Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

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  1. Zulkifli Harun, Saharuddin Ahmad
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):878-874.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men
    attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still
    require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion
    and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men
    attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
    Methods A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public
    health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A
    validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic
    questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation
    diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were
    used.
    Results The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE
    15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education
    (p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR
    1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after
    controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological
    disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain
    namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all
    domains with p
  2. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general
    population.

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating
    organization.

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
  3. Zahir Izuan Azhar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Tan, Susan, M.K., Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):713-718.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
    described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
    health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
    this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
    Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian
    adolescents.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
    of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
    Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
    and reliability.

    Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
    adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
    have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
    flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
    258.361, p
  4. Zafar Ahmed, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Aisha Abdussalam, Mahmud Hanesh, Suriati Sukeri, Joseph, Leonard
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):65-74.
    MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL), Activity of Daily Living (ADL), Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) and general health symptoms pre and after hospital-based respiratory physiotherapy program among COPD patients. METHODS. Pre and post intervention study was conducted between January and July 2010. A total of 54 subjects aged between 30 to 40 years old were recruited for this study using universal sampling method from Alzawia Teaching Hospital, Libya. Data collected were socio-demographic data, QOL (before and after the intervention) using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, ADL using the Barthel Index and the General Health Symptoms.
    RESULTS.. The mean SF-36 score for QOL is 30.13 (SD = 8.06) and 63.46 (SD = 13.53) before and after the physiotherapy respectively (with the p <0.0001). Patients’ Activity of Daily Living mean scores are 70.18, (SD = 16.50) and mean = 88.89 (SD = 13.28) before and after program (p< 0.0001). The general medical condition mean score after respiratory physiotherapy is 3.72 as compared to 4.96 before the respiratory physiotherapy (p< 0.0001). Pulmonary Function Test shows improvement in actual/predicted FEV1 ratio in all 54 cases with mean improvement from 55.85 before to 81.67 after the pulmonary physiotherapy (with the p <0.0001).
    CONCLUSION. Hospital based respiratory physiotherapy program had significantly improved QOL, pulmonary function and activities of daily living among the subjects.
  5. Yuhanif Yusof, Anisah Che Ngah, Zaki Morad Mohamad Zaher
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):384-390.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the aspect of information disclosure by
    doctor-investigator during the process of obtaining informed consent in
    clinical trials.

    Methods This research employed a mixed-method data collection that is library
    research and interview. A qualitative methodology and analysis were used in
    an open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 17 patient-subjects. The
    interview questions were based on information that needed to be disclosed to
    patient-subjects during the process of obtaining informed consent. Each
    interview took place in Kajang Hospital and National Heart Institute and
    lasted 25-30 minutes. Interviews were conducted in Bahasa Melayu and
    English. The interviews were tape-recorded, and the main points from the
    interviews were jotted down to ensure that all information was adequately
    gathered. Interviewed occurred in Kajang Hospital and National Heart
    Institute. The participants were patients who had been referred to the Kajang
    Hospital and National Heart Institute. They were recruited (8 from Kajang
    Hospital and 9 from National Heart Institute) by their own doctors to
    participate in a study to evaluate the safety and effectivenes of the
    investigational stent after been diagnosed with coronary artery disease and
    also in a study to investigate drug for antidepressant. respectively.

    Results The study revealed that doctor-investigators fail to disclose full information
    to patient-subjects. Instead, doctor-investigators only disclosed information
    which they thought were necessary for the patient-subjects to know. The
    study also showed that there were doctor-investigators who did not disclose
    information at all to the patient-subjects.

    Conclusions This study implies that the aspect of information disclosure in the process of
    obtaining informed consent in clinical trials is rather poor and did not fulfill
    the criterion of good medical practice. A random monitoring task to be
    conducted by the research ethics commitees during the informed consent
    process is suggested.
  6. Yong, Kang Cheah
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):391-398.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction In light of the important role of health-promoting expenditure in health, the
    objective of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic determinants
    of health-promoting expenditure such as purchase of medical equipment and
    services, food supplements and health education services and products among
    Malaysian adults.

    Methods Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) consisting of 28771
    observations was used for analysis. It was the latest nationally representative
    cross-sectional population-based survey conducted by the Ministry of Health
    Malaysia from April 2006 to January 2007. A censored regression model
    (Tobit) was applied to examine the factors affecting health-promoting
    expenditure.

    Results The results showed that age, income, gender, ethnicity, education, marital
    status, employment status and location of residence were able to affect healthpromoting
    expenditure. In particular, individuals who were younger, poor,
    males, Indian/others, less educated, unmarried, unemployed and residing in
    rural areas tended to spend less money on health promotion compared to
    others.

