Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

  1. Omar A, Yusoff MF, Hiong TG, Aris T, Morton J, Pujari S
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(2):297-305.
    PMID: 26451348 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies.
    METHODS: GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    RESULTS: GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays.
    CONCLUSIONS: The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
  2. Rozaimah Abu Talib, Idayu Badilla Idris, Rosnah Sutan, Norizan Ahmad, Norehan Abu Bakar, Sharifah Hildah Shahab
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):719-726.
    Introduction In Malaysia although mortality rate among women of reproductive ages has
    reduced over the years, the reduction has been stagnant for the past ten years.
    In order to achieve the 5th Millennium Development Goal, several measures
    need to be taken including a proper implementation of pre-pregnancy
    services in this country. This study explores the awareness, intention and
    usage of pre-pregnancy care (PPC) services and its determinant among
    women of reproductive ages in Kedah, Malaysia.

    Methods This is a qualitative study, which consisted of a focus group discussion
    (FGD) among women in the ages of 18 to 45 years old from all ethnic groups
    who attended four government clinics in the state of Kedah. The mothers
    were chosen through purposive sampling from twelve districts that were
    selected through a multistage random sampling. A semi-structured
    questionnaire was utilized during the FGD. The results from the FGD were
    recorded verbatim and thematic analysis was finalized once saturation of
    information from respondents was achieved.

    Results These are two themes was identified, namely personal reasons and reasons of
    service and there are several subthemes under two main themes. Under the
    Personal reason themes, the subthemes including awareness and intention to
    used the services, knowledge, perception, social support and history of
    medical illness. While under pre-pregnancy care services themes, the
    subthemes including the promotion of the services, the communication
    relationship with the health staff, the waiting time and also the accessibility
    of the service.

    Conclusions As a conclusion, there is still part of society who was unaware of prepregnancy
    services and its importance in reducing maternal mortality rate as
    well as producing good pregnancy outcome. Information and knowledge on
    pre-pregnancy care services should be disseminated among community
    members through various means including roadshows and pre wedding
  3. Narwani Hussin, Wong, Mabelle, Liew, Houng Bang, Liau, Siow Yen
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):736-740.
    Introduction: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) has been thought as a disease of poor socioeconomic status. It is more prevalent in underdeveloped and developing countries than in developed countries. It is also common among the population with multiple social issues such as overcrowded dwellings, undernutrition, poor sanitation and suboptimal medical care. This study was done to review the socio demographic profiles of RHD patients in Hospital Queen Elizabeth (HQE) II, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
    Methods: A secondary data review of all patients registered under the RHD registry in HQE II for one- year starting from July 2013 to June 2014.
    Results: 204 RHD patients were included. Nearly three quarter (74.0%) were female. The mean age was 40.43 (14.75) years old. 61.1% has completed secondary
    education. 42.7% were housewives. The mean monthly income was RM 1363.83 (1297.05) which was categorized under the vulnerable income group. When they were categorized under the poverty level and the vulnerable income group, 42.6% and 76.5% of them fell under those categories respectively. The nearest health facilities to their houses were district hospitals (33.3%) with the mean distance of 9.17 km and health clinics (30.8%) with the mean distance of 4.27 km. Only 11.5% of them lived near the specialist hospitals with the mean distance of 21.32 km.
    Conclusions: Results from this review suggested that majority of RHD patients were in the low socioeconomic group with less access to health care facilities with specialist care. They are the most vulnerable groups and need to be prioritized in the specialized care program. .
  4. Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Jonathan Lamit, Nor Farahana Razali, Ong, Li Chin, Naim Syahidah Zulkafli, Norfazilah Ahmad
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):494-500.
    Introduction Sleep has played a very important role in maintaining our health with good
    living quality therefore the aim of this study is to determine the pattern of
    sleep duration, especially short sleep and its associated factors among
    workers in a tertiary institution.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January until May 2012 among
    128 randomly selected Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre
    (UKMMC) staffs. Data was collected using a guided standardized data sheet
    which consist of three sections; (1):sociodemographic &socioeconomic, (2):
    lifestyle and, (3): anthropometric measurement and sleep diary. Data entry
    and analysis were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
    version 20.0.
    Results Majority of the staffs had normal sleep duration (67.2%) followed by short
    sleep duration (26.6%) and long sleep duration (6.3%). Simple logistic
    regression analysis indicated that late night snacking was significantly related
    to short sleep (cOR=3.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 12.23, p=0.048).
    Conclusions Adequate sleep is important to maintain one’s health. Steps can be taken to
    limit late night snacking in order to improve the sleep pattern in this study
  5. Muhammad Firdaus Ujang, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):500-509.
    Introduction Prevalence of adolescents involved in sexual and reproductive problems is on
    rise and it was associated with its knowledge. Several factors found to be
    associated with the knowledge and various sources of knowledge are chosen
    by adolescents for this information. Thus, this study was to determine the
    knowledge score, its influencing factors and the preference of the sources of

