Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 148 in total

  1. Zhang P, Wang P, Yan L, Liu L
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:7047-7059.
    PMID: 30464458 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S180138
    Background: Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is one of the subtypes of head and neck cancers. It occurs rarely, and its prevalence depends mainly on geographical location. Modern-day research is focused on coupling nanotechnology and traditional medicine for combating cancers. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized from Solanum xanthocarpum (Sx) leaf extract using reduction method.

    Methods: Characterization of the synthesized AuNPs was done by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectrum absorption, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Results: All the results showed the successful green synthesis of AuNPs from Sx, which induced apoptosis of C666-1 cell line (NPC cell line). There was a decline in both cell viability and colony formation in C666-1 cells upon treatment with Sx-AuNPs. The cell death was proved to be caused by autophagy and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    Conclusion: Thus, due to their anticancer potential, these nanoparticles coupled with Sx can be used for in vivo applications and clinical research in future.

  2. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Ahangar HA, Darroudi M, Zamiri G, Rizwan Z, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:233-44.
    PMID: 23345971 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S36036
    Laser ablation-based nanoparticle synthesis in solution is rapidly becoming popular, particularly for potential biomedical and life science applications. This method promises one pot synthesis and concomitant bio-functionalization, is devoid of toxic chemicals, does not require complicated apparatus, can be combined with natural stabilizers, is directly biocompatible, and has high particle size uniformity. Size control and reduction is generally determined by the laser settings; that the size and size distribution scales with laser fluence is well described. Conversely, the effect of the laser repetition rate on the final nanoparticle product in laser ablation is less well-documented, especially in the presence of stabilizers. Here, the influence of the laser repetition rate during laser ablation synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of starch as a stabilizer was investigated. The increment of the repetition rate does not negatively influence the ablation efficiency, but rather shows increased productivity, causes a red-shift in the plasmon resonance peak of the silver-starch nanoparticles, an increase in mean particle size and size distribution, and a distinct lack of agglomerate formation. Optimal results were achieved at 10 Hz repetition rate, with a mean particle size of ~10 nm and a bandwidth of ~6 nm 'full width at half maximum' (FWHM). Stability measurements showed no significant changes in mean particle size or agglomeration or even flocculation. However, zeta potential measurements showed that optimal double layer charge is achieved at 30 Hz. Consequently, Ag-NP synthesis via the laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS) method in starch solution seems to be a trade-off between small size and narrow size distributions and inherent and long-term stability.
  3. Zamiri R, Azmi BZ, Sadrolhosseini AR, Ahangar HA, Zaidan AW, Mahdi MA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:71-5.
    PMID: 21289983 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S14005
    Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10(-8), 1.6 × 10(-8), 2.4 × 10(-8), respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.
  4. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Husin MS, Wahab ZA, Nazarpour FK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2221-4.
    PMID: 22114485 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23830
    In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 μm and a length of 1.472 μm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles.
  5. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Abbastabar H, Darroudi M, Husin MS, Mahdi MA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:565-8.
    PMID: 21698083 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16384
    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.
  6. Zak AK, Razali R, Majid WH, Darroudi M
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1399-403.
    PMID: 21796242 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S19693
    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized via a solvothermal method in triethanolamine (TEA) media. TEA was utilized as a polymer agent to terminate the growth of ZnO-NPs. The ZnO-NPs were characterized by a number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction analysis, transition electron microscopy, and field emission electron microscopy. The ZnO-NPs prepared by the solvothermal process at 150°C for 18 hours exhibited a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, with a crystalline size of 33 ± 2 nm, and particle size of 48 ± 7 nm. The results confirm that TEA is a suitable polymer agent to prepare homogenous ZnO-NPs.
  7. Yusof F, Sha'ban M, Azhim A
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:5491-5502.
    PMID: 31410000 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S207270
    Purpose: Meniscus is a fibrocartilagenous tissue that cannot effectively heal due to its complex structure and presence of avascular zone. Thus, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine offer an alternative for the regeneration of meniscus tissues using bioscaffolds as a replacement for the damaged one. The aim of this study was to prepare an ideal meniscus bioscaffold with minimal adverse effect on extracellular matrix components (ECMs) using a sonication treatment system.