    Conclusions This study reached a conclusion that socio-demographic factors were
    significantly associated with individual’s preferences for health promotion.
    Therefore, the government should devote its attention to these factors when
    formulating nationwide health policies.
  7. Yeo Pei Sien, Suzana Shahar, Roslee Rajikan, Noor Aini Mohd Yusoff
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):399-404.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Low bone mineral density is a significant problem in children with
    Thalassemia which may lead to increased risk for fragility fractures and
    suboptimal peak bone mass. This cross-sectional study was conducted to
    determine the bone health status of Thalassemia children Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Paediatrics Insititute Kuala
    Lumpur Hospital.

    Methods A total of 81 respondents diagnosed with transfusion dependant beta
    Thalassemia (41 boys and 40 girls) aged between 7 to 19 years old completed
    the study. The data collected were demographic information, anthropometric
    measurements, dairy frequency questionnaires, dietary habits of the
    respondents and their parents, dietary intakes and bone densitometry using
    Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.

    Results For Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters, T-score of 9.8% participants
    were lower than -1.0 and 30.9% of the participants had lower Speed of Sound
    (SOS) than healthy SOS. This study showed there was no difference in bone
    density by sex (p>0.05). The median bone density of boys was 1616.00 m/
    sec (IQR= 39.00) and girls’ was 1579.00 m/ sec (IQR= 116.00). SOS was not
    increased with age, height and weight; but girls’ Body Mass Index (BMI).
    Malay children had significantly higher SOS than non-Malay children.

    Conclusions This study highlights a need of proper intervention for the high risk group to
    achieve optimal bone health.
  8. William Cairns Steward Smith
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):425-430.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
    diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
    disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
    three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.

    Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
    surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
    from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
    sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
    variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
    cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
    registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
    information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
    availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
    factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
    smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
    support planning for prevention and healthcare.

    Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
    trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
    about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
    both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
    main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
    multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
    behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
    Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
    effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
    competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
    health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
    can be beneficial.

    Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
    cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
    individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
    cardiovascular disease.
  9. Vikneswaran Sabramani, Halim Ismail, Asrul Abdul Wahab
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):584-591.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Helminthiasis is a common parasitic condition particularly among children in
    rural areas in developing countries where poor hygiene standard is practiced.
    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of helminthiasis among Indian
    preschoolers in urban areas in Penang and its associated factors.

    Methods A total of 194 urban Indian preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years old were selected
    randomly from 11 kindergartens in the state of Penang for this cross sectional
    study. Data collection was carried out in 2 phases. First, microscopic stool
    examinations were done to examine the presence of helminths. Second, self
    administered questionnaires which inquired about human, environment and
    socioeconomic factors were completed by the parents/guardians.

    Results The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 7.2% and the most frequently
    encountered infective agent was Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%) and followed
    by the tapeworms (42.86%). The logistic regression indicated that habitual
    thumb sucking (AOR= 5.6. 95%CI: 1.73-18.39) and families owning
    domestic pets (AOR= 3.2; 95%CI: 1.03-10.14) were the significant
    contributing factors to helminthiasis among the Indian pre-schoolers in urban
    Penang. Although the prevalence of helminth infection among the urban
    Indian preschoolers is lower than rural area, it is still a public health concern.
    Children habitual thumb sucking and rearing domestic pets at home were the
    significant contributing factors in helminthiasis.