    Methods A cross-sectional study was done using adopted questionnaire involving 330
    respondents aged 18 and 19 years old in Kolej MARA Seremban selected by
    simple random sampling. They were gathered in the halls and 338
    adolescents from 454 students consented to involve in this study. Selfadministered
    questionnaire was used whereby a correct response was given a
    score of 2, 0 for an incorrect response and 1 for an answer of don’t know.
    Total score for all correct answers was 42. Descriptive analysis, bivariate and
    multivariate analysis was done in the analysis.

    Results The mean knowledge score was 37.32 (±2.967) with a significant difference
    for gender. Internets were the most common and preferred sources of the
    knowledge among them. There was 5.2% of them had heard on SMS
    intervention and 37.0% of them disagreed on SMS intervention.

    Conclusions The result showed that the knowledge score was lower in males than females
    and internets were the most preferred source of the knowledge. Thus,
    interventions for knowledge improvement should be more on male
  6. Shamzaeffa Samsudin, Norehan Abdullah, Shri Dewi Applanaidu
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):741-749.
    Introduction The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Malaysia shows a
    rising trend that influences the society in many respects. Country specific
    evidence is vital for effective intervention. The aims of this study were to
    identify the role of gender and urbanisation status on NCDs prevalence and
    its effect on health care demand, specifically doctor visits among elderly in
    Malaysia. We focused on two of the highest occurrence NCDs in the country
    – diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Methods A total of 1,414 respondents aged 60 years and above were selected using a
    multistage sampling for face-to-face interview. We started the analysis with
    descriptive analysis of the prevalence, taking the effect of gender and
    urbanisation status of residing area. We extended the study with parametric
    analysis to find the effect of these health problems on the likelihood of doctor
    visits as it reflects the equity for access and utilisation issues.

    Results Results showed that there were no significant difference of prevalence by
    gender and urbanisation for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. By utilising
    probit model, we found that those with diabetes mellitus or hypertension,
    controlling for other variables, were more likely to utilise doctor services.

    Conclusion This result implies that the prevalence of NCDs may further increase demand
    for health care, especially in the state with a high proportion of older age
  7. Balsam Mahdi Nasir Al-Zurfi, Maher D. Fuad Fuad, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Mohammed A. AbdalQader, Maged Elnajeh, Mohammed Faez Baobaid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(2):750-756.
    Introduction Drug abuse has been a global threat not only in Malaysia but worldwide,
    especially among adolescents. This is alarming issue had been a serious
    public health problem worldwide. The aim of the study is to access the
    knowledge and attitude on drug abuse among Pahang Matriculation students
    in 2016.

    Methods A cross¬-sectional study was conducted involving 217 matriculation
    students. A self-determined questionnaire was distributed among the students
    regarding knowledge and attitude about drugs.

    Results The prevalence of good knowledge on drug abuse was (82.03%). The
    prevalence of students’ attitude on drug abuse has higher number of good
    attitude with the sum of 182 (83.9 %). Only gender showed a significant
    association with students’ knowledge (P= 0.046).

