Background: Stroke is a major global health problem that contributes to a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. The association of several foods and nutrients with stroke has been well-established. However, the effect of the whole diet on stroke is poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to examine the association between the quality of whole diet, as measured using Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and risk of stroke in Iranian adults. Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, 193 stroke patients (diagnosed based on clinical and brain CT findings) and 193 controls with no history of cerebrovascular diseases or neurologic disorders were included. The participants' dietary intakes were examined using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. AHEI-2010 was constructed based on earlier studies. Participants were classified according to tertiles of AHEI-2010 scores and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between whole diet quality and risk of stroke. Results: Individuals with greater adherence to AHEI-2010 had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains and carbohydrate, and a lower intake of trans-fatty acids, sugar-sweetened beverages, total energy and fat (P
Glutamate is the major mediator of excitatory signals in the mammalian central nervous system. Extreme amounts of glutamate in the extracellular spaces can lead to numerous neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to clarify the potential of the following vitamin E isomers, tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and α-tocopherol (α-TCP), as potent neuroprotective agents against glutamate-induced injury in neuronal SK-N-SH cells. Cells were treated before and after glutamate injury (pre- and post-treatment, respectively) with 100-300 ng/ml TRF/α-TCP. Exposure to 120 mM glutamate significantly reduced cell viability to 76% and 79% in the pre- and post-treatment studies, respectively; however, pre- and post-treatment with TRF/α-TCP attenuated the cytotoxic effect of glutamate. Compared to the positive control (glutamate-injured cells not treated with TRF/α-TCP), pre-treatment with 100, 200, and 300 ng/ml TRF significantly improved cell viability following glutamate injury to 95.2%, 95.0%, and 95.6%, respectively (p<0.05).The isomers not only conferred neuroprotection by enhancing mitochondrial activity and depleting free radical production, but also increased cell viability and recovery upon glutamate insult. Our results suggest that vitamin E has potent antioxidant potential for protecting against glutamate injury and recovering glutamate-injured neuronal cells. Our findings also indicate that both TRF and α-TCP could play key roles as anti-apoptotic agents with neuroprotective properties.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their adverse effects on the gastric mucosa are yet another set of unresolved medical problems. This study examined the effects of various antioxidants on several gastric parameters after a single exposure to indomethacin. Forty-eight male rats of the Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g) strain were randomly divided to receive a single antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol, or ubiquinone) or a combination of two (tocopherol-tocotrienol, tocopherol-ubiquinone or tocotrienol-ubiquinone) for 28 days. The rats were then challenged with a single dose of indomethacin and killed six hours later. Findings showed that the severity of gastric lesions was comparable in all groups. Only groups that received a combination of antioxidants exhibited reduced lipid peroxidation compared with all other groups (p < 0.05). The combination groups had a higher level of gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content compared with all other groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups in the gastric acid concentration and the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. We conclude that although supplementation of these antioxidants in combination had desirable effects on lipid peroxidation and gastric PGE2 level, they did not reduce the lesions produced by indomethacin.
Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found in some crops with an adverse health effect on human and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms (or probiotics) such as lactic acid bacteria have shown the ability to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins and its intestinal absorption. However, the dose and duration of aflatoxins exposure and probiotic treatment can influence the ability of probiotics to remove aflatoxins. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (LcS) induction in an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. Experimentally, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: AFB1 only (n = 9); AFB1 treated with LcS (n = 9); and control (no AFB1 exposure) (n = 6) groups. The blood AFB1 level of rats treated with LcS was slightly lower than the untreated AFB1 induced rats (11.12 ± 0.71 vs 10.93 ± 0.69 ng g-1). Also, LcS treatment slightly moderated the liver and kidney biomarkers in AFB1 induced rats. However, a trend for a significant difference was only observed in ALT of AFB1 induced rats treated with LcS compared to their counterparts (126.11 ± 36.90 vs 157.36 ± 15.46, p = 0.06). Rats' body weight decreased in all animals force-fed with AFB1 with no significant difference between LcS treatment compared to the counterpart. In conclusion, this experiment indicated that probiotic LsC was able to slightly ameliorate the adverse effect of an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. However, future studies with longer probiotics treatment or higher probiotics dose is required to confirm these findings.
