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  1. Suzaily Wahab, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Soo, Tze Hui, Siti Juliana Hussin, Mohd Fekri Ahmat Nazri, Izzatul Izzanis Abd Hamid, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):531-537.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Anxiety and depression were known to bring detrimental outcome in patients
    with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Notwithstanding their high prevalence
    and catastrophic impact, anxiety and depression were unrecognized and
    untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety
    and depression among IHD patients and the association of this condition with
    clinical and selected demographic factors.

    Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 100 IHD patients admitted to medical
    ward in UKMMC. Patients diagnosed to have IHD were randomly assessed
    using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Social
    Support (PSS) Questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were obtained by
    direct interview. Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to
    have anxiety, fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two
    percent was noted to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group
    and the duration of illness were found to have significant association with
    anxiety. Socio-demographic data were obtained by direct interview.

    Results Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to have anxiety,
    fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two percent was noted
    to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group and the duration of
    illness were found to have significant association with anxiety. The other
    clinical and selected demographic factors such as gender, race, marital status,
    education level, occupation, co-existing medical illness and social support
    were not found to be significantly associated with anxiety or depression
    among the IHD patients.

    Conclusions In conclusion, proper assessment of anxiety and depression in IHD patients,
    with special attention to patients’ age and duration of illness should be
    carried out routinely to help avert detrimental consequences.
  2. Lim, Kuang Hock, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Kee, Chee Cheong, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Amal Nasir Mustafa
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):85-92.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 8 February 2012.
    Introduction Social norms, though an important contributing factor of adolescent smoking in developed countries, has not been extensively studied in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the association between certain perceived norms regarding smoking with smoking status among Malaysian secondary school students in Kota Tinggi, Johor.
    Methods Data were collected from 2311 respondents consisting of 1379 male and 923 female secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district via a self administered questionnaire. Five perceived norms regarding smoking were assessed, namely: perceived peer smoking prevalence, perceived parental reaction towards adolescent smoking, perceived public perception of adolescent smoking, ever noticed peers smoking inside and outside school and perceived enforcement of anti-smoking policy in school and their association with smoking status. Multiple logistic regressions controlling for gender, peer smoking and family smoking was performed.
    Results Of the five perceived norms, four were associated with smoking status, (perceived peer smoking prevalence (p
  3. Hasimah Ismail, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Mohammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Lim, Kuang Kuay, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):677-684.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide
    and many of these affected individuals remain unidentified. Undiagnosed
    T2DM may impose substantial public health implications because these
    individuals remain untreated and at risk for complications. The objective of
    this study was to determine the national prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM
    and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted involving 17,783
    respondents. Two-stage stratified sampling design was used to select a
    representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Structured
    validated questionnaires with face to face interviews were used to obtain
    data. Respondents, who claimed that they were not having diabetes, were
    then asked to perform a fasting blood glucose finger-prick test by Accutrend
    GC machine.

    Results The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was 8.9% (n=1587). The highest
    percentage of undiagnosed T2DM was found among males (10.2%), 55-59
    years old (13.4%), highest education attainers of primary school (11.1%),
    Indians (10.3%), married (10.3%), working (8.9%) and living in the urban
    areas (9.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with
    undiagnosed T2DM were gender, age group, ethnicity, marital status, obesity
    and hypertension.

    Conclusion This study found an increasing trend of undiagnosed T2DM in Malaysia
    compared to 2006. This finding is alarming as risk factors associated with
    undiagnosed diabetes were related to most of the socio-demographic factors
    studied. Therefore, early diabetic screening is crucial especially among adults
    aged 30 and above to prevent more serious complications of this disease.
  4. Vikneswaran Sabramani, Halim Ismail, Asrul Abdul Wahab
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):584-591.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Helminthiasis is a common parasitic condition particularly among children in
    rural areas in developing countries where poor hygiene standard is practiced.
    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of helminthiasis among Indian
    preschoolers in urban areas in Penang and its associated factors.

    Methods A total of 194 urban Indian preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years old were selected
    randomly from 11 kindergartens in the state of Penang for this cross sectional
    study. Data collection was carried out in 2 phases. First, microscopic stool
    examinations were done to examine the presence of helminths. Second, self
    administered questionnaires which inquired about human, environment and
    socioeconomic factors were completed by the parents/guardians.

