Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 142 in total

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  1. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Yunus WM, Ibrahim NA, Rahman RA, Jokar M, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2010 Sep 07;5:573-9.
    PMID: 20856832
    In this study, antibacterial characteristic of silver/poly (lactic acid) nanocomposite (Ag/PLA-NC) films was investigated, while silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized into biodegradable PLA via chemical reduction method in diphase solvent. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were respectively used as a silver precursor and reducing agent in the PLA, which acted as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. Meanwhile, the properties of Ag/PLA-NCs were studied as a function of the Ag-NP weight percentages (8, 16, and 32 wt% respectively), in relation to the use of PLA. The morphology of the Ag/PLA-NC films and the distribution of the Ag-NPs were also characterized. The silver ions released from the Ag/PLA-NC films and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag/PLA-NC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. The results indicated that Ag/PLA-NC films possessed a strong antibacterial activity with the increase in the percentage of Ag-NPs in the PLA. Thus, Ag/PLA-NC films can be used as an antibacterial scaffold for tissue engineering and medical application.
  2. Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Chitneni M, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Yam MF, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2010 Nov 04;5:915-24.
    PMID: 21116332 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S13305
    INTRODUCTION: During recent years, there has been growing interest in use of topical vehicle systems to assist in drug permeation through the skin. Drugs of interest are usually those that are problematic when given orally, such as piroxicam, a highly effective anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and analgesic, but with the adverse effect of causing gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a newly synthesized palm oil esters (POEs)-based nanocream containing piroxicam for topical delivery.

    METHODS: A ratio of 25:37:38 of POEs: external phase: surfactants (Tween 80:Span 20, in a ratio 80:20), respectively was selected as the basic composition for the production of a nanocream with ideal properties. Various nanocreams were prepared using phosphate-buffered saline as the external phase at three different pH values. The abilities of these formulae to deliver piroxicam were assessed in vitro using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with a cellulose acetate membrane and full thickness rat skin. These formulae were also evaluated in vivo by comparing their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with those of the currently marketed gel.

    RESULTS: After eight hours, nearly 100% of drug was transferred through the artificial membrane from the prepared formula F3 (phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 as the external phase) and the marketed gel. The steady-state flux through rat skin of all formulae tested was higher than that of the marketed gel. Pharmacodynamically, nanocream formula F3 exhibited the highest anti- inflammatory and analgesic effects as compared with the other formulae.

    CONCLUSION: The nanocream containing the newly synthesized POEs was successful for trans-dermal delivery of piroxicam.