    Conclusion The knowledge, attitude, and practice of drug abuse among Pahang
    Matriculation students are good.
  8. William Cairns Steward Smith
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):425-430.
    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
    diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
    disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
    three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.

    Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
    surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
    from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
    sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
    variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
    cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
    registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
    information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
    availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
    factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
    smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
    support planning for prevention and healthcare.

    Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
    trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
    about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
    both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
    main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
    multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
    behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
    Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
    effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
    competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
    health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
    can be beneficial.

    Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
    cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
    individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
    cardiovascular disease.
  9. Rashidah Ambak, Balkish Mahadir Naidu, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Syafinaz Mohd Sallehuddin, Tahir Aris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):449-456.
    Introduction Food labeling regulation has been implemented to enable consumers,
    including those with chronic diseases to make healthy informed choices
    before purchasing pre-packaged foods. The purpose of this study is to
    determine the prevalence of obese adults in Malaysia who practice reading
    food labels. It explored types of labels read and understanding of the

    Methods Findings presented in this study were captured from the secondary analysis of
    National Health and Morbidity Survey’s (NHMS, 2006) food label study
    which focused only on obese adults (BMI > 30 kg/m2) aged 18 and above.
    This nation-wide cross sectional study was conducted from April to August
    2006 using an interview-based questionnaire. Complex data analysis was
    done using Stata version 12.0.

    Results There were 4565 obese respondents with the mean age of 33 ± 9.7 (18 – 60
    years old). About 54.7% completed high-school and 9.9% were higher degree
    holders. Prevalence of obese adults who claimed to read label was 80.5%
    (95%CI: 79.3, 81.6). Findings showed significant results in reading and
    understanding labels among all age group categories, Malay, Indian and other
    Bumiputras, all education categories and married respondents. Expiry date
    was the highest percentage being read (74.5%), followed by fat content
    (15.3%), vitamin (11.8%) and carbohydrate (10.9%).

    Conclusions The obese population in Malaysia claimed to read and understand the food
    label but did not focus on specific macronutrients related to their health
    condition. Findings can be used to implement effective education
    programmes targeting the relevant groups to instill an awareness to read,
    understand and use the label information as one of the means in combating
  10. Yeo PS, Shahar S, Rajikan R, Mohd Yusoff NA
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4St(1):399-404.
    Introduction Low bone mineral density is a significant problem in children with Thalassemia which may lead to increased risk for fragility fractures and suboptimal peak bone mass. This cross-sectional study was conducted to
    determine the bone health status of Thalassemia children Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Paediatrics Insititute Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
    Methods A total of 81 respondents diagnosed with transfusion dependant beta Thalassemia (41 boys and 40 girls) aged between 7 to 19 years old completed the study. The data collected were demographic information, anthropometric measurements, dairy frequency questionnaires, dietary habits of the respondents and their parents, dietary intakes and bone densitometry using Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.
    Results For Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters, T-score of 9.8% participants were lower than -1.0 and 30.9% of the participants had lower Speed of Sound (SOS) than healthy SOS. This study showed there was no difference in bone density by sex (p>0.05). The median bone density of boys was 1616.00 m/sec (IQR= 39.00) and girls’ was 1579.00 m/ sec (IQR= 116.00). SOS was not increased with age, height and weight; but girls’ Body Mass Index (BMI). Malay children had significantly higher SOS than non-Malay children.
    Conclusions This study highlights a need of proper intervention for the high risk group to achieve optimal bone health.
    Study site: inpatient or outpatient, Institut Pediatrik (Hospital Kuala Lumpur), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  11. Noor Sazarina Mad Isa @ Yahya, Baba Md Deros, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Mazrura Sahani
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):412-418.
    Introduction It is well known that low back pain among working population is a global
    problem throughout the world. However, the current situation of occupational
    low back pain in Malaysia is still vague due to limited number of studies
    conducted locally.