    Methods: The decellularization was achieved using a developed closed sonication treatment system for 10 hrs, and continued with a washing process for 5 days. For the control, a simple immersion treatment was set as a benchmark to compare the decellularization efficiency. Histological and biochemical assays were conducted to investigate the cell removal and retention of the vital extracellular matrix. Surface ultrastructure of the prepared scaffolds was evaluated using scanning electron microscope at 5,000× magnification viewed from cross and longitudinal sections. In addition, the biomechanical properties were investigated through ball indentation testing to study the stiffness, residual forces and compression characteristics. Statistical significance between the samples was determined with p-value =0.05.

    Results: Histological and biochemical assays confirmed the elimination of antigenic cellular components with the retention of the vital extracellular matrix within the sonicated scaffolds. However, there was a significant removal of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The surface histoarchitecture portrayed the preserved collagen fibril orientation and arrangement. However, there were minor disruptions on the structure, with few empty micropores formed which represented cell lacunae. The biomechanical properties of bioscaffolds showed the retention of viscoelastic behavior of the scaffolds which mimic native tissues. After immersion treatment, those scaffolds had poor results compared to the sonicated scaffolds due to the inefficiency of the treatment.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reported that the closed sonication treatment system had high capabilities to prepare ideal bioscaffolds with excellent removal of cellular components, and retained extracellular matrix and biomechanical properties.

  8. Yong CY, Yeap SK, Ho KL, Omar AR, Tan WS
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:2751-63.
    PMID: 25897220 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S77405
    Influenza A virus poses a major threat to human health, causing outbreaks from time to time. Currently available vaccines employ inactivated viruses of different strains to provide protection against influenza virus infection. However, high mutation rates of influenza virus hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) glycoproteins give rise to vaccine escape mutants. Thus, an effective vaccine providing protection against all strains of influenza virus would be a valuable asset. The ectodomain of matrix 2 protein (M2e) was found to be highly conserved despite mutations of the H and N glycoproteins. Hence, one to five copies of M2e were fused to the carboxyl-terminal end of the recombinant nodavirus capsid protein derived from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The chimeric proteins harboring up to five copies of M2e formed nanosized virus-like particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, which could be purified easily by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice immunized subcutaneously with these chimeric proteins developed antibodies specifically against M2e, and the titer was proportional to the copy numbers of M2e displayed on the nodavirus capsid nanoparticles. The fusion proteins also induced a type 1 T helper immune response. Collectively, M2e displayed on the nodavirus capsid nanoparticles could provide an alternative solution to a possible influenza pandemic in the future.
  9. Xia N, Deng D, Wang Y, Fang C, Li SJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:2521-2530.
    PMID: 29731627 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S154046
    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a serine protease, is a biomarker for preoperative diagnosis and screening of prostate cancer and monitoring of its posttreatment.

    Methods: In this work, we reported a colorimetric method for clinical detection of PSA using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the reporters. The method is based on ascorbic acid (AA)-induced in situ formation of AuNPs and Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of AA. Specifically, HAuCl4 can be reduced into AuNPs by AA; Cu2+ ion can catalyze the oxidation of AA by O2 to inhibit the formation of AuNPs. In the presence of the PSA-specific peptide (DAHSSKLQLAPP)-modified gold-coated magnetic microbeads (MMBs; denoted as DAHSSKLQLAPP-MMBs), complexation of Cu2+ by the MMBs through the DAH-Cu2+ interaction depressed the catalyzed oxidation of AA and thus allowed for the formation of red AuNPs. However, once the peptide immobilized on the MMB surface was cleaved by PSA, the DAHSSKLQ segment would be released. The resultant LAPP fragment remaining on the MMB surface could not sequestrate Cu2+ to depress its catalytic activity toward AA oxidation. Consequently, no or less AuNPs were generated.

    Results: The linear range for PSA detection was found to be 0~0.8 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.02 ng/mL. Because of the separation of cleavage step and measurement step, the interference of matrix components in biological samples was avoided.

    Conclusion: The high extinction coefficient of AuNPs facilitates the colorimetric analysis of PSA in serum samples. This work is helpful for designing of other protease biosensors by matching specific peptide substrates.