    Results The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 7.2% and the most frequently
    encountered infective agent was Ascaris lumbricoides (57.1%) and followed
    by the tapeworms (42.86%). The logistic regression indicated that habitual
    thumb sucking (AOR= 5.6. 95%CI: 1.73-18.39) and families owning
    domestic pets (AOR= 3.2; 95%CI: 1.03-10.14) were the significant
    contributing factors to helminthiasis among the Indian pre-schoolers in urban
    Penang. Although the prevalence of helminth infection among the urban
    Indian preschoolers is lower than rural area, it is still a public health concern.
    Children habitual thumb sucking and rearing domestic pets at home were the
    significant contributing factors in helminthiasis.

    Conclusion Prevention strategy should focus on health education and promotion among
    adults and children, awareness on domestic animal hygiene and maintaining
    good environmental sanitation. Multi agency collaboration is clearly
    essential, especially between state health, education and veterinary
    departments in curbing this disease.
  5. Mosa'ad Mohaideen, Aref Yousuf, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):852-859.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The quality of education is one of the controversial topics and vital issues that
    requires more emphases from researchers due to the current challenges in
    education at the university level. Involvement and participation from the
    studentis essential to implement quality assurance and to reach for academic
    accreditation. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitudes, and
    practices (KAP) of students towards TQM in education and its influencing
    factorsatHigh Institute of Health Sciences (HIHS) in Sana'a, Yemen.
    Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was
    conducted in 2016. A total of 208 students from second and third study levels
    in HIHS had participated from 268 students were observed (study
    population). Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and one-way ANOVA were
    used to determine the association between students’ KAP towards TQM in
    education with its influencing factors.
    Results Mean age of the students were 22.44(SD±2.027) year old. Majority of HIHS
    students were male 135 (64.9%) and 108 (51.9%) were from the third
    studying level. The highest students' KAP scores were 53.4%, 65.4%, and
    41.3% for good knowledge, good attitudes, and moderate practices
    respectively. Education Department was found to be significantly associated
    with students' knowledge and practices with p
  6. Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf, Ahmad Fareed Abdul Rahman Aniza Ismail, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Azimatunnoor Aizuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):950-955.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The availability of obesity specific quality of life measurement tool is limited.
    The Malay version of Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite is an obesity
    specific quality of life questionnaire which has been translated for use in
    Malaysia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of this
    questionnaire to measure quality of life among different body mass index
    (BMI) groups.
    Methods One hundred and twenty subjects with different BMI categories who attended
    an outpatient government clinic were recruited for this study. The translated
    Malay version of IWQOL-Lite was used to assess the impact of weight on
    quality of life of respondents. Content validity, criterion validity and construct
    validity were used to assess the questionnaire validity while internal
    consistencies and test-retest reliability were used to assess the questionnaire
    reliability.
    Results The Malay version of IWQOL-Lite showed good psychometric properties. The
    content validity was agreed upon by expert panels. The mean score of all
    IWQOL-Lite domains were able to discriminate between different BMI
    groups. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha of
    0.936. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.828 to 0.932. The physical function
    score (IWQOL-Lite) correlated positively with Physical Component Summary
    of Short Form-36 questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis found that the
    questions loaded on their respective five domains.
    Conclusions The results suggested that the Malay version of IWQOL-Lite is a valid and
    reliable tool to measure quality of life among obese and overweight subjects in
    Malaysia.
  7. Norfazilah Ahmad, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Nurmawati Ahmad, Zaleha Md Nor, Juhaida Mohd Noor, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):924-932.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge especially in low- and
    middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis.
    Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective
    targeted approach to intensify TB case finding.
    Methods Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database,
    this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact
    screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of
    appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24
    articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014.
    Results Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is
    better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include
    close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1
    year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited
    setting. Tuberculin skin test is still of value as screening tool and intensified
    case finding must be accompanied with effective management protocol.
    Prophylaxis treatment is recommended especially for children especially less
    than 5 years old, unvaccinated, malnourished, living with person having HIV
    and close contact with MDR-TB.
    Conclusions Policy recommendations in improving TB management must incorporate
    complementary strategies to enhance case finding, effective management
    protocol for follow up or prophylaxis treatment, training for public health
    capacity and concerted dedication from various stakeholders
  8. Nor Dalila Marican, Rozita Hod, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Azmi Hassan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):933-938.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Non-specific low back pain is one of the most common physical ailments
    affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition constitutes a
    significant public health problem and was listed as a prevalent health
    complaint in most societies. Even though there are many anecdotal claims
    for reflexology in the treatment of various conditions such as a migraine,
    arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but very little clinical evidence exists for
    reflexology on the management of low back pain per se. This study aims to
    evaluate the effects of foot reflexology therapy as an adjunctive treatment to
    the Malaysian low back pain standard care in relieving pain and promoting
    health-related quality of life among people with non-specific low back pain.
    Methods This is a parallel randomized controlled trial with pre and post-treatment
    study design. The study setting for the intervention located at Penawar
    Reflexology Center, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100
    participants with non-specific low back pain will be allocated to one of two
    groups, using a randomization computer program of Research Randomizer.
    The control group will receive low back pain standard care, while the
    intervention group will receive standard care plus eight sessions of foot
    reflexology therapy. The pain intensity and health-related quality of life
    scores will be measured using Visual Analogue Scale and Euro-quality of
    life scale respectively in both groups. The study was approved by the
    Human Research Ethics Committee of University Sultan Zainal Abidin
    (UHREC/2016/2/011). The study protocol was registered at
    ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT02887430.
    Measurements Outcome measures will be undertaken at pre-intervention (week 1), postintervention
    (week 6) and follow-up (week 10).
    Conclusions This will be the first trial to compare the foot reflexology therapy with
    control group among people who medically diagnosed with non-specific low
    back pain in Malaysia. The result of this study will contribute to better
    management of this population, especially for Malaysia healthcare setting.
  9. Edmund Yu, Wei Chang, Narwani Hussin, Marliana Abd Rahim, Sreevali, Muthuvadivelu, Chan, Wai Seong
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):907-912.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction There is an increasing trend of obesity in children and adolescent globally.
    The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of overweight
    and obesity among students from secondary schools and to determine the
    mean random blood sugar (RBS) for the overweight and obese students.
    Methods This was a cross sectional study. Two secondary schools that were scheduled
    for visit by the School Health Team, Taiping in July 2016 were included. A
    standardized data collection sheet was used to collect the data. Overweight
    and obesity were defined based on WHO 2007 reference for BMI-for-age
    criteria. Random blood glucose was checked for overweight and obese
    students.
    Results A total of 184 school students consented and participated. 128 (69.6%) were
    female and 90 (48.9%) were Malays. The mean weight and height were 56.21
    kg and 1.61 m respectively with BMI of 21.49 kg/m2
    . Overall, the prevalence
    of obese and overweight were 12.5% and 10.9% respectively. Among the 4
    BMI groups, there were no significant difference found in sex (p=0.849) and
    races (p=0.536). However, there was significant difference (p=0.042) in
    mean RBS for obese and overweight students between races. RBS readings
    among overweight and obese students were within normal range with mean
    of 5.95 (0.67) mmol/l (range between 4.60 – 7.70 mmol/l).
    Conclusions The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were comparable with
    other studies done in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there was no prevalence of
    Type II diabetes mellitus among them.
  10. Toh, Teck Hock, Nurhilda Abdullah, Chua, Soh Yian, Muhamad Rais Abdullah, Islia Nahazatul, Chieng, Lee Ling
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):66-71.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Special Olympics (SO) Inc. is an organization for people with intellectual disability (ID) to actively engaging in Olympic-type sport and participating in competition. Special Olympic Inc. provides Healthy Athletes Programme (HAP®) in screening and providing health education to Special Olympic Athletes. Objective To study the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), visual acuity and hearing status of children and young adult with ID in Special Olympics Sarawak. Methods Health data were collected by trained health professionals under HAP®held in conjunction with Special Olympics Sarawak State Games on 17th and 18th April 2010 in Sibu. Health data collected were athletes' weight, BMI, BP, ear canal screen and hearing status (oto-acoustic emission, pure tone audiometry), as well as eye health and visual acuity, using guidelines set by HAP®. Results 195 athletes attended the State Games in 2010 of which 138 were screened. Significant number of athletes was considered overweight / obese (31.5% for children and 36.9% for adult). More than 20% of the adult athletes were hypertensive or at risk of hypertension. Sixteen percent of the adult athletes had hearing loss. More than half of the adult and children athletes never had eye checks, and a significant numbers of them had abnormal eye tests results. Conclusions Health screening conducted during the HAP® is a useful screening program in this population. Health data collected can bring awareness to athletes and their family, and corrective measures in hearing and visual impairment can be taken immediately.
  11. Norlen Mohamed, Lokman Hakim Sulaiman, Thahirahtul Asma Zakaria, Anis Salwa Kamarudin, Daud Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):685-694.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction During haze, at what level should Air Pollutant Index (API) showed, public
    or private school be closed is not without controversy and is very much
    debated. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to objectively quantify the
    potential inhaled dose of PM10 associated with exposure at school and home
    microenvironments during haze. The result of the health risk assessment will
    be used to propose the API level for closing the school during haze episode.

