Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 101 in total

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  1. Sam, Froze Jiee, Razitasham Safii, Helmy Hazmi
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):956-964.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Antenatal care is widely acknowledged as an effective tool to prevent adverse outcomes in pregnant women and their children. In Malaysia, early entry to antenatal care refers to a first visit within the 12th week of gestation. Delayed access to antenatal care has not been extensively studied in Malaysia, whereas several studies have reported a high prevalence of late antenatal booking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the factors and barriers associated with late antenatal booking and the level of knowledge about the timing of antenatal booking among women of childbearing age in the Lundu District of Sarawak.
    Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 284 pregnant women in all five Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Clinics of Lundu.
    Results The prevalence of late antenatal booking in Lundu was 28.2%. Unmarried women were more likely to book their pregnancy late compared to married women. The prevalence of late antenatal booking was also higher among unemployed women than those who were employed. Respondents without their own income also tended to book their pregnancy later than those who had their own income. Significantly, a high percentage of late antenatal booking was also reported among those who never utilize any contraceptive method, did not plan their pregnancy, those without a history of past medical illness or complications in a previous pregnancy and among those who have a problem with their marriage certificate. Those who booked their pregnancy beyond the 12th week of gestation were also reported to have a lower level of knowledge about the need for an antenatal booking, as compared to those who started their antenatal care early.
    Conclusions Unplanned pregnancy, marriage certificate issues, an absence of past medical illness and past obstetric complications were significant predictors of late antenatal booking. Correct and appropriate information relating to antenatal care should be delivered to the public. Health education and advocacy are vital to promote the importance of early antenatal booking to achieve the goal of safe motherhood.
    Study site: Maternal and Child Health Clinics, Lundu, Sarawak, Malaysia
  2. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Nur Azna Mahmud, Hasimah Ismail, Tan, Beng Chin, Chua, Boon Kee, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):980-986.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) during pregnancy may impair the
    neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study is to determine
    the iodine status among pregnant women (PW) in Sarawak after introduction
    of mandatory universal salt iodisation (USI) for seven years.
    Methods A total of 508 first trimester PW attending government Maternal and Child
    Health Care clinics in all 11 divisions in Sarawak between 1st April and 15th
    June 2015 were recruited. Urine samples were obtained and analysed for
    urinary iodine concentration (UIC) using the modified Sandell-Kolthoff
    reaction method. For pregnant women, an adequate iodine intake was defined
    as a median UIC between 150-249 µg/L according to the
    WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD’s criterion. For further analyses, the 11 divisions
    were then combined into 3 regions, namely Northern (Miri, Bintulu,
    Limbang), Central (Kapit, Mukah, Sibu, Sarikei, Betong) and Southern (Kota
    Samarahan, Kuching, Sri Aman).
    Results The median UIC of the PW in Sarawak was 105.6 µg/L, indicating iodine
    deficiency. A total of 330 (65.0%) PW had UIC
  3. Mohd Shafik Abd Majid, Fadzrul Hafiz Johani, Wan Rosmawati Wan Ismail, Diyana Mohd Mokhtar, Qistina Mohd Ghazali, Norfazilah Ahmad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1005-1024.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth that infects humans
    through contact with soil containing the larvae.
    Methods A systematic search was performed for relevant titles, abstract and keywords
    in database from Cochrane Library, PLOS One, PubMed and several other
    sources in October 2017 based on PICO strategy. Out of 511 papers that were
    evaluated for possible inclusion, final assessment for eligibility has yielded a
    total of 17 papers to be included which were found suitable for analysis
    covering period from 2012 till 2016.
    Results A major challenge of giving an overview of prevalence data for S. stercoralis
    lies in the low sensitivity of diagnostic method used which resulted in very
    low prevalence in certain countries. Cambodia and Laos presented with high
    prevalence ranging from 17.4% to 45.9% by using high sensitivity of
    diagnostic methods. The current prevalence situation of S. stercoralis in
    Southeast Asia still have wide gaps remains due to several reasons.
    Conclusions The information we have today only scratches the surface which cannot truly
    reflect the true burden of S. stercoralis in Southeast Asia The main risk factor
    is personal hygiene practices especially amongst males.
  4. Safurah Khairul Fadzil, Marhanis Salihah Omar, Noorlaili Mohd Tohit
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):998-105.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The use of dietary supplements had risen over the years among chronic
    disease patients with most of it were of patients' own initiative. This study
    aimed to describe the supplements use, assess the knowledge and attitude