  10. Woo FY, Basri M, Masoumi HR, Ahmad MB, Ismail M
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:3879-86.
    PMID: 26089664 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S80253
    Galantamine hydrobromide (GH) is an effective drug for Alzheimer's disease. It is currently delivered via the oral route, and this might cause nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. In the present work, GH was formulated in a gel-type drug reservoir and then optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design. This optimization study involved three independent variables (carbopol amount, triethanolamine amount, and GH amount) and two dependent variables (cumulative drug release amount at 8 hours and the permeation flux of drug). Two models using expert design software were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model. The optimized gel was formulated with 0.89% w/w carbopol, 1.16% w/w triethanolamine, and 4.19% w/w GH. Optimization analysis revealed that the proposed formulation has the predicted cumulative drug release amount at 8 hours of 17.80 mg·cm(-2) and the predicted permeation flux of 2.27 mg·cm(-2)/h. These predicted values have good agreement to actual cumulative drug release amount at 8 hours (16.93±0.08 mg·cm(-2)) and actual permeation flux (2.32±0.02 mg·cm(-2)/h). This optimized reservoir formulation was then fabricated in the transdermal patch system. This patch system has moderate pH, high drug content, and controlled drug-release pattern. Thus, this patch system has the potential to be used as the drug carrier for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
  11. Wang F, Gopinath SC, Lakshmipriya T
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:8469-8481.
    PMID: 31695375 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S219976
    Background: A pandemic influenza viral strain, influenza A/California/07/2009 (pdmH1N1), has been considered to be a potential issue that needs to be controlled to avoid the seasonal emergence of mutated strains.

    Materials and methods: In this study, aptamer-antibody complementation was implemented on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold conjugated sensing surface with a dielectrode to detect pandemic pdmH1N1. Preliminary biomolecular and dielectrode surface analyses were performed by molecular and microscopic methods. A stable anti-pdmH1N1 aptamer sequence interacted with hemagglutinin (HA) and was compared with the antibody interaction. Both aptamer and antibody attachments on the surface as the basic molecule attained the saturation at nanomolar levels.

    Results: Aptamers were found to have higher affinity and electric response than antibodies against HA of pdmH1N1. Linear regression with aptamer-HA interaction displays sensitivity in the range of 10 fM, whereas antibody-HA interaction shows a 100-fold lower level (1 pM). When sandwich-based detection of aptamer-HA-antibody and antibody-HA-aptamer was performed, a higher response of current was observed in both cases. Moreover, the detection strategy with aptamer clearly discriminated the closely related HA of influenza B/Tokyo/53/99 and influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2).

    Conclusion: The high performance of the abovementioned detection methods was supported by the apparent specificity and reproducibility by the demonstrated sensing system.

  12. Wahgiman NA, Salim N, Abdul Rahman MB, Ashari SE
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:7323-7338.
    PMID: 31686809 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S212635
    Background: Gemcitabine (GEM) is a chemotherapeutic agent, which is known to battle cancer but challenging due to its hydrophilic nature. Nanoemulsion is water-in-oil (W/O) nanoemulsion shows potential as a carrier system in delivering gemcitabine to the cancer cell.

    Methods: The behaviour of GEM in MCT/surfactants/NaCl systems was studied in the ternary system at different ratios of Tween 80 and Span 80. The system with surfactant ratio 3:7 of Tween 80 and Span 80 was chosen for further study on the preparation of nanoemulsion formulation due to the highest isotropic region. Based on the selected ternary phase diagram, a composition of F1 was chosen and used for optimization by using the D-optimal mixture design. The interaction variables between medium chain triglyceride (MCT), surfactant mixture Tween 80: Span 80 (ratio 3:7), 0.9 % sodium chloride solution and gemcitabine were evaluated towards particle size as a response.

    Results: The results showed that NaCl solution and GEM gave more effects on particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 141.57±0.05 nm, 0.168 and -37.10 mV, respectively. The optimized nanoemulsion showed good stability (no phase separation) against centrifugation test and storage at three different temperatures. The in vitro release of gemcitabine at different pH buffer solution was evaluated. The results showed the release of GEM in buffer pH 6.5 (45.19%) was higher than GEM in buffer pH 7.4 (13.62%). The cytotoxicity study showed that the optimized nanoemulsion containing GEM induced cytotoxicity towards A549 cell and at the same time reduced cytotoxicity towards MRC5 when compared to the control (GEM solution).