    Objective A cross sectional study was conducted among three automotive industry
    workers in Selangor, Malaysia from October 2010 to April 2011.
    Methods This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low back pain
    among automotive industry workers performing manual material handling
    tasks using self-administered questionnaire survey.

    Results A modified Standardised Nordic Questionnaire was used to assess low back
    pain problem, to obtain personal and psychosocial risk factors information.
    The prevalence of low back pain showed increment in the point prevalence of
    57.9%, 49.5%, and 35.1 % for 12 months, one month, and of 7 days
    respectively. Working hour, frequency of overtime, stress at work, work
    pace, and faster movement were found to be significantly associated with the
    12 months prevalence for low back pain.

    Conclusions This finding indicates that psychosocial risk factors are associated to the
    occurrence of low back pain.
  12. Zoharah Omar, Roohangiz Karimi, Nor Azida Nayan, Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):457-464.
    Introduction This study investigates work engagement of employed breast cancer
    survivors in comparison to unmatched control samples of healthy working
    women without cancer and any other chronic diseases from the general

    Methods A case-control study design using unmatched controls was adopted in this
    study. The case comprised of 80 female breast cancer survivors who have
    returned to full-time employment selected using purposive sampling
    technique. Meanwhile, controls were 88 healthy female working women in
    full time paid employment, selected using quota sampling. Questionnaire
    covering socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated work engagement
    measured using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) was distributed to
    the cancer survivors through face-to-face meeting during their hospital visits.
    For the healthy controls the questionnaires were distributed using drop-andcollect
    method through the human resource personnel of the participating

    Results The results revealed, after controlling for age, marital status, ethnic group and
    tenure with organization, no significant differences in the overall work
    engagement was found between the breast cancer survivors [mean (SD) =
    4.66 (0.92)] and the healthy controls [mean (SD) = 4.75 (0.85)]; F(1, 163)
    =1.70. In comparison to the work engagement domains, only the Vigor
    domain was found to be significantly lower for the survivors, survivors [F (1,
    163) =14.94; p
  13. Hasimah Ismail, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Lim, Kuang Kuay
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):465-471.
    Introduction Healthy dietary practice is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing the rate of diabetes complication development. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the association of dietary practice with glycaemic control among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, who received treatment from an urban Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur.
    Methods A total of 307 patients with T2DM aged 18 years and above participated in this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire with guided interview was used to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and dietary practice. Anthropometric and biological measurements were also taken. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used in the data analysis. Good glycaemic control was defined as HbA1c level less than 6.5%.
    Results The prevalence of good glycaemic control was only 27% (n=83). The highest percentage of good glycaemic control were among male patients (29.1%), aged 60 and above (33.3%), educational level of primary school (35.4%) and those with monthly income group between RM1001 to RM1500 (32.0%). About three quarter of T2DM patient (n=224) had poor control of HbA1c (≥6.5%). Age (p=0.045) and working status (p=0.039) had significant relationship with the level of HbA1c. Dietary practice showed no significant relationship with the HbA1c level.
    Conclusions Effective interventional health education strategies are needed, focussing on modification of dietary behaviour in order to achieve glycaemic control among diabetic patients.
  14. Najwa Haneem Mohamad, Zoharah Omar, Nor Aina Emran
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):376-383.
    Introduction Breast cancer is ranked number one from the ten most frequent cancers in
    female, Peninsular Malaysia. Various studies provide negative evidence on
    malignancies and one of the end results is impaired quality of life (QOL).
    Studies show lifestyle approaches are key factors in enhancing the QOL
    among cancer survivors. The purpose of this study is to describe the lifestyle
    practices (LP) among breast cancer survivors (BCS) which consist of dietary
    intake, exercise habits, and stress management and to determine whether
    these practices have influence on the QOL among Malaysian BCS.

