Pain and anxiety management is of paramount importance in dentistry especially for child patients. The term “Medicated Oxygen” or “Magic Air” refers to a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen gases that is commonly used for partial sedation in pediatric dental populations. The gas is colorless and virtually odorless with a faint, sweet smell. Nitrous oxide sedation is administered by inhalation, absorbed by diffusion through the lungs, and eliminated via respiration. In children, sedation may accelerate the delivery of dental treatment that requires patient serenity and may allow the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures by reducing anxiety, discomfort, or pain.
Metabonomics can be used to quantitatively measure dynamic biochemical responses of living organisms to physiological or pathological stimuli. A range of analytical tools such as high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be employed to create comprehensive metabolic signatures of biological samples including urine, plasma, faecal water and tissue extracts. These metabolic signatures can reflect the physiological or pathological condition of the organism and indicate imbalances in the homeostatic regulation of tissues and extracellular fluids. This technology has been employed in a diverse range of application areas including investigation of disease mechanisms, diagnosis/prognosis of pathologies, nutritional interventions and drug toxicity. Metabolic profiling is becoming increasingly important in identifying biomarkers of disease progression and drug intervention, and can provide additional information to support or aid the interpretation of genomic and proteomic data. With the new generation of postgenomic technologies, the paradigm in many biological fields has shifted to either top down systems biology approaches, aiming to achieve a general understanding of the global and integrated response of an organism or to bottom up modelling of specific pathways and networks using a priori knowledge based on mining large bodies of literature. Whilst metabolic profiling lends itself to either approach, using it in an exploratory and hypothesis generating capacity clearly allows new mechanisms to be uncovered.
Dengue is the most rapidly increasing arthropodborne
disease globally. The disease burden has increased
exponentially, doubling almost every decade from the
estimated 8.3 million cases in 2010 to about 58.4 million
cases in 2013.1
The number of countries reporting
dengue has also increased. Before 1970, less than 9
countries reported dengue but now it has been reported
in more than 100 countries worldwide. It is transmitted
by two species of Aedes mosquito, Aedes aegypti and Ae.
albopictus. (Copied from article).
There has been an increase in the number of Motor
Vehicle Accidents (MVA) in Malaysia throughout
the years. Although blunt neck injury is uncommon,
it is associated with severe, permanent neurological
deficit with risk of mortality. This case is a classical
presentation of a young male involved in a MVA who
sustained head and neck injuries of varying severity.
After a short symptom free interval, the patient
started to develop neurological signs. Presenting signs
and symptoms include Horner’s syndrome, dysphasia,
hemiparesis, obtundation or monoparesis. A computed
tomography (CT) scan of brain must be done and if the
findings showed that there is no intracranial bleeding
(ICB), high suspicions with further evaluation should
be done. Confirmation can be obtained by Doppler
ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic
resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography (CTA)
or catheter angiography to rule out carotid artery injury.
Background: Database on hospital records like discharge data, birth and death certificates are widely used for epidemiological and research studies. However there are a very few validation studies on these data. The aim of this study was to validate and assess the accuracy of the ICD 10 database on congenital anomalies in the state of Penang. This study was carried out for three years, from 2002 to 2004.
Methods: The list of cases coded under the general coding “Q” was extracted and approximately 30% of cases were randomly selected from the list. Medical records for the selected cases were checked and discrepancies for the diagnoses between the medical records and the ICD 10 data base were recorded for three years. Verification was done for basic demographic variables and the coding of the diseases. Discrepancies, sensitivity and specificity were calculated.
Results: The ICD 10 database for congenital anomalies are classified into two types: Type 1 and Type 2. Discrepancies on demographic information were found among the age of patients (babies with congenital anomalies). In Type 1, there was a discrepancy of about 0.02 % to 0.05% probability that a congenital anomaly case can be recorded as non congenital anomaly in the ICD 10. In Type 2 there was a discrepancy that a non-congenital anomaly was classified as congenital anomaly and this ranged from 26.7% to 50.0%. The sensitivity ranged from 96.85% to 97.98%, thus it can be concluded the ICD 10 database is highly sensitive while the specificity ranged from 50.00% to 78.57 %. In other words the ICD 10 is not accurate when classifying the non- congenital anomaly cases. A fair percentage of non-congenital anomaly cases were classified as CA in the ICD 10 database.