    Conclusion Prevention strategy should focus on health education and promotion among
    adults and children, awareness on domestic animal hygiene and maintaining
    good environmental sanitation. Multi agency collaboration is clearly
    essential, especially between state health, education and veterinary
    departments in curbing this disease.
  10. Ummi Nadiah Yusoff, Diana Mahat, Azahadi Omar, Teh, Chien Huey, Norzawati Yoep, Riyanti Saari
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):249-258.
    MyJurnal
    Mortality estimates are important parameters for health monitoring and are routinely used as evidence for health policy and planning. This study aimed to estimate the mortality component of Burden of Disease in Malaysia in 2008. The 2008 mortality data from the Statistics Department were used to estimate cause-specific mortality (by age and sex) in Malaysia. Data were coded using the ICD10 (International Classification of Disease) coding. Calculation of mortality component of Burden of Disease (ie: Years of Life Lost (YLL) was done using the standard Global Burden of Disease Methodology. The total estimated deaths in Malaysia in 2008 were 124,857, of which 72,202 (57.8%) were males. The total years of life lost (YLL) for the Malaysian population in 2008 was 1.51 million in which 0.92 million (60.7%) was among males. Almost three quarter (68%) of the burden of premature deaths resulted from non-communicable diseases, followed by communicable diseases (20%) and injury (12%). Among the top three leading causes of YLL were ischaemic heart disease (17.1%), stroke (9.6%) and road traffic injuries (8.3%). In Malaysia, premature mortality mainly contributed by non-communicable diseases followed by communicable diseases and injury. A multi-agency collaboration is needed to prevent premature death and to improve quality of life.
  11. Toh, Teck Hock, Wong, See Chang, Muhamad Rais Abdullah
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):33-40.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction More school children were referred for learning difficutly (LD), especially after the introduction of LINUS sccreening programme by Ministry of Education Malaysia.
    Aims To study the clinical diagnosis and non-verbal ability of primary-one school children with LD after paediatric assessment, as well as associated behavioural issues and socio-economincal background.
    Methods Assessment findings by Paediatricians and Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test®(NNAT®) results of all primary-one school children referred in year 2010 with LD were studied retrospectively.
    Results Ninety-three children were included (62.4% male), and 72.0% of them failed the LINUS screening programme. The commonest diagnoses were Borderline Intellectual Disability (ID, 37.6%) and Mild ID (19.4%). Other diagnoses included Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD, 11.8%), Specific Learning Disability (SLD, 10.8%), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 5) and Severe Language Disorder (n = 3). Mean NNAT scores were 84.6 ± 11.8 (n = 85), of which 9.4% children scored less than 70 (
  12. Toh, Teck Hock
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):57-65.
    MyJurnal
    Developmental disabilities in young children are common, and the prevalence is estimated as high as 0.1-1.75% in the children population for each disabilities. With increasing awareness and health expectation, more children with Developmental disabilities are presenting to health care professionals, and at earlier age. Literatures also suggested the importance of early intervention programme in determining the outcome of this group of children. Therefore, it is vital for health professionals who have direct contact with young children are competent in detecting children with possible Developmental disabilities, and have the basic knowledge about some of the common disorders in order to discuss the issues with the parents. It is also important to work with the various resources available in the local community, such as non-governmental organisations for children with special needs, schools offering special education programmes and inclusive classes, and the allied health who provide cares to this group of young children and their family. A lot of information are also available online, and may be offered to help parents gaining more understanding regarding these Developmental disabilities.
  13. Toh, Teck Hock, Nurhilda Abdullah, Chua, Soh Yian, Muhamad Rais Abdullah, Islia Nahazatul, Chieng, Lee Ling
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):66-71.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Special Olympics (SO) Inc. is an organization for people with intellectual disability (ID) to actively engaging in Olympic-type sport and participating in competition. Special Olympic Inc. provides Healthy Athletes Programme (HAP®) in screening and providing health education to Special Olympic Athletes. Objective To study the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), visual acuity and hearing status of children and young adult with ID in Special Olympics Sarawak. Methods Health data were collected by trained health professionals under HAP®held in conjunction with Special Olympics Sarawak State Games on 17th and 18th April 2010 in Sibu. Health data collected were athletes' weight, BMI, BP, ear canal screen and hearing status (oto-acoustic emission, pure tone audiometry), as well as eye health and visual acuity, using guidelines set by HAP®. Results 195 athletes attended the State Games in 2010 of which 138 were screened. Significant number of athletes was considered overweight / obese (31.5% for children and 36.9% for adult). More than 20% of the adult athletes were hypertensive or at risk of hypertension. Sixteen percent of the adult athletes had hearing loss. More than half of the adult and children athletes never had eye checks, and a significant numbers of them had abnormal eye tests results. Conclusions Health screening conducted during the HAP® is a useful screening program in this population. Health data collected can bring awareness to athletes and their family, and corrective measures in hearing and visual impairment can be taken immediately.
  14. Syaqirah Akmal, Nizam Baharom
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(2):184-191.
    MyJurnal
    In the cold winter month of January 2012, two post graduate students from the Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), went on a two weeks field attachment with the Division of International Health (Public Health), Niigata University Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences (NU). This report is an account of our first hand learning experience about the public health system and culture in Niigata, Japan. Famously known as the 'Snow Country', Niigata prefecture is approximately 350 kilometers north of Tokyo, in the middle of the west coast of Honshu island, facing the Sea of Japan. It borders on the east with Fukushima prefecture, which was badly affected by the great tsunami disaster in March 2011. Niigata has a population of two and a half million, of which 21.3% is above the age of 65. Niigata University is located in Niigata City, the capital of Niigata prefecture. This attachment was under the UKM-Global Student Mobility Programme (Outbound) and it was taken as an opportunity to improve the memorandum of understanding between UKM and NU. The objectives were to gain knowledge and experience in various public health issues in a developed nation like Japan. Specifically, we were interested to learn about the local public health programmes, the influenza surveillance system, public health programmes for the elderly population, the Geographical Information System (GIS) and the Japanese culture in general. (Copied from article).
  15. Suzaily Wahab, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Soo, Tze Hui, Siti Juliana Hussin, Mohd Fekri Ahmat Nazri, Izzatul Izzanis Abd Hamid, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):531-537.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Anxiety and depression were known to bring detrimental outcome in patients
    with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Notwithstanding their high prevalence
    and catastrophic impact, anxiety and depression were unrecognized and
    untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety
    and depression among IHD patients and the association of this condition with
    clinical and selected demographic factors.

    Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 100 IHD patients admitted to medical
    ward in UKMMC. Patients diagnosed to have IHD were randomly assessed
    using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Social
    Support (PSS) Questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were obtained by
    direct interview. Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to
    have anxiety, fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two
    percent was noted to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group
    and the duration of illness were found to have significant association with
    anxiety. Socio-demographic data were obtained by direct interview.

    Results Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to have anxiety,
    fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two percent was noted
    to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group and the duration of
    illness were found to have significant association with anxiety. The other
    clinical and selected demographic factors such as gender, race, marital status,
    education level, occupation, co-existing medical illness and social support
    were not found to be significantly associated with anxiety or depression
    among the IHD patients.

    Conclusions In conclusion, proper assessment of anxiety and depression in IHD patients,
    with special attention to patients’ age and duration of illness should be
    carried out routinely to help avert detrimental consequences.
  16. Suraya Hani Mohd Sinon, Nur Syazwani Che Husin, NurulJannah Yusof
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(2):325-333.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study was to determine the profile of patients referred to a specialist oral medicine and oral pathology unit in Kuala Lumpur by reviewing clinical dental records received in Oral Pathology Diagnostic Service (OPDS) in Faculty of Dentistry, UKM from 2001 until 2010. A total of 547 archival biopsy clinical dental records were reviewed and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Oral and maxillofacial diseases were frequently seen in female (1.3:1), young adults (30.0%) of Malay ethnicity (64.6%). Most of the acquired specimens were from dental specialists (n=451, 84.8%), particularly from oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) (n=349, 63.8%) compared to general dental practitioners (GDPs) (n=81, 14.8%). Almost all of the biopsy specimens were of soft tissue origin (n=462, 84.4%), derived from lining mucosa (n=197, 36.0%) and were biopsied excisionally (n=325, 59.4%) more often than by incisional biopsy (n=207, 37.8%). A large proportion of the oral and maxillofacial diseases were of reactive (n=188, 34.4%) and inflammatory (n=121, 22.1%) cause. Tumours are mainly benign (n=69, 12.6%) with only small cases are malignant (n=34, 6.2%). The most common histological diagnoses were accounted by mucocele (n=56, 10.2%), pyogenic granuloma (n=47, 8.6%), fibroepithelial polyp (n=38, 6.9%), radicular cyst (n=33, 6.0%) and periapical granuloma (n=29, 5.3%). This study characterizes the clinical profile of patients seen in our oral medicine and oral pathology unit. Present findings can be used as a reference to the clinicians and pathologists in effective patient management and organization in the future.
  17. Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu, Noor Hassim Ismail, Krishna Gopal Rampal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):543-548.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Physical activity reduces risk of non-communicable diseases. Physical
    activity prevalence is low due to barriers to physical activity. This study was
    conducted to translate the Barrier to Physical Activity (BPA) questionnaire
    into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the translated version
    among nurses.

    Methods The Malay version of BPA was developed after translating the English
    version of BPA through back to back translation process. The Malay BPA
    was distributed among 306 volunteered nurses from 5 government hospitals
    in Selangor state. Factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha test and test – retest
    reliability was conducted to determine psychometric properties of BPA.

    Results Chronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79 for perceived benefits items and 0.51
    for perceived barrier items (overall was 0.73). The ICC was 0.88 (95% CI:
    0.78-0.93) for test-retest testing after 7 days. Two factors components were
    yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.9 and 2.0
    respectively. Both the factors accounts for 31.4 % of the variance. Factor 1
    included 14 items and explained 19.9% of the variance. Factor 2 consisted of
    5 items and explained 11.5% of variance. CFA yielded two factor structures
    with acceptable goodness of fit indices [x2/df = 23.99; GFI = 0.82, SRMR =
    0.09; PNFI = 0.49 and RMSEA = 0.10 (90%CI = 0.09-0.11)].