    towards supplements and its interaction with prescribed medication, and
    determine whether knowledge and attitude towards supplements could
    influence treatment adherence in chronic disease patients.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among chronic disease patients in
    Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur from
    September to November 2016 upon their written informed consent. This
    study consists of a collection of validated instruments that measured the use
    of dietary supplements and its reason; the knowledge and attitude on dietary
    supplements and supplements-drug interaction and medication adherence.
    Results A total number of 250 respondents were interviewed and 72.4% was found to
    use supplements of own initiatives. Most of the respondents were using
    supplements to maintain health (78.8%), prevent health problems (72.4%)
    and improve overall health (63.2%). It was found that respondents'
    knowledge on supplement-drug interactions were not at the satisfactory level.
    The treatment adherence was found not to be associated with knowledge and
    attitude towards supplements nor numbers of supplements use.
    Conclusions Chronic disease patients mainly knew on the purpose of supplements for
    health and wellness, but had less knowledge on supplement-drug interactions,
    warranting patients' education on that particular field.
  5. Siti Nor Mat, Norzaher Ismail, Syafiq Taib, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Zahir Izuan Azhar, Mohammad Saffree Jeffre, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1006-1014.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Pneumococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and mortality,
    including among adults. Adult pneumococcal vaccines help to prevent these
    burdens, yet, they are underutilized. Our objective is to systematically collect
    and summarize the available evidence on the potential factors that lead to
    pneumococcal vaccination acceptance among of adult community.
    Methods A systematic literature search was conducted involving studies published
    from January 1999 to December 2015. The studies were identified by
    searching electronic resources (PubMed/MEDLINE and Pro Quest database)
    and manual searches of references. The keywords “vaccine/ immunization”,
    “uptake/ coverage”, “determinant/ factor”, and “Streptococcus pneumoniae/
    pneumococcus/ pneumococcal” were used. Final studies result and data were
    reviewed by two independent authors. Disagreement was resolved through
    discussion and consensus.
    Results A total of 171 studies were identified, only 17 studies were included in final
    discussion with 10 domains identified in the paper. 7 studies (41%) had
    reported that the provider domain, patients’ perception and
    socio-demographic factor have had the most effect on the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance rate. In addition, only 18% (3) of reviewed papers had
    highlighted that socio-economic was a factor influenced the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance while 24% (4 studies) were attributed to the comorbid
    domains.
    Conclusions Healthcare provider and patients’ perception about pneumococcal vaccination
    for adult population are significant domains which influence the acceptance
    towards vaccination. Strong recommendations from healthcare provider for
    pneumococcal vaccination would be an important step to increase vaccination
    acceptance among the population.
  6. Natrah Rani, Faiz Daud, Hamidah Alias
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):988-997.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction. The care of children with leukemia requires a high degree of observation and attention to ensure that the recommended treatment by the specialists is well implemented. This could somehow affect the social functionality, increase stress, anxiety and depression among caregivers of children with leukemia. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the prevalence and factors influencing stress, depression and anxiety among caregivers of
    children with leukemia.
    Methods. Number of sample is 54 respondents. Data were measured using the Bahasa Malaysia version of DASS-21 which was validated in previous study.
    Results The results showed that prevalence of low level stress among caregivers to children with leukemia was 88.9% while prevalence of high level stress was 11.1%. The prevalence of low level anxiety was 90.7% and the prevalence of
    high level anxiety was 9.3%. The prevalence of low level depression was 96.3% and the prevalence of high level depression was 3.7%. There were several factors that significantly influenced the stress and depression among
    the caregivers (p <0.05). Among the factors associated with stress status were the religion of caregivers and gender of the patients (p <0.05). Factors associated with depression status were the sex of caregivers and the relationship between caregivers and family members (p <0.05).
    Conclusions. In conclusion, socio demographic factors and the relationship between caregivers and family members affect stress and depression among caregivers while factors of knowledge-level do not affect stress, anxiety and depression among caregivers. Strategies are needed to help reduce stress, anxiety and depression among caregivers of children with leukemia.
    Keywords: Stress - Anxiety - Depression - Caregivers - Children with leukemia.
  7. Omar A, Yusoff MF, Hiong TG, Aris T, Morton J, Pujari S
    Int J Public Health Res, ;3(2):297-305.
    PMID: 26451348 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies.