Conclusion: Even though hospital databases are used as a baseline data for a number of research and epidemiological studies it cannot be used at face value. Validation of these data is necessary before any conclusions can be drawn or intervention measures are undertaken.
Background: Facebook is a popular social networking site with more than five hundred million users.
This study assessed whether Facebook Groups can be used to teach clinical reasoning skills. Methods: Sixty-seven final year medical students from the International Medical University, Malaysia, were exposed to interactive online learning through a Facebook Group for a period of six months in this study. The purpose was to determine if supervised interactive online learning could be used to augment the deep learning that comes from learning medicine at the bedside of patients. The interactive online discussions were entirely triggered by clinical problems encountered in the medical wards of the general hospital to which these students were attached. Results: A total of 10 topics were discussed in this forum during the duration of this study and an example of one such discussion is provided to illustrate the informal nature of this kind of learning. The results showed a high degree of student involvement with 76 percent of students actively participating in the discussions. Conclusion: The high degree of voluntary participation in the clinical discussions through the Facebook Group in this study tells us that Facebook Groups are a good way of engaging students for learning and can be used in medical education to stimulate creative clinical thinking.
Urethral catheterisation is a common and safe procedure performed routinely. The small size of the urethra in a child necessitates the use of an infant feeding tube (Size 5 to 8 F) for catheterisation. Knotting within the bladder is a rare complication with significant morbidity often necessitating surgical or endoscopic removal. Insertion of an excessive length of tube contributes to coiling and knotting. We report an instance of knotting of an infant feeding tube in the proximal penile urethra of a 4 year-old male child requiring urethrotomy to remove it. Awareness of the risk and proper technique can reduce this complication.
Avoiding the adverse neonatal effects of perinatal asphyxia has been one of the common indications for cesarean deliveries in current obstetric practice. Expeditious delivery is dependent on decision to perform cesarean delivery and time lines achieved. A decision-delivery interval of 30 minutes, a concept initiated by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has open to debate as controversy reins about neonatal outcome when this time interval is considered in isolation. Time lines alone are probably not the only criteria to be employed, and may contribute to errors in interpretation by professional regulatory bodies and the society at large. Procedures prior to decision making like trial of labour, fetal scalp sampling and readily available resources for instituting emergent cesarean delivery invariably need to be considered. Though decision to delivery time is an integral component of critical conduct intervals in the acutely compromised fetus, a more pragmatic approach needs to be taken considering potential and known logistical and obstetric factors in line with good obstetric practice.
Academic performance is still primarily judged on publications. Not surprisingly, pressure to publish for the purpose of academic standing or promotion can be huge. People have been put off from an academic career simply because of this necessity. This is unfortunate because publishing our research findings or knowledge is our core business and why we become academicians. The notion that teaching is the academician’s chief duty is only half correct. We should and can enjoy publishing if we accept this as an inseparable part of our job. (Copied from article).
The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the maternal cardiac haemodynamic and structural changes that occur
in pregnancies with uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum in a selected Malaysian population. Nine women underwent serial echocardiography beginning at 12 weeks of gestation and throughout pregnancy at monthly intervals. Their echocardiograms were repeated at 6 and 12 weeks following delivery to reflect the pre-pregnancy haemodynamic state. Cardiac output was measured by continuous wave Doppler at the aortic valve. Interventricular septum thickness was determined by M- mode echocardiography and ventricular diastolic function by assessing flow at the mitral valve with Doppler recording. Cardiac output showed an increase of 32.9% at 36 weeks and maintained till 40 weeks of gestation. Heart rate increased from 79 ± 6 to 96 ± 8 beats/min at 36 weeks. Stroke volume increased by 16.4 % at 40 weeks of gestation when compared to the baseline
value. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not appreciably change but showed a lower reading during the mid-trimester period. Early inflow velocity of left ventricle did not show a rise while peak atrial velocity showed an increasing trend; thus the ratio of early inflow to peak atrial transport showed a declining trend from early pregnancy to term. End diastolic dimension of left ventricle and interventricular septum thickness showed an increased value at term. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum did not alter the haemodynamic changes throughout pregnancy and concur with established data for normal pregnancy.
