding about the influenza and how it can spread. Overall, the outcomes of the survey reveal that a majority of our respondents has a relatively low level of knowledge and awareness particularly about the characteristics of the illness and how H1N1 virus can transmit. With regard to prevention measures, a majority of them reported good understanding and awareness about the effective self-care practices that can help to curb the potential spread of the influenza. The top five sources to obtain information about the influenza were: information from family, relatives, friends or neighbours; radio; TV; newspapers; and government health talk seminar or campaigns. The research outcomes can offer pragmatic contributions that can benefit the health campaigners and policy makers.
  14. Hasnor Hadi Asim, Normawati Ahmad, Abu Bakar Rahman, Nik Mansor Ibrahim, Mohd Nasir Abdullah, Md Sabtuah Royali, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):807-813.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Tong Nibong is a Bidayuh village located at Sarawak Kalimantan border.
    Since the year 2004 to 2009, a total of 537 cases of malaria were recorded in
    Serian District of which 14 cases were reported from Kampung Tong
    Nibong. Community empowerment programme for malaria infection
    prevention showed tremendous improvement in implementation. This
    intervention study aims to gauge the effectiveness of community
    empowerment approach in malaria elimination programme in Kampung Tong
    Nibong Serian.
    Methods An intervention study was conducted with pre and post data collection. Data
    was collected using validated questionnaire by face to face interview.
    Universal sampling method was used to select respondents from head of
    household and post data was collected after intervention activities were
    carried out within a year of study period.
    Results The study showed significant difference on level of knowledge of
    respondents on vector of malaria between pre and post data with a P < 0.05.
    There was significant difference between pre and post data on practices on
    control and prevention of malaria with a P < 0.05. The same goes to level of
    positive attitude of respondents towards malaria control.
    Conclusions In conclusion, the study can be considered successful because there is
    significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice among the
    respondents between pre and post data. This indicates that community
    empowerment (voluntary participation) measures can be implemented in high
    risk or endemic areas where malaria is a persistent problem to the community
    and health institutions faces many limiting factors.
  15. Khor, Poh Yen, Norshidah Harun, Fazreenizam Ishak, Nur Aimy Iryany Mohd Anuar, Noraini Abdul Karim, Aqirah Azman, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):80-84.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 13 January 2012.
    Introduction The purpose of this study is to explore the reasons of Shisha smoking among teenagers in Ipoh, Perak.
    Methods Data was collected using in-depth face to face interview. Purposive convenient sampling was used to select volunteer respondents from one of the Shisha restaurant located at Ipoh. The interviews were conducted for 15-20 minutes, recorded using video tape. The data obtained was transcribed and coded for the purpose of thematic analysis.
    Results All respondents were influenced by peers in their first attempt in Shisha smoking. Other reasons attracting them to continue smoking Shisha include appealing smell and the flavoured taste of Shisha, easy to access, perceived that Shisha was not addictive and its’ cheaper price. In terms of perception on health risk, all respondents believed that Shisha was less harmful compared to cigarette smoking.
    Conclusions More educational programme, health talk about risk of Shisha should be developed and conducted to rectify the misconception about health risk of Shisha smoking. The target population should be focus on male teenagers who smoke Shisha in order to control the widespread Shisha smoking in Malaysia.
  16. William Cairns Steward Smith
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):425-430.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
    diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
    disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
    three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.

    Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
    surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
    from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
    sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
    variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
    cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
    registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
    information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
    availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
    factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
    smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
    support planning for prevention and healthcare.

    Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
    trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
    about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
    both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
    main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
    multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
    behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
    Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
    effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
    competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
    health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
    can be beneficial.

    Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
    cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
    individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
    cardiovascular disease.
  17. Rahmah Mohd Amin, Noraishah Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):7-12.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 24 August 2011.
    Introduction Elderly are often associated with multiple social and health problems. Family members are important in helping them doing their daily activities. For elderly diabetics, family support has a role in diabetes management and glucose control. The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions of elderly diabetics regarding the role of family support on their glucose control.
    Methods This qualitative technique was a part of the study on glucose control and its associated factors among elderly diabetics. It was conducted from February until May 2009 in Kulim. Ten respondents were purposively sampled based on their glucose control. HbA1c 6.5% or less was considered as good glucose control. In depth interview, using semi-structured interview guide was used in this study. The conversation had been taped, transcribed to verbatim and analyzed manually using thematic analysis.
    Results All ten respondents perceived that family support did not play a role on their glucose control. They believed that self-awareness and self-determination were important to control the glucose level. Those with good glucose control practiced healthy diet, and not affected by food prepared by their family members compared to those with poor glucose control. However, both groups claimed that, they did not receive much advice from their family members and no special food was prepared for them. Conclusions Elderly diabetics should be motivated on self-determination and focusing on good glucose control. Health education should be given to patients and their family members to increase their diabetes knowledge especially on useful advice and proper food preparation. It could motivate the elderly diabetics to control their glucose level.
  18. Idayu Badilla Idris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):829-835.
    MyJurnal
    Emotional and behavioural problems among children have been increasing in many western as
    well as the eastern countries. Although the problem has been given attention and priority in
    terms of early detection, many children with early symptoms of emotional and behavioural
    problems has still not been detected at the early stages. This phenomenon is worrying as mental
    health problems were shown to be stable in the long run and if left undetected it may manifest
    into various problems in adulthood. This paper explores the issues on emotional and
    behavioural problems in terms of its definition, prevalence, aetiology, long term consequences
    and treatment. It also explores on mental health problems in a non-western country, i.e.
    Malaysia including its prevalence and intervention strategies which has been carried out in
    overcoming this worrying issue. Finally this review paper stresses the importance of providing
    a well-designed epidemiological study in Malaysia in assessing the current prevalence of
    emotional and behavioural problems in young children and adolescent
  19. Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Ahmad Fareed A Rahman, Nur Fatihah Oh Abdullah, Natrah Mohd Saad
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):122-128.
    MyJurnal
    In July 2010 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Niigata University (NU) signed a memorandum of agreement to continue collaboration in joint planning and implementation of education, research and practice services in the field of medicine.This collaboration is also a good opportunity for Doctor of Public Health (DRPH) postgraduate candidates to gain experience on the practice of public health in handling public health issues, planning the healthcare facilities, delivering a quality public health services, enforcing public health policies/regulations and finally learn about the health systems in general at other countries especially from developed country like Japan. Experiencing Health Care and Culture in Niigata, Japan.
  20. Rozaimah Abu Talib, Idayu Badilla Idris, Rosnah Sutan, Norizan Ahmad, Norehan Abu Bakar, Sharifah Hildah Shahab
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):719-726.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction In Malaysia although mortality rate among women of reproductive ages has
    reduced over the years, the reduction has been stagnant for the past ten years.
    In order to achieve the 5th Millennium Development Goal, several measures
    need to be taken including a proper implementation of pre-pregnancy
    services in this country. This study explores the awareness, intention and
    usage of pre-pregnancy care (PPC) services and its determinant among
    women of reproductive ages in Kedah, Malaysia.

    Methods This is a qualitative study, which consisted of a focus group discussion
    (FGD) among women in the ages of 18 to 45 years old from all ethnic groups
    who attended four government clinics in the state of Kedah. The mothers
    were chosen through purposive sampling from twelve districts that were
    selected through a multistage random sampling. A semi-structured
    questionnaire was utilized during the FGD. The results from the FGD were
    recorded verbatim and thematic analysis was finalized once saturation of
    information from respondents was achieved.

    Results These are two themes was identified, namely personal reasons and reasons of
    service and there are several subthemes under two main themes. Under the
    Personal reason themes, the subthemes including awareness and intention to
    used the services, knowledge, perception, social support and history of
    medical illness. While under pre-pregnancy care services themes, the
    subthemes including the promotion of the services, the communication
    relationship with the health staff, the waiting time and also the accessibility
    of the service.

    Conclusions As a conclusion, there is still part of society who was unaware of prepregnancy
    services and its importance in reducing maternal mortality rate as
    well as producing good pregnancy outcome. Information and knowledge on
    pre-pregnancy care services should be disseminated among community
    members through various means including roadshows and pre wedding
    workshops.
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