    Methods A hypothetical haze exposure scenario was created using the breakpoints of
    PM10 concentration for calculation of API and respective inhaled dose during
    haze. To determine the potential inhaled dose, we have considered many
    factors that include time spent for specific physical intensity at school and
    home microenvironments, age-specific and physical intensity-specific
    inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. To calculate
    risk quotient (RQ), the inhaled dose was compared with the health reference
    dose computed based on the concentration of PM10 in the Malaysian
    Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Results When considering the specific exposure at each microenvironment (school
    and home), the potential inhaled dose of PM10 was substantially lower when
    school is closed for both primary and secondary school. The calculated risk
    quotient (RQ) indicates that primary school children are likely to be affected
    at slightly lower PM10 concentration (equivalent to API of 197) as compared
    to secondary school children. Short duration of high physical activity
    intensity during school breaks has contributed to a large proportion of inhaled
    dose among school children indicating the important to avoid physical
    activities during haze.

    Conclusion Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk
    assessment methodology, we proposed school to be closed when API reach
    190 for both primary and secondary schools. These findings and
    recommendations are only valid for naturally ventilated school and applicable
    in the context of the current API calculation system and the existing
    Recommended Air Quality Guideline values in Malaysia.
  12. How, Vivien, Zailina Hashim, Dzolkhifli Omar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):592-596.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction This paper aims to investigate the potential pesticide dermal contamination
    among the agricultural community by observing the microenvironmental and
    macroactivity interaction between farm children and adult farmer.

    Methods A 24 hours timeline activity was observed and recorded in the agricultural
    farming village, Kuala Selangor. In this study, 2 homes were monitored for 2
    days following a pesticide application. A total of 2 adult farmers and 5
    children (7-10 year old) were recruited to participate in this study. Twentyfour
    hour videotape segments and time-activity diaries were collected during
    the study.

    Results The microenvironment and macroactivity interaction were modelled in this
    study. By considering only the potential dermal exposure pathway, the
    different biological vulnerability and exposure pattern to pesticides were
    observed. Finding showed a greater extent of interaction between human and
    its environment, where adult farmers are the main contributor of
    environmental contaminants, and children is one of the vulnerable receivers
    of the contaminants’ residuals from the environment.

    Conclusion The daily activities and behaviors practiced by the agricultural community
    were among the contributing factors which help to highlight the pesticide
    dermal contamination pathway in the farming village. This study
    recommends the necessary to consider the microenvironment and
    macroactivity of the target community when assess their exposure levels to
    the environment contaminants.
  13. Norlen Mohamed, Noradrenalina Isah, Fadhli Yussof
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):48-54.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 11 August 2011.
    Introduction Despite of its importance for preventing fatal and severe injuries in an event of a crash, limited studies were conducted to find out the status of seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia. This study was conducted to the determine seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia in conjunction with the introduction of the rear seatbelt law that took effect on 1st January 2009.
    Methods Two methods were used; the roadside observations and surveys. A total of 4180 rear passengers were observed during the road side observation and 793 rear passengers were interviewed in the survey.
    Results About 41.8 % (95 % CI: 38.3, 45.4) of rear passengers interviewed reported that they “Always/Often’ wore safety belts, while roadside observation recorded slightly lower rate (36.2 % [95 % CI: 34.8, 37.7]). Based on the roadside observation method, male rear passengers were more likely to use rear seatbelts as compared to female rear passengers (with Odd Ratio: 1.17 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.33)). Both methods consistently reported that rear passengers of Multipurpose Vehicle (MPV)/Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (survey method “always wear”: 39.3 %, Odd Ratio: 2.02 [95 % CI: 1.13, 3.61], roadside observation method: 51.9 %, Odd Ratio: 2.23 [95 % CI: 1.89, 2.62]) were two times more likely to wear seatbelts as compared to rear passengers of a car.
    Conclusions The two research methods indicate rear passengers in Malaysia were consistently having low seatbelt usage rate. As the rear seatbelt advocacy and enforcement programme are new in Malaysia, efforts to advocate rear seatbelt use should be strengthened. The changes in rear seatbelt usage rate need to be tracked regularly and as an alternative to roadside observation method, interview survey method could be used to measure the seatbelt usage rate and to identify the reason for not using safety belt among rear passengers.
  14. Fadil Lokman ML
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(1):232-235.
    MyJurnal
    It all started with a SSM research. SSM, which is an abbreviation for ‘Special Study Module’ is a unique module in the curriculum of the Medical Faculty National University of Malaysia (UKM), where each students were required to do a medical research in the field that we have interest in. Being interested in the field of public health, 3 of my friends and I did a research on the prevalence of tuberculosis in Cheras using the graphic informational system (GIS) to map each case of tuberculosis on the map of Kuala Lumpur. Our supervisor was Associate Professor Dr Shamsul Azhar, who is himself an expert on the field of GIS study and has been doing his PhD research using the same system in Niigata University, Japan for almost 4 years. During one of our SSM meetings, he mentions that the post-graduate students in UKM has done several visits to Niigata University and brought up the idea that maybe the undergraduate students like us could do the same. (Copied from article).
  15. Abdulrahman Al Aizary, Faiz Daud
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):700-706.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Prolonged mechanical ventilation among cardiac surgery patient has been
    found to be correlated with negative clinical outcome and increased
    healthcare resources utilization. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV)
    was defined as the accumulative duration of 24 hours or more of
    postoperative endotracheal intubation starting from transfer of the patient to
    cardiac ICU. This study is aimed to identify the risk factors preoperative,
    intra operative and postoperative for prolonged ventilation among cardiac
    patients in AL-Thawra Modern General Hospital (TMGH).