    METHODS: GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

    RESULTS: GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays.

    CONCLUSIONS: The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.

  8. Zahir Izuan Azhar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Tan, Susan, M.K., Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):713-718.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
    described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
    health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
    this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
    Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian
    adolescents.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
    of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
    Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
    and reliability.

    Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
    adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
    have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
    flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
    258.361, p
  9. Norlen Mohamed, Lokman Hakim Sulaiman, Thahirahtul Asma Zakaria, Anis Salwa Kamarudin, Daud Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):685-694.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction During haze, at what level should Air Pollutant Index (API) showed, public
    or private school be closed is not without controversy and is very much
    debated. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to objectively quantify the
    potential inhaled dose of PM10 associated with exposure at school and home
    microenvironments during haze. The result of the health risk assessment will
    be used to propose the API level for closing the school during haze episode.

    Methods A hypothetical haze exposure scenario was created using the breakpoints of
    PM10 concentration for calculation of API and respective inhaled dose during
    haze. To determine the potential inhaled dose, we have considered many
    factors that include time spent for specific physical intensity at school and
    home microenvironments, age-specific and physical intensity-specific
    inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. To calculate
    risk quotient (RQ), the inhaled dose was compared with the health reference
    dose computed based on the concentration of PM10 in the Malaysian
    Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Results When considering the specific exposure at each microenvironment (school
    and home), the potential inhaled dose of PM10 was substantially lower when
    school is closed for both primary and secondary school. The calculated risk
    quotient (RQ) indicates that primary school children are likely to be affected
    at slightly lower PM10 concentration (equivalent to API of 197) as compared
    to secondary school children. Short duration of high physical activity
    intensity during school breaks has contributed to a large proportion of inhaled
    dose among school children indicating the important to avoid physical
    activities during haze.

    Conclusion Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk
    assessment methodology, we proposed school to be closed when API reach
    190 for both primary and secondary schools. These findings and
    recommendations are only valid for naturally ventilated school and applicable
    in the context of the current API calculation system and the existing
    Recommended Air Quality Guideline values in Malaysia.
  10. Abdulrahman Al Aizary, Faiz Daud
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):700-706.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Prolonged mechanical ventilation among cardiac surgery patient has been
    found to be correlated with negative clinical outcome and increased
    healthcare resources utilization. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV)
    was defined as the accumulative duration of 24 hours or more of
    postoperative endotracheal intubation starting from transfer of the patient to
    cardiac ICU. This study is aimed to identify the risk factors preoperative,
    intra operative and postoperative for prolonged ventilation among cardiac
    patients in AL-Thawra Modern General Hospital (TMGH).

    Methods Observational study design was conducted during a two-month period (from
    1 August 2014 to 30 September 2014). It was among 70 patients who were
    admitted to cardiac surgery intensive care unit in Al-Thawra Modern General
    Hospital and selected by convenient sampling. The soci-demographic
    characteristic and clinical patient data were collected using short
    questionnaire developed by researcher. All patients had the same anesthetic
    and postoperative management. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS
    version 20 and using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
    The p-value of < 0.05 was found to be statistically significant.

    Results Incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilator post cardiac surgery was 37.1%
    (26/70) through bivariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Low
    Ejection fraction of Left Ventricle was inversely related to mechanical
    ventilation time (AOR= 0.872) with 95% confidence interval [0.790 - 0.963],
    hemodynamic instability were associated with prolonged mechanical
    ventilation time (AOR=16.35) with 95% confidence interval [2.558 -
    104.556].

    Conclusion Low ejection fraction of Left Ventricle and Hemodynamic Instability post
    operation were identified risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation
    post cardiac surgery.
  11. Norsham Shamsuddin, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Rahman Jamal, Poh, Bee Koon, Mohd Ismail Noor
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):643-653.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Validation of instruments is essential when assessing physical activity (PA).
    The aim of this study was to validate a Malay language version of the
    International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-M) against Actical
    accelerometer and to determine its reliability and validity.

    Methods A total of 90 Malay adults aged 35-65 years old participating in The
    Malaysian Cohort project were recruited for this study. The IPAQ-M is
    comprised of 12 items, covering vigorous, moderate, walking, sitting and
    sleeping activities, and was administered on two occasions (Day 1 and Day 9)
    by interviewing the participants. Participants wore the Actical accelerometer
    for seven consecutive days between the two interview sessions.

    Results Validity tests showed that time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity
    (MVPA) (min wk-1) from IPAQ-M was significantly correlated with MVPA
    from accelerometer (=0.32, p
  12. Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Mala A. Manickam, Azli Baharudin, Rusidah Selamat, Kee, Chee Cheong, Noor Ani Ahmad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):661-669.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Overweight and obesity is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This
    study aims to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the
    Malaysian adult population and their association with socio-demographic
    characteristics (gender, ethnic, and age groups).