    Methods This study adopts a cross-sectional study design using a self-administered
    questionnaire. A total of 280 BCS from public and private hospitals
    throughout Peninsular Malaysia had participated. The questionnaire covers
    QOL and LP items which consist of dietary intake (consumption of high-fat
    food, high-fibre food, fruits and vegetables), exercise habits, and stress
    management. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA were used to
    determine the relationship between LP and QOL.

    Results Mean age of the study sample was at 41 (SD=7.37). Majority of them were
    Malay (74%), 53% were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1 to 2 years
    whereas 54% were presented with stage 2 at diagnosis. There was a
    statistically significant difference (p
  15. Yuhanif Yusof, Anisah Che Ngah, Zaki Morad Mohamad Zaher
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):384-390.
    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the aspect of information disclosure by
    doctor-investigator during the process of obtaining informed consent in
    clinical trials.

    Methods This research employed a mixed-method data collection that is library
    research and interview. A qualitative methodology and analysis were used in
    an open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 17 patient-subjects. The
    interview questions were based on information that needed to be disclosed to
    patient-subjects during the process of obtaining informed consent. Each
    interview took place in Kajang Hospital and National Heart Institute and
    lasted 25-30 minutes. Interviews were conducted in Bahasa Melayu and
    English. The interviews were tape-recorded, and the main points from the
    interviews were jotted down to ensure that all information was adequately
    gathered. Interviewed occurred in Kajang Hospital and National Heart
    Institute. The participants were patients who had been referred to the Kajang
    Hospital and National Heart Institute. They were recruited (8 from Kajang
    Hospital and 9 from National Heart Institute) by their own doctors to
    participate in a study to evaluate the safety and effectivenes of the
    investigational stent after been diagnosed with coronary artery disease and
    also in a study to investigate drug for antidepressant. respectively.

    Results The study revealed that doctor-investigators fail to disclose full information
    to patient-subjects. Instead, doctor-investigators only disclosed information
    which they thought were necessary for the patient-subjects to know. The
    study also showed that there were doctor-investigators who did not disclose
    information at all to the patient-subjects.

    Conclusions This study implies that the aspect of information disclosure in the process of
    obtaining informed consent in clinical trials is rather poor and did not fulfill
    the criterion of good medical practice. A random monitoring task to be
    conducted by the research ethics commitees during the informed consent
    process is suggested.
  16. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):419-424.
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), is one of the most important micronutrient
    deficiencies which has multiple adverse effects on growth and development.
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IDD among school
    children and to elucidate the distribution of iodized salt at household level in
    Sarawak, East Malaysia.

    Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among school children aged 8 to 10
    years in 2008. A multi-stage probability proportionate to population size
    (PPS) cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative state
    sample of 1200 school children. Spot urine samples were collected for the
    determination of urinary iodine concentration while the iodine content in salt
    was determined using field rapid test kits. The thyroid status was determined
    by palpation.

    Results Response rate was 92.0% (n=1104/1200). The prevalence of goitre among
    school children in Sarawak was 2.9% (5.2% in urban, 0.7% in rural). The
    median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the school children was
    102.1 μg/L (IQR, 62.3-146.5 μg/L). Urban children had significantly higher
    median UIC of 109.3 μg/L (IQR, 72.4-159.0 μg/L) than their rural
    counterparts [91.9 μg/L (IQR, 55.7-140.2 μg/L)]. The salt samples tested by
    rapid test kit (RTK) showed only 46.0% of household salt contained iodine.

    Conclusions The present study revealed that the population in Sarawak were of borderline
    iodine sufficient with mild IDD seen in rural areas. Hence, the state IDD
    control programmes need to encourage and advocate the consumption of
    iodized salt in order to eliminate IDD-related health problems in Sarawak.
  17. Yong, Kang Cheah
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):391-398.
    Introduction In light of the important role of health-promoting expenditure in health, the
    objective of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic determinants
    of health-promoting expenditure such as purchase of medical equipment and
    services, food supplements and health education services and products among
    Malaysian adults.