    Methods Observational study design was conducted during a two-month period (from
    1 August 2014 to 30 September 2014). It was among 70 patients who were
    admitted to cardiac surgery intensive care unit in Al-Thawra Modern General
    Hospital and selected by convenient sampling. The soci-demographic
    characteristic and clinical patient data were collected using short
    questionnaire developed by researcher. All patients had the same anesthetic
    and postoperative management. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS
    version 20 and using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
    The p-value of < 0.05 was found to be statistically significant.

    Results Incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilator post cardiac surgery was 37.1%
    (26/70) through bivariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Low
    Ejection fraction of Left Ventricle was inversely related to mechanical
    ventilation time (AOR= 0.872) with 95% confidence interval [0.790 - 0.963],
    hemodynamic instability were associated with prolonged mechanical
    ventilation time (AOR=16.35) with 95% confidence interval [2.558 -
    104.556].

    Conclusion Low ejection fraction of Left Ventricle and Hemodynamic Instability post
    operation were identified risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation
    post cardiac surgery.
  16. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Nur Azna Mahmud, Hasimah Ismail, Tan, Beng Chin, Chua, Boon Kee, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):980-986.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) during pregnancy may impair the
    neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study is to determine
    the iodine status among pregnant women (PW) in Sarawak after introduction
    of mandatory universal salt iodisation (USI) for seven years.
    Methods A total of 508 first trimester PW attending government Maternal and Child
    Health Care clinics in all 11 divisions in Sarawak between 1st April and 15th
    June 2015 were recruited. Urine samples were obtained and analysed for
    urinary iodine concentration (UIC) using the modified Sandell-Kolthoff
    reaction method. For pregnant women, an adequate iodine intake was defined
    as a median UIC between 150-249 µg/L according to the
    WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD’s criterion. For further analyses, the 11 divisions
    were then combined into 3 regions, namely Northern (Miri, Bintulu,
    Limbang), Central (Kapit, Mukah, Sibu, Sarikei, Betong) and Southern (Kota
    Samarahan, Kuching, Sri Aman).
    Results The median UIC of the PW in Sarawak was 105.6 µg/L, indicating iodine
    deficiency. A total of 330 (65.0%) PW had UIC
  17. Natrah Rani, Faiz Daud, Hamidah Alias
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):988-997.
    MyJurnal
    Pengenalan Penjagaan pesakit kanak-kanak leukemia memerlukan pemerhatian dan
    tumpuan yang tinggi untuk memastikan rawatan yang disarankan oleh Pakar
    Perubatan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik. Perkara ini sedikit sebanyak akan
    menjejaskan fungsi sosial, meningkatkan stres, kebimbangan dan
    kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga. Oleh itu, kajian irisan lintang ini
    dijalankan untuk mengkaji prevalen serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
    stres, kebimbangan dan kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga kepada pesakit
    leukemia kanak-kanak.
    Metodologi Sampel kajian adalah seramai 54 orang. Data diukur menggunakan DASS-21
    versi Bahasa Malaysia yang telah divalidasi oleh kajian lepas.
    Keputusan Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa prevalen stres tahap rendah dalam kalangan
    penjaga kepada pesakit leukemia kanak-kanak adalah sebanyak 88.9%
    manakala prevalen stres tahap tinggi adalah sebanyak 11.1%. Prevalen
    kebimbangan tahap rendah adalah sebanyak 90.7% dan prevalen
    kebimbangan tahap tinggi adalah sebanyak 9.3%. Prevalen kemurungan
    tahap rendah adalah sebanyak 96.3% dan prevalen kemurungan tahap tinggi
    adalah sebanyak 3.7% dalam kalangan penjaga. Terdapat beberapa faktor
    yang mempengaruhi stres dan kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga secara
    signifikan (p
  18. Hayward G
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):100-102.
    MyJurnal