    Methods A total of 17,257 adults aged 18 years and older (8,252 men, 9,005 women)
    were assessed for BMI status, with a response rate of 97.8%, through a
    household survey from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS),
    conducted in all states of Malaysia in 2011.

    Results All socio-demographic factors were consistently associated with higher
    chance of being overweight (except gender and location) and obesity (except
    location and household income). The identified risk of overweight were
    Indian (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8), aged 50-59 years (aOR: 2.8, 95% CI:
    2.0-3.9), widower (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0), subject with secondary
    education (aOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4), Homemaker/unpaid worker (aOR:
    1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), and with high household income group (aOR: 1.3, 95%
    CI: 1.2-1.6). The identified risk of obesity were women (aOR: 1.4, 95% CI:
    1.2-1.6), Indian (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2), aged 30-39 years (aOR: 3.6,
    95% CI: 2.4-5.5), widower (aOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6), subjects with
    primary education (aOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6), Homemaker/unpaid worker
    (aOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), and with middle household income group (aOR:
    1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6).

    Conclusions Our data indicate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the
    population. Several sociodemographic characteristics are associated with
    both overweight and obesity. This study highlights the serious problem of
    overweight and obesity among Malaysia adults. Documentation of these
    problems may lead to research and policy agendas that will contribute both to
    our understanding and to the reduction of these problems.
  13. Fariza Fadzil, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Shuhaila Ahmad, Noor Shaheeran Abdul Hayi, Azah Abdul Samad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):637-642.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In maternal healthcare, pre-pregnancy weight is used to predict pregnancy outcomes. Since no recorded data on pre-pregnancy weight, perceived weight is used alternatively. This study examines the relationship between perceived and actual weight among non-pregnant urban Malaysian women of childbearing age and identifies differences in perceived and actual weight by selected socio-demographic characteristics.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2013 among urban Malaysian women attending public health clinics in the Klang Valley. Information on height, perceived current weight and time when their weight was last taken were obtained and actual weight was the average of two measurements (TANITA-HD-323-digital-scale). Socio-demographic data collected were age, ethnicity, education level, marital and employment status and total household income.
    Results: Mean age of 371 women in this study was 28.81±5.65, 82.2% were Malays, 62.8% had tertiary education, over 75% were married and employed, with more than half from middle-income households. Overall, the mean perceived and actual weight was 59.29±11.59 and 59.20±11.90 respectively. Pearson‟s Correlation test showed a very strong positive correlation between perceived and actual weight (r=0.957;p<0.0001), ranging between 0.852 to 0.994 among subgroups; 258 (69.5%) perceived their weight accurately (±2.0 kg of actual weight), 49 (13.2%) under and 64 (17.3%) overestimated their weight.Main outliers were among younger women, Malays, tertiary educated, employed, middle-income and had weight last measured a month or more ago.
    Conclusion: Strong correlation between perceived and actual weight among women in this study reassured weight perception can be used more confidently in patients‟ history taking and future research among urban Malaysian women using public health services.
  14. Hasimah Ismail, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Tahir Aris, Rashidah Ambak, Mohammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Lim, Kuang Kuay, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):677-684.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide
    and many of these affected individuals remain unidentified. Undiagnosed
    T2DM may impose substantial public health implications because these
    individuals remain untreated and at risk for complications. The objective of
    this study was to determine the national prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM
    and to identify the associated risk factors.

    Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted involving 17,783
    respondents. Two-stage stratified sampling design was used to select a
    representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Structured
    validated questionnaires with face to face interviews were used to obtain
    data. Respondents, who claimed that they were not having diabetes, were
    then asked to perform a fasting blood glucose finger-prick test by Accutrend
    GC machine.

    Results The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was 8.9% (n=1587). The highest
    percentage of undiagnosed T2DM was found among males (10.2%), 55-59
    years old (13.4%), highest education attainers of primary school (11.1%),
    Indians (10.3%), married (10.3%), working (8.9%) and living in the urban
    areas (9.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that factors associated with
    undiagnosed T2DM were gender, age group, ethnicity, marital status, obesity
    and hypertension.