    Methods Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) consisting of 28771
    observations was used for analysis. It was the latest nationally representative
    cross-sectional population-based survey conducted by the Ministry of Health
    Malaysia from April 2006 to January 2007. A censored regression model
    (Tobit) was applied to examine the factors affecting health-promoting

    Results The results showed that age, income, gender, ethnicity, education, marital
    status, employment status and location of residence were able to affect healthpromoting
    expenditure. In particular, individuals who were younger, poor,
    males, Indian/others, less educated, unmarried, unemployed and residing in
    rural areas tended to spend less money on health promotion compared to

    Conclusions This study reached a conclusion that socio-demographic factors were
    significantly associated with individual’s preferences for health promotion.
    Therefore, the government should devote its attention to these factors when
    formulating nationwide health policies.
  18. Satrinawati, Rosnah Sutan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(2):472-479.
    Introduction The health of newborns is inextricably linked to that of their mothers. Some
    maternal factors can influence neonatal survival, particularly for low birth
    weight babies who are more vulnerable to diseases than normal weight
    babies. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of maternal factors on
    neonatal mortality among low birth weight babies in Aceh Province,

    Methods Study design was unmatched case control. Data collected from 2010 to 2012
    in 8 districts in Aceh province, Indonesia. Total sample was 500, divided into
    250 LBW who died in neonatal period (case group) and 250 who did not die
    in neonatal period (control group). There were 6 maternal variables analysed.

    Results Three of six variables analysed were not associated with neonatal mortality
    among LBW (P > 0.05); these were: maternal death, parity and education
    level. The age of the mother had a significant association with neonatal
    mortality among LBW (P < 0.05), but was not a determinant factor. The
    maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW(P < 0.05); maternal illness (Adj OR= 2.6; 95 % CI:
    1.68 - 4.0) and birth interval (Adj OR= 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.20 - 2.91).

    Conclusions Maternal illness and birth interval were determinant factors of neonatal
    mortality among LBW. Appropriate care throughout stages of pregnancy and
    increasing women’s knowledge on high risk pregnancy are the key factors to
    the decrease of the neonatal mortality related to the maternal factors.
  19. Zahir Izuan Azhar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Tan, Susan, M.K., Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):713-718.
    Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
    described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
    health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
    this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
    Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
    of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
    Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
    and reliability.

    Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
    adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
    have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
    flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
    258.361, p
  20. Norlen Mohamed, Lokman Hakim Sulaiman, Thahirahtul Asma Zakaria, Anis Salwa Kamarudin, Daud Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):685-694.
    Introduction During haze, at what level should Air Pollutant Index (API) showed, public
    or private school be closed is not without controversy and is very much
    debated. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to objectively quantify the
    potential inhaled dose of PM10 associated with exposure at school and home
    microenvironments during haze. The result of the health risk assessment will
    be used to propose the API level for closing the school during haze episode.

    Methods A hypothetical haze exposure scenario was created using the breakpoints of
    PM10 concentration for calculation of API and respective inhaled dose during
    haze. To determine the potential inhaled dose, we have considered many
    factors that include time spent for specific physical intensity at school and
    home microenvironments, age-specific and physical intensity-specific
    inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. To calculate
    risk quotient (RQ), the inhaled dose was compared with the health reference
    dose computed based on the concentration of PM10 in the Malaysian
    Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Results When considering the specific exposure at each microenvironment (school
    and home), the potential inhaled dose of PM10 was substantially lower when
    school is closed for both primary and secondary school. The calculated risk
    quotient (RQ) indicates that primary school children are likely to be affected
    at slightly lower PM10 concentration (equivalent to API of 197) as compared
    to secondary school children. Short duration of high physical activity
    intensity during school breaks has contributed to a large proportion of inhaled
    dose among school children indicating the important to avoid physical
    activities during haze.

    Conclusion Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk
    assessment methodology, we proposed school to be closed when API reach
    190 for both primary and secondary schools. These findings and
    recommendations are only valid for naturally ventilated school and applicable
    in the context of the current API calculation system and the existing
    Recommended Air Quality Guideline values in Malaysia.
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