  13. Vellayappan MV, Balaji A, Subramanian AP, John AA, Jaganathan SK, Murugesan S, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:2785-803.
    PMID: 25897223 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S80121
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death across the globe. The use of synthetic materials is indispensable in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Major drawbacks related to the use of biomaterials are their mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and these have to be circumvented before promoting the material to the market or clinical setting. Revolutionary advancements in nanotechnology have introduced a novel class of materials called nanocomposites which have superior properties for biomedical applications. Recently, there has been a widespread recognition of the nanocomposites utilizing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, bacterial cellulose, silk fibroin, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes in cardiovascular grafts and stents. The unique characteristics of these nanocomposites have led to the development of a wide range of nanostructured copolymers with appreciably enhanced properties, such as improved mechanical, chemical, and physical characteristics suitable for cardiovascular implants. The incorporation of advanced nanocomposite materials in cardiovascular grafts and stents improves hemocompatibility, enhances antithrombogenicity, improves mechanical and surface properties, and decreases the microbial response to the cardiovascular implants. A thorough attempt is made to summarize the various applications of nanocomposites for cardiovascular graft and stent applications. This review will highlight the recent advances in nanocomposites and also address the need of future research in promoting nanocomposites as plausible candidates in a campaign against cardiovascular disease.
  14. Usman MS, El Zowalaty ME, Shameli K, Zainuddin N, Salama M, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:4467-79.
    PMID: 24293998 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S50837
    Copper nanoparticle synthesis has been gaining attention due to its availability. However, factors such as agglomeration and rapid oxidation have made it a difficult research area. In the present work, pure copper nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a chitosan stabilizer through chemical means. The purity of the nanoparticles was authenticated using different characterization techniques, including ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of the nanoparticles were investigated using several microorganisms of interest, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Candida albicans. The effect of a chitosan medium on growth of the microorganism was studied, and this was found to influence growth rate. The size of the copper nanoparticles obtained was in the range of 2-350 nm, depending on the concentration of the chitosan stabilizer.
  15. Thavanathan J, Huang NM, Thong KL
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:2711-22.
    PMID: 25897217 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S74753
    We have developed a colorimetric biosensor using a dual platform of gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide sheets for the detection of Salmonella enterica. The presence of the invA gene in S. enterica causes a change in color of the biosensor from its original pinkish-red to a light purplish solution. This occurs through the aggregation of the primary gold nanoparticles-conjugated DNA probe onto the surface of the secondary graphene oxide-conjugated DNA probe through DNA hybridization with the targeted DNA sequence. Spectrophotometry analysis showed a shift in wavelength from 525 nm to 600 nm with 1 μM of DNA target. Specificity testing revealed that the biosensor was able to detect various serovars of the S. enterica while no color change was observed with the other bacterial species. Sensitivity testing revealed the limit of detection was at 1 nM of DNA target. This proves the effectiveness of the biosensor in the detection of S. enterica through DNA hybridization.
  16. Tan AW, Tay L, Chua KH, Ahmad R, Akbar SA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:5389-401.
    PMID: 25473278 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S72659
    Two important criteria of an ideal biomaterial in the field of stem cells research are to regulate the cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency and to direct the differentiation into a specific cell lineage when desired. The present study describes the influence of TiO2 nanofibrous surface structures on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). TiO2 nanofiber arrays were produced in situ onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate via a thermal oxidation process and the successful fabrication of these nanostructures was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and contact angle measurement. ADSCs were seeded on two types of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces (TiO2 nanofibers and flat control), and their morphology, proliferation, and stemness expression were analyzed using FESEM, AlamarBlue assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results show that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly enhanced proliferation on the TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces compared to the flat control surfaces. The greater proliferation ability of TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces was further confirmed by the results of cell cycle assay. More importantly, TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly upregulate the expressions of stemness markers Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, and Nestin. These results demonstrate that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces can be used to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation while simultaneously maintaining the stemness of ADSCs, thereby representing a promising approach for their potential application in the field of bone tissue engineering as well as regenerative therapies.
  17. Syed Azhar SNA, Ashari SE, Salim N
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:6465-6479.
    PMID: 30410332 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S171532
    Introduction: Kojic monooleate (KMO) is an ester derived from a fungal metabolite of kojic acid with monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, which contains tyrosinase inhibitor to treat skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation. In this study, KMO was formulated in an oil-in-water nanoemulsion as a carrier for better penetration into the skin.

    Methods: The nanoemulsion was prepared by using high and low energy emulsification technique. D-optimal mixture experimental design was generated as a tool for optimizing the composition of nanoemulsions suitable for topical delivery systems. Effects of formulation variables including KMO (2.0%-10.0% w/w), mixture of castor oil (CO):lemon essential oil (LO; 9:1) (1.0%-5.0% w/w), Tween 80 (1.0%-4.0% w/w), xanthan gum (0.5%-1.5% w/w), and deionized water (78.8%-94.8% w/w), on droplet size as a response were determined.