Tumoral calcinosis is an uncommon condition which
has been described to exist in primary and secondary
forms. A lack of awareness of this entity can lead to
unnecessary procedures and incorrect management.
We report a case of a patient on peritoneal dialysis who
presented with multiple painful joint swellings to the
orthopaedic department. An initial diagnosis of septic
arthritis was made, then revised to chronic tophaceous
gout and referred to the rheumatology unit.
The case report describes the presentation of a 19-year old female with tuberous sclerosis who presented with progressive dyspnoea over 2 days.
Chest radiograph revealed bilateral pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed features of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and bilateral renal angiomyolipomas. The coexistence of both conditions may cause devastating morbidity and mortality.
The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is currently increasing. HIV induced immuno-suppression modifies the clinical presentation of TB. Our aim is to determine the differences in clinical presentation of HIV-TB co-infection based on their CD4 counts. This retrospective study looked at cases of adult active TB and HIV-1 co-infection treated in Penang Hospital from January 2004 to December 2005. Of the 820 patients treated for active TB, HIV-1 seropositivity rate was 12.6% (103 patients). Majority of HIV-1 co-infected patients presented with prolonged insidious and non-specific symptoms like weight loss, fever and night sweats. The clinical presentation of TB depended on the stage of HIV-1 infection and associated degree of immunodeficiency. Compared to the less immuno-compromised HIV-1 and TB co-infected population (CD4 > 200/mm3 ), patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 are more likely to have atypical chest radiographs (P = 0.009). During active TB, the Mantoux test was positive in 12 (14.5%) HIV-1 infected patients with a CD4 counts ≤ 200/mm3 and in 16 (80%) of those with CD4 counts > 200/mm3 (P = 0.0001). In our series, the AFB smear / AFB culture and type of TB did not show obvious correlation with CD4 counts. Therefore to diagnose TB in severely immuno-compromised HIV patients, we need to have a high index of suspicion.
Background: Circumcision though not mentioned in the Quran is believed to be a compulsory practice among the Muslims. In Malaysia, although there are several methods of circumcision available and traditional circumcision is still popular.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a small fishing village of Kedah to study the methods of circumcision available to the villagers. This was followed with an in-depth interview conducted with ‘Tok Mudim’, a practitioner of traditional method of circumcision.
Results: Forty three of the eligible 71 subjects participated in the study giving the response rate as 60.5%. The most common age for circumcision was 9 years old. Despite private clinics being the most common place of circumcisions, there was an increasing number of boys going to the ‘Tok Mudim’ for circumcision. A Mass Circumcision Ceremony is traditionally practiced. The ‘Tok Mudim’ described the procedure in detail and was of the opinion that the reason traditional method is still popular was because of the fear of injections and impotency among the parents. Most common complication faced by the ‘Tok Mudim’ was bleeding and infection.
Discussion and Conclusion: Till the community shifts entirely to using modern medicine, there is a need to integrate traditional practitioners into the system. Training the ‘Tok Mudim’ to use modern instruments and aseptic techniques should be considered.
A review of current information related to the likely incidences of thyroid diseases in the aged population of Malaysia, raising issues such as the need for further epidemiological studies of iodine intake in relation to thyroid diseases within different geographical regions and population subtypes, the need for general country-wide iodization of salt, and the screening of elderly Malaysians for so-called “occult” thyroid diseases.