Protective action by annatto-derived delta-tocotrienol (δ-TCT) and soy-derived alpha-tocopherol (α-TOC) through the regulation of PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 pathway against the nicotine-induced DNA damages is the focus of the present study. Nicotine, which has been widely reported to have numerous adverse effects on the reproductive system, was used as reproductive toxicant. 48 female balb/c mice (6-8 weeks) (23-25 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups (G1-G8; n = 6) and treated with either nicotine or/and annatto δ-TCT/soy α-TOC for 7 consecutive days. On Day 8, the females were superovulated and mated before euthanized for embryo collection (46 hours post-coitum). Fifty 2-cell embryos from each group were used in gene expression analysis using Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex2.0 assay. Findings indicated that nicotine (G2) significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the number of produced 2-cell embryos compared to control (G1). Intervention with mixed annatto δ-TCT (G3) and pure annatto δ-TCT (G4) significantly increased the number of produced 2-cell embryos by 127 % and 79 % respectively compared to G2, but these were lower than G1. Concurrent treatment with soy α-TOC (G5) decreased embryo production by 7 %. Supplementations with δ-TCT and α-TOC alone (G6-G8) significantly increased (p < 0.05) the number of produced 2-cell embryos by 50 %, 36 % and 41 % respectively, compared to control (G1). These results were found to be associated with the alterations in the PI3K/Akt-Cyclin D1 gene expressions, indicating the inhibitory effects of annatto δ-TCT and soy α-TOC against the nicotinic embryonic damages. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt on studying the benefits of annatto δ-TCT on murine preimplantation 2-cell embryos.
The present review explored the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of vitamin E, which has protective action against osteoporosis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the published bone studies on vitamin E. The studies included inflammatory or immunology-related parameters. Medline and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies published from 2005 till 2015. Research articles published in English and confined to the effect of vitamin E on bone were included. It is pertinent to mention that these studies took into consideration inflammatory or immunology parameters including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS), serum amyloid A (SAA), e-selection and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). An extended literature search yielded 127 potentially relevant articles with seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Another recent article was added with the total number accounting to eight. All these included literature comprised five animal studies, one in-vitro study and two human studies. These studies demonstrated that vitamin E, especially tocotrienol, was able to alleviate IL-1, IL-6, RANKL, iNOS and hs-CRP levels in relation to bone metabolism. In conclusion, vitamin E exerts its anti-osteoporotic actions via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.
Involving school-age children in the preparation of healthy meals is shown to be associated with positive eating behavior. Yet, it remains unclear whether this can extend to their nutritional status. The present study aimed to determine the association of school-age children's psychosocial factors (knowledge, attitude, practice, self-efficacy) towards healthy meal preparation with their nutritional status (BMI-for-age, waist circumference, body fat percentage). Stratified random sampling was used to select primary schools (n = 8) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Two hundred school children aged between 9-11 years old were involved. Psychosocial factors towards healthy meal preparation were assessed using validated questionnaire. Anthropometry measures were determined using standard protocol. Almost half (46 %) of the school-age children were obese/overweight, 39 % were abdominally obese and 40 % were overfat. Approximately half had poor knowledge (49 %), poor practice (45 %), good attitude (56 %) and good self-efficacy (47 %) towards healthy meal preparation. Significant positive correlations were observed between knowledge with attitude (r = 0.23, p
A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 350 elderly Malays aged 60 and above from 11 randomly selected villages in a rural area on the East Coast of Malaysia. The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all of the nutrients investigated were below the Malaysian Recommended Dietary Allowances, excepts for protein and vitamin C. Nutrients most likely to be inadequate were vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium, with more than 50% of the subjects having estimated intakes of below 2/3 of the recommendations. However, vitamin A status was adequate, with only 2 subjects being biochemically deficient (plasma retinol < or = 0.7 mmol/l). Approximately a third of the subjects had hypoalbuminaemia (plasma albumin < 3.3 g/dl) and anaemia (Haemoglobin < 12 g/dl for men; < 13 g/dl for women). Riboflavin deficiency, as assessed by an erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC) of more than 1.35 was identified in 77% of the subjects. The prevalence of vitamin E deficiency (plasma a-tocopherol < or = 12 mmol/l) was 27%, with men being at a greater risk. In conclusion, the dietary intakes of these rural elderly Malays was inadequate. Over three quarters of the sample were biochemically deficient in riboflavin, the functional consequences of which need to be further investigated.
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of diabetic complications. The aims of this study were to investigate whether honey could reduce hyperglycemia and ameliorate oxidative stress in kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.