    Conclusions The Malay version of BPA had demonstrated satisfactory level of validity
    and reliability to assess barriers to physical activity. Therefore, this
    questionnaire is valid in assessing barriers to physical activity among
    working population.
  18. Siti Nor Mat, Norzaher Ismail, Syafiq Taib, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Zahir Izuan Azhar, Mohammad Saffree Jeffre, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1006-1014.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Pneumococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and mortality,
    including among adults. Adult pneumococcal vaccines help to prevent these
    burdens, yet, they are underutilized. Our objective is to systematically collect
    and summarize the available evidence on the potential factors that lead to
    pneumococcal vaccination acceptance among of adult community.
    Methods A systematic literature search was conducted involving studies published
    from January 1999 to December 2015. The studies were identified by
    searching electronic resources (PubMed/MEDLINE and Pro Quest database)
    and manual searches of references. The keywords “vaccine/ immunization”,
    “uptake/ coverage”, “determinant/ factor”, and “Streptococcus pneumoniae/
    pneumococcus/ pneumococcal” were used. Final studies result and data were
    reviewed by two independent authors. Disagreement was resolved through
    discussion and consensus.
    Results A total of 171 studies were identified, only 17 studies were included in final
    discussion with 10 domains identified in the paper. 7 studies (41%) had
    reported that the provider domain, patients’ perception and
    socio-demographic factor have had the most effect on the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance rate. In addition, only 18% (3) of reviewed papers had
    highlighted that socio-economic was a factor influenced the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance while 24% (4 studies) were attributed to the comorbid
    domains.
    Conclusions Healthcare provider and patients’ perception about pneumococcal vaccination
    for adult population are significant domains which influence the acceptance
    towards vaccination. Strong recommendations from healthcare provider for
    pneumococcal vaccination would be an important step to increase vaccination
    acceptance among the population.
  19. Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Norin Rahayu Samsuddin, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed Hussain, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):13-22.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 10 August 2011.
    Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most prevalent female cancer in Malaysia. Almost 70% of its’ causal factors are attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and other risk factors. HPV genotypes distributions are also noted to differ by geographical area.
    Methods This was cross sectional study conducted in 2007, to determine the influencing factors of HPV positivity and prevalence of HPV infections among patients with cervical cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Patients’ paraffin-embedded cervical tissues kept in the Pathology Department from 1999 to 2007 were randomly selected. A total of 81 medical records with complete information were chosen as samples and patients were contacted for consent. Tissue samples were further derived for PCR DNA for HPV genotyping. Analyses included descriptive statistics; bivariate χ2 test and correlation were used to determine relationship between factors and HPV positivity. Significance level of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
    Results Mean age of cancer diagnosis was at 52 ± 12.2 years. Women of Chinese ethnicity was the highest ethnicity to be HPV positive at 65.4% and squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly found (59.3%) compared with other types of cancers. The prevalence of HPV positivity was 92.6% with type 16 being the most common (74.1%), followed by type 33 (30.9%) and 18 (22.2%). Multiple HPV infections were a common finding at 54.3%. Factors thought to influence positivity i.e. age of intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of parity, smoking status of patients and their partners, oral contraceptive usage, presence of chronic illnesses and cancer stage were not significantly associated with HPV positivity. Increased CC severity level was not associated with increased number of HPV infections (Pearson correlation 0.58; p =0.607).
    Conclusions High HPV positivity at 92.6% was found among ICC patients. Factors thought to influence HPV positivity were not significant. The top three HPV genotypes were type 16 followed by type 33 and 18. However, local women HPV serotypes findings need to be replicated in a larger population sample.
  20. Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Norehan Abdullah, Shri Dewi Applanaidu
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):741-749.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia shows a
    rising trend that influences the society in many respects. Country specific
    evidence is vital for effective intervention. The aims of this study were to
    identify the role of gender and urbanisation status on NCDs prevalence and
    its effect on health care demand, specifically doctor visits among elderly in
    Malaysia. We focused on two of the highest occurrence NCDs in the country
    – diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Methods A total of 1,414 respondents aged 60 years and above were selected using a
    multistage sampling for face-to-face interview. We started the analysis with
    descriptive analysis of the prevalence, taking the effect of gender and
    urbanisation status of residing area. We extended the study with parametric
    analysis to find the effect of these health problems on the likelihood of doctor
    visits as it reflects the equity for access and utilisation issues.

    Results Results showed that there were no significant difference of prevalence by
    gender and urbanisation for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By utilising
    probit model, we found that those with diabetes mellitus or hypertension,
    controlling for other variables, were more likely to utilise doctor services.

    Conclusion This result implies that the prevalence of NCDs may further increase demand
    for health care, especially in the state with a high proportion of older age
    groups.
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