Building on two decades as a private health professional university, the International Medical University prepares for the third decade, taking stock of the challenges in changing epidemiology and pattern of disease, changing demography and healthcare, as well as explosion in knowledge and information technology. The Global Independent Commission1 provided a framework for instructional and institutional reforms, and the IMU will use its 3 I’s (insight, imagination & innovation) in adopting these measures. Some of the instructional reforms are already in place, others need to be further nurtured and promoted. In its third decade, competency based curriculum, inter-professional learning, IT, global collaboration, educational resources, new professionalism and emphasis on quality improvement will help ensure IMU train and produce competent, caring and ethical health professionals fit to tackle 21st century challenges.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic
inflammatory condition that can be associated with
abnormal bone turnover and hence osteoporosis.
Osteocalcin (OC) levels are increased in conditions
with high bone turnover, including high RA disease
activity. Thus, OC levels could possibly be used as a
marker to assess bone health and disease activity in RA
patients. As there have been no previous studies looking
at serum OC levels in Malaysian RA patients, this study
was performed to examine possible correlations between
OC, bone mineral density (BMD) and disease activity
in this population. A cross-sectional study of 75 female RA
patients and 29 healthy controls was performed. Serum
OC was measured using a Quantikine® ELISA kit. Dualenergy
x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess
BMD. Serum OC levels were not significantly
different between RA patients (median 14.44 ng/mL,
interquartile range [IQR 12.99]) compared to healthy
controls (median 11.04 ng/mL IQR 12.29) (p=0.198).
Serum OC increased with age (Spearman’s rho r=0.230,
p=0.047). There was no significant correlation between
serum OC and body mass index (BMI), menopause status,
BMD, DAS28, swollen or tender joint counts. Overall,
there were 11 (14.7%) patients with osteoporosis and
27 (36.0%) with osteopenia. Menopause status was
significantly associated with BMD at all sites (lumbar
spine p=0.002, femoral neck p=0.004, total hip p=0.002).
Serum OC were similar in RA patients
compared to healthy controls. In RA patients, serum
OC did not correlate with RA disease activity or BMD.
Menopause status remains an important influence on
BMD. Thus, measuring serum OC levels in Malaysian
RA patients was not useful in identifying those at risk
of low BMD.
Background: Hypertension is estimated to cause4.5% of the global disease burden. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia is 32.2%.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in two rural communities in Penang, Malaysia.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among all consenting residents aged 18 years and above from two villages in Penang. Besides the baseline demographic information, blood pressure was measured using a manual sphygmomanometer according to the American Heart Association Guidelines.
Results: 50 out of 168 people were hypertensive, giving a prevalence rate of 29.8%. 50.0% of those found with hypertension were undiagnosed and 48.0% of those who were diagnosed with hypertension had uncontrolled blood pressure. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, history of alcohol consumption and BMI were found to be independently associated with hypertension.
Conclusions: Age, education level, alcohol consumption and BMI are important risk factors associated with the prevalence of hypertension among the villagers. These risk factors are comparable to those reported in National Health and Morbidity Survery 2006 in Malaysia.
This cross sectional study was done to identify the areas of lack of knowledge, practice and awareness of students about the effective use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A total of 40 students were selected when they were posted to the accident and emergency unit (A&E) in Seremban Hospital; all of them answered a questionnaire and were observed unaware on the effective use of PPE in the A&E.
This paper presents the solution to a calculation of the pH of a very dilute solution of a weak acid, taking into account the effect of the hydroxonium ions generated from the ionization of the acid on the ionization of water, also a very weak acid. To be solved successfully, this calculation involves the concepts of conservation of charge, pH, equilibria and the application of the general solution to a cubic equation. Such an exercise requires the application of skills in algebra, and can provide a core of understanding that can prepare advanced students for many different sorts of calculations that represent real-life problems in the chemical sciences. A programme is presented in C++ which enables the work of students to be individualized so that each student in a class can work through a slightly different pH calculation, in such a way that a class supervisor can quickly check each student’s result for accuracy.This exercise is presented as a potential means of enabling students to undertake and master similar types of calculations involving the application of complex algebra to problems related to equilibria and solution dynamics.