    Results: Analysis of variance showed that the fitness of the quadratic polynomial fits the experimental data with F-value (2,479.87), a low P-value (P<0.0001), and a nonsignificant lack of fit. The optimized formulation of KMO-enriched nanoemulsion with desirable criteria was KMO (10.0% w/w), Tween 80 (3.19% w/w), CO:LO (3.74% w/w), xanthan gum (0.70% w/w), and deionized water (81.68% w/w). This optimum formulation showed good agreement between the actual droplet size (110.01 nm) and the predicted droplet size (111.73 nm) with a residual standard error <2.0%. The optimized formulation with pH values (6.28) showed high conductivity (1,492.00 µScm-1) and remained stable under accelerated stability study during storage at 4°C, 25°C, and 45°C for 90 days, centrifugal force as well as freeze-thaw cycles. Rheology measurement justified that the optimized formulation was more elastic (shear thinning and pseudo-plastic properties) rather than demonstrating viscous characteristics. In vitro cytotoxicity of the optimized KMO formulation and KMO oil showed that IC50 (50% inhibition of cell viability) value was >100 µg/mL.

    Conclusion: The survival rate of 3T3 cell on KMO formulation (54.76%) was found to be higher compared to KMO oil (53.37%) without any toxicity sign. This proved that the KMO formulation was less toxic and can be applied for cosmeceutical applications.

  18. SreeHarsha N, Maheshwari R, Al-Dhubiab BE, Tekade M, Sharma MC, Venugopala KN, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:7419-7429.
    PMID: 31686814 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S211224
    Background: Prostate cancer (PC) has the highest prevalence in men and accounts for a high rate of neoplasia-related death. Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most widely used anti-neoplastic drugs for prostate cancer among others. However, it has low specificity and many side effects and affects normal cells. More recently, there have been newly developed drug delivery tools which are graphene or graphene-based, used to increase the specificity of the delivered drug molecules. The graphene derivatives possess both π-π stacking and increased hydrophobicity, factors that increase the likelihood of drug delivery. Despite this, the hydrophilicity of graphene remains problematic, as it induced problems with stability. For this reason, the use of a chitosan coating remains one way to modify the surface features of graphene.

    Method: In this investigation, a hybrid nanoparticle that consisted of a DOX-loaded reduced graphene oxide that is stabilized with chitosan (rGOD-HNP) was developed.

    Result: The newly developed rGOD-HNP demonstrated high biocompatibility and efficiency in entrapping DOX (~65%) and releasing it in a controlled manner (~50% release in 48 h). Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that rGOD-HNP can intracellularly deliver DOX and more specifically in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    Conclusion: This delivery tool offers a feasible and viable method to deliver DOX photo-thermally in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  19. Sisin NNT, Abdul Razak K, Zainal Abidin S, Che Mat NF, Abdullah R, Ab Rashid R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:9941-9954.
    PMID: 31908451 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S228919
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the synergetic triple therapeutic combination encompassing bismuth oxide nanoparticles (BiONPs), cisplatin (Cis), and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Ir-192 source in breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell line.

    Methods: In vitro models of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) and normal fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were employed. Cellular localization and cytotoxicity studies were conducted prior to inspection on the radiosensitization effects and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on three proposed radiosensitizers: BiONPs, Cis, and BiONPs-Cis combination (BC). The optimal, non-cytotoxic concentration of BiONPs (0.5 mM) and the 25% inhibitory concentration of Cis (1.30 µM) were applied. The radiosensitization effects were evaluated by using a 0.38 MeV Iridium-192 HDR brachytherapy source over a prescribed dose range of 0 Gy to 4 Gy.

    Results: The cellular localization of BiONPs was visualized by light microscopy and accumulation of the BiONPs within the vicinity of the nuclear membrane was observed. Quantification of the sensitization enhancement ratio extrapolated from the survival curves indicates radiosensitization effects for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 when treated with BiONPs, Cis, and BC. However, NIH/3T3 cells exhibited contradictive behavior as it only reacted towards the BC combination. Nonetheless, the MCF-7 cell line loaded with BC shows the highest SER of 4.29. ROS production analysis, on the other hand, shows that Cis and BC radiosensitizers generated the highest free radicals in comparison to BiONPs alone.

    Conclusion: A BiONPs-Cis combination was unveiled as a novel approach that offers promising radiosensitization enhancement that will increase the efficiency of tumor control while preserving the normal tissue at a reduced dose. This data is the first precedent to prove the synergetic implication of BiONPs, Cis, and HDR brachytherapy that will be beneficial for future chemoradiotherapy strategies in cancer care.

  20. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Zamanian A, Sangpour P, Shabanzadeh P, Abdollahi Y, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:5603-10.
    PMID: 23341739 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S36786
    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.
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