    Conclusion This study found an increasing trend of undiagnosed T2DM in Malaysia
    compared to 2006. This finding is alarming as risk factors associated with
    undiagnosed diabetes were related to most of the socio-demographic factors
    studied. Therefore, early diabetic screening is crucial especially among adults
    aged 30 and above to prevent more serious complications of this disease.
  15. Sanaz Aazami, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Syaqirah Akmal
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):606-612.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Family satisfaction is referred to the extent in which family members feel
    happy and fulfilled with each other. However, there has been lack of
    evidences on the family satisfaction scale within the Malaysian context.
    Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess validity of the Malay version of
    the Olson’s Family Satisfaction Scale. This is to allow Malaysian researchers
    to bring family satisfaction in line with the different field of studies.

    Methods This study was conducted among 567 Malaysian working women. Data were
    collected using self-administrated questionnaires. This study conducted
    exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity and internal
    consistency using Cronbach’s alpha.

    Results The findings of this study support the uni-dimensionality of the Malay
    version of the family satisfaction scale. The 10 items of the scale account for
    68.1% of the total variance and the un-rotated factor loadings ranged from
    0.76 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis was run and supported the
    structure of family satisfaction scale. The results of confirmatory factor
    analysis using AMOS 21 in the current study reported the following indices:
    RMSEA= 0.06, CFI= 0.94, NFI= 0.94, TLI= 0.93. The convergent validity
    (average variance extracted= 0.65) and the internal consistency (Cronbach’s
    alpha= 0.94) of this construct were adequately supported.

    Conclusions The findings support the factor structure, convergent validity and the internal
    consistency of the examined construct. Therefore, Malay version of the
    family satisfaction scale is a valid and reliable instrument among Malaysian
    working women.
  16. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Jambai Endu, Chan, Ying Ying, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):631-636.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Following the reveal of borderline iodine sufficiency among the Sarawakians
    from the 2008 National Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) survey, a
    mandatory universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in Sarawak
    thereafter. This study aimed to determine the current status of USI in
    Sarawak after a 3-year implementation of USI from 2008 to 2011.

    Methods The IDD survey was conducted between Jun 2011 to July 2011 involving six
    districts in Sarawak (Sarikei, Mukah, Kapit, Sibu, Bintulu and Miri). The
    schools were selected via multistage proportionate-to-population size
    sampling technique and the children were randomly selected via systematic
    sampling. A total of 19 schools and 661 children were recruited into the
    survey. Thyroid size was determined by palpation and was and graded
    according to the classification of the World Health Organization (grade 0-2).
    The iodine excretion level in spot morning urine was measured using inhouse
    microplate method. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) values
    were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square tests were used to
    compare categorical variables.

    Results A total of 610 school children were participated in the study (92.3%). The
    TGR of grade 1 and 2 was found to be 0.3% (n = 2). Overall the median UIC
    level was 154.2 (IQR, 92.7 - 229.8) μg/L, with the highest median UIC been
    observed in Sarikei [178.0 (IQR, 117.6 - 308.9) μg/L], followed by Mukah
    [174.8 (IQR, 99.0 - 224.3) μg/L)], Miri [158.6 (IQR, 92.3 - 235.4) μg/L],
    Sibu [147.0 (IQR, 89.8 - 221.4) μg/L], Bintulu [142.3 (IQR, 52.8 - 245.1)
    μg/L] and Kapit [131.0 (IQR, 88.6 - 201.9) μg/L]. One in every ten child was
    of iodine deficient (UIC < 50μg/L) while a third of the child (32%) were of
    adequate level of UIC.

    Conclusion The present findings indicate that the mandatory USI successfully improves
    the iodine level of children in Sarawak. However, regular and proper
    monitoring of the UIC level in the communities is needed to prevent
    excessive iodine intake.
  17. Norfazillah Ab Manan, Rozita Hod, Hanizah Mohd Yusoff, Mazrura Sahani, Rosnah Ismail, Wan Rozita Wan Mahiyuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):707-712.
    MyJurnal
    Air pollution has been widely known to have an influence on health of the general population.
    Air pollution can result from natural causes, human activities and transboundary air pollution.
    Weather and climate play crucial role in determining the pattern of air quality. In recent years,
    air pollution and recurrent episodes of haze has become a major concern in Malaysia.
    Surveillance data on concentrations of main air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, (CO2),
    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10)
    were found to be higher during the haze days and this may have an impact on health of the
    community as reflected by an increase in hospital admissions particularly the respiratory and
    cardiovascular diseases.
  18. Nor Azian Mohd Zaki, Norhafizah Sahril, Mohd Azahadi Omar, Muhammad Hasnan Ahmad, Azli Baharudin, Noor Safiza Mohd Nor
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):670-676.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Physical activity assessment in children is the first step in assessing the
    relationship between activity and health, as well as the determinants of
    childhood physical activity and changes in activity level.Physical Activity
    Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is self- administered
    questionnaire to assess physical activity among older children. The objective
    of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of Physical Activity
    Questionnaire for Older Children in Malay language PAQ-C (M).