    The World Health Organisation (WHO, 2006) defines teenage pregnancy as a 'teenaged or underaged girl (usually within the ages of 13-19) becoming pregnant.' The term usually refers to women who become pregnant, who have not reached legal adulthood; legal adulthood varies in different countries. The term teenage pregnancy is widely used however, to mean unmarried adolescent girls who become pregnant. Pregnant teenagers face many additional obstetric, medical & social issues compared to women who give birth in their 20s and 30s. Most at risk are mothers under fifteen and those living in developing countries. Complications during pregnancy and delivery are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15 to 19 in developing countries; they are twice as likely to die in childbirth as women in their twenties, with adolescents accounting for 13% maternal deaths worldwide. There is evidence to show (UNICEF Malaysia, 2008) that teenage pregnancy is associated with lower educational levels, higher rates of poverty and that the situation is often repeated with children of teenage parents. In addition, teenage pregnancy is often outside of marriage and therefore carries a social stigma in many cultures and community.
  19. Sam, Froze Jiee, Razitasham Safii, Helmy Hazmi
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):956-964.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Antenatal care is widely acknowledged as an effective tool to prevent adverse
    outcomes in pregnant women and their children. In Malaysia, early entry to
    antenatal care refers to a first visit within the 12th week of gestation. Delayed
    access to antenatal care has not been extensively studied in Malaysia,
    whereas several studies have reported a high prevalence of late antenatal
    booking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine
    the factors and barriers associated with late antenatal booking and the level of
    knowledge about the timing of antenatal booking among women of
    childbearing age in the Lundu District of Sarawak.
    Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 284 pregnant women in all five
    Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Clinics of Lundu.
    Results The prevalence of late antenatal booking in Lundu was 28.2%. Unmarried
    women were more likely to book their pregnancy late compared to married
    women. The prevalence of late antenatal booking was also higher among
    unemployed women than those who were employed. Respondents without
    their own income also tended to book their pregnancy later than those who
    had their own income. Significantly, a high percentage of late antenatal
    booking was also reported among those who never utilize any contraceptive
    method, did not plan their pregnancy, those without a history of past medical
    illness or complications in a previous pregnancy and among those who have a
    problem with their marriage certificate. Those who booked their pregnancy
    beyond the 12th week of gestation were also reported to have a lower level of
    knowledge about the need for an antenatal booking, as compared to those
    who started their antenatal care early.
    Conclusions Unplanned pregnancy, marriage certificate issues, an absence of past medical
    illness and past obstetric complications were significant predictors of late
    antenatal booking. Correct and appropriate information relating to antenatal
    care should be delivered to the public. Health education and advocacy are
    vital to promote the importance of early antenatal booking to achieve the goal
    of safe motherhood.
  20. Idayu Badilla Idris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):829-835.
    MyJurnal
    Emotional and behavioural problems among children have been increasing in many western as
    well as the eastern countries. Although the problem has been given attention and priority in
    terms of early detection, many children with early symptoms of emotional and behavioural
    problems has still not been detected at the early stages. This phenomenon is worrying as mental
    health problems were shown to be stable in the long run and if left undetected it may manifest
    into various problems in adulthood. This paper explores the issues on emotional and
    behavioural problems in terms of its definition, prevalence, aetiology, long term consequences
    and treatment. It also explores on mental health problems in a non-western country, i.e.
    Malaysia including its prevalence and intervention strategies which has been carried out in
    overcoming this worrying issue. Finally this review paper stresses the importance of providing
    a well-designed epidemiological study in Malaysia in assessing the current prevalence of
    emotional and behavioural problems in young children and adolescent
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