    Methods The validation study was done among 73 students aged 10 to 17 years old.
    The PAQ-C was translated into Malay language using forward and backward
    translation. The evaluation of the psychometric properties included internal
    consistency, test-retest reliability and criterion validity. Reliability of PAQ-C
    (M) was determined using Cronbach alpha and intra-class correlation
    coefficient (ICC). The PAQ-C (M) was administered twice in one week
    interval to assess test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was assessed
    between PAQ-C (M) and 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR).

    Results The internal consistency of PAQ-C (M) assessment calculated in this study
    was α = 0.75 and α = 0.77 for assessments one and two, respectively. The
    ICC between individual items of PAQ-C (M) was 0.59 to 0.91, indicating
    moderate to good correlation. The Spearmen correlation coefficient between
    PAQ-C (M) and 3DPARwas acceptable (r=0.60, p
  19. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Teh, Chien Huey, Hasimah Ismail, Lim, Kuang Hock, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):419-424.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), is one of the most important micronutrient
    deficiencies which has multiple adverse effects on growth and development.
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IDD among school
    children and to elucidate the distribution of iodized salt at household level in
    Sarawak, East Malaysia.

    Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among school children aged 8 to 10
    years in 2008. A multi-stage probability proportionate to population size
    (PPS) cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative state
    sample of 1200 school children. Spot urine samples were collected for the
    determination of urinary iodine concentration while the iodine content in salt
    was determined using field rapid test kits. The thyroid status was determined
    by palpation.

    Results Response rate was 92.0% (n=1104/1200). The prevalence of goitre among
    school children in Sarawak was 2.9% (5.2% in urban, 0.7% in rural). The
    median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the school children was
    102.1 μg/L (IQR, 62.3-146.5 μg/L). Urban children had significantly higher
    median UIC of 109.3 μg/L (IQR, 72.4-159.0 μg/L) than their rural
    counterparts [91.9 μg/L (IQR, 55.7-140.2 μg/L)]. The salt samples tested by
    rapid test kit (RTK) showed only 46.0% of household salt contained iodine.

    Conclusions The present study revealed that the population in Sarawak were of borderline
    iodine sufficient with mild IDD seen in rural areas. Hence, the state IDD
    control programmes need to encourage and advocate the consumption of
    iodized salt in order to eliminate IDD-related health problems in Sarawak.
  20. William Cairns Steward Smith
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4(1):425-430.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a major component of non-communicable
    diseases and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular
    disease. Public health strategies to address cardiovascular disease require
    three elements: surveillance, health promotion, and individual health care.

    Methods Surveillance includes monitoring of mortality and morbidity as well as
    surveys to monitor risk factors levels in the community. Data on mortality
    from cardiovascular diseases are readily available and analysed by age and
    sex specific rates looking are secular trends, geographical and ethnical group
    variations and international comparisons. However many deaths from
    cardiovascular disease occur suddenly and the cause of death may be
    registered without autopsy or any other validation. Cardiovascular morbidity
    information is more difficult to collate and interpret as it is closely related to
    availability and access to health care. Periodic surveys of cardiovascular risk
    factors are essential in monitoring the underlying trends in blood pressure,
    smoking, cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes as they predict future trends, and
    support planning for prevention and healthcare.

    Results Prevention and health promotion activities are informed by the levels and
    trends in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There has been debate
    about population health promotion and individual health care strategies, but
    both are necessary. Cigarette smoking, nutrition and physical exercise are the
    main behaviours to be addressed but these are complex and require
    multifaceted approaches. Education alone is insufficient to change health
    behaviours and health promotion needs to look to changing attitudes.
    Legislation, taxation and other fiscal interventions have been shown to be
    effective however these can be difficult for legislators as there are other
    competing interests, particularly in the area of nutrition and tobacco. Creating
    health promoting environments that make healthy behaviour choices easier
    can be beneficial.

    Conclusions Health care interventions are also effective in reducing the burden of
    cardiovascular disease. A balanced approach of health promotion and
    individual health care is recommended in the development of a strategy for
    cardiovascular disease.
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