  3. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Yunus WM, Ibrahim NA, Gharayebi Y, Sedaghat S
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2010;5:1067-77.
    PMID: 21170354 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S15033
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized into the interlamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT) by using the γ-irradiation technique in the absence of any reducing agent or heat treatment. Silver nitrate and γ-irradiation were used as the silver precursor and physical reducing agent in MMT as a solid support. The MMT was suspended in the aqueous AgNO(3) solution, and after the absorption of silver ions, Ag(+) was reduced using the γ-irradiation technique. The properties of Ag/MMT nanocomposites and the diameters of Ag-NPs were studied as a function of γ-irradiation doses. The interlamellar space limited particle growth (d-spacing [d(s)] = 1.24-1.42 nm); powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements showed the production of face-centered cubic Ag-NPs with a mean diameter of about 21.57-30.63 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that there were structure changes between the initial MMT and Ag/MMT nanocomposites under the increased doses of γ-irradiation. Furthermore, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra for the MMT and Ag/ MMT nanocomposites confirmed the presence of elemental compounds in MMT and Ag-NPs. The results from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and TEM demonstrated that increasing the γ-irradiation dose enhanced the concentration of Ag-NPs. In addition, the particle size of the Ag-NPs gradually increased from 1 to 20 kGy. When the γ-irradiation dose increased from 20 to 40 kGy, the particle diameters decreased suddenly as a result of the induced fragmentation of Ag-NPs. Thus, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the interactions between Ag-NPs with the surface of MMT were weak due to the presence of van der Waals interactions. The synthesized Ag/MMT suspension was found to be stable over a long period of time (ie, more than 3 months) without any sign of precipitation.
  4. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Yunus WZ, Ibrahim NA, Darroudi M
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2010;5:743-51.
    PMID: 21042420 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S13227
    In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method on the external surface layer of talc mineral as a solid support. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were used as the silver precursor and reducing agent in talc. The talc was suspended in aqueous AgNO(3) solution. After the absorption of Ag(+) on the surface, the ions were reduced with NaBH(4). The interlamellar space limits were without many changes (d(s) = 9.34-9.19 A(º)); therefore, Ag-NPs formed on the exterior surface of talc, with d(ave) = 7.60-13.11 nm in diameter. The properties of Ag/talc nanocomposites (Ag/talc-NCs) and the diameters of the Ag-NPs prepared in this way depended on the primary AgNO(3) concentration. The prepared Ag-NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared. These Ag/talc-NCs may have potential applications in the chemical and biological industries.
  5. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Yunus WM, Rustaiyan A, Ibrahim NA, Zargar M, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2010;5:875-87.
    PMID: 21116328 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S13632
    In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized using a green physical synthetic route into the lamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT)/chitosan (Cts) utilizing the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation reduction method in the absence of any reducing agent or heat treatment. Cts, MMT, and AgNO(3) were used as the natural polymeric stabilizer, solid support, and silver precursor, respectively. The properties of Ag/MMT/Cts bionanocomposites (BNCs) were studied as the function of UV irradiation times. UV irradiation disintegrated the Ag-NPs into smaller sizes until a relatively stable size and size distribution were achieved. Meanwhile, the crystalline structure and d-spacing of the MMT interlayer, average size and size distribution, surface morphology, elemental signal peaks, functional groups, and surface plasmon resonance of Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were determined by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli) by the disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton Agar at different sizes of Ag-NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were found to have high antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs can be useful in different biologic research and biomedical applications, such as surgical devices and drug delivery vehicles.
  6. Lim HN, Huang NM, Lim SS, Harrison I, Chia CH
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1817-23.
    PMID: 21931479 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23392
    Three-dimensional assembly of graphene hydrogel is rapidly attracting the interest of researchers because of its wide range of applications in energy storage, electronics, electrochemistry, and waste water treatment. Information on the use of graphene hydrogel for biological purposes is lacking, so we conducted a preliminary study to determine the suitability of graphene hydrogel as a substrate for cell growth, which could potentially be used as building blocks for biomolecules and tissue engineering applications.
  7. Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Zargar M, Yunus WM, Rustaiyan A, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:581-90.
    PMID: 21674015 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S17112
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by the chemical reducing method in the external and interlamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT) as a solid support at room temperature. AgNO(3) and NaBH(4) were used as a silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The most favorable experimental conditions for synthesizing Ag NPs in the MMT are described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO(3). The interlamellar space limits changed little (d-spacing = 1.24-1.47 nm); therefore, Ag NPs formed on the MMT suspension with d-average = 4.19-8.53 nm diameter. The Ag/MMT nanocomposites (NCs), formed from AgNO(3)/MMT suspension, were characterizations with different instruments, for example UV-visible, PXRD, TEM, SEM, EDXRF, FT-IR, and ICP-OES analyzer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of Ag NPs in MMT were investigated against Gram-positive, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). The smaller Ag NPs were found to have significantly higher antibacterial activity. These results showed that Ag NPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors in different biological systems, making them applicable to medical applications.
  8. Darroudi M, Ahmad MB, Abdullah AH, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:569-74.
    PMID: 21674013 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16867
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been successfully prepared with simple and "green" synthesis method by reducing Ag(+) ions in aqueous gelatin media with and in the absence of glucose as a reducing agent. In this study, gelatin was used for the first time as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The effect of temperature on particle size of Ag-NPs was also studied. It was found that with increasing temperature the size of nanoparticles is decreased. It was found that the particle size of Ag-NPs obtained in gelatin solutions is smaller than in gelatin-glucose solutions, which can be related to the rate of reduction reaction. X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed Ag-NPs with a narrow particle size distribution.
  9. Hamedi M, Salleh ShH, Tan TS, Ismail K, Ali J, Dee-Uam C, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:3461-72.
    PMID: 22267930 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S26619
    The authors present a new method of recognizing different human facial gestures through their neural activities and muscle movements, which can be used in machine-interfacing applications. Human-machine interface (HMI) technology utilizes human neural activities as input controllers for the machine. Recently, much work has been done on the specific application of facial electromyography (EMG)-based HMI, which have used limited and fixed numbers of facial gestures. In this work, a multipurpose interface is suggested that can support 2-11 control commands that can be applied to various HMI systems. The significance of this work is finding the most accurate facial gestures for any application with a maximum of eleven control commands. Eleven facial gesture EMGs are recorded from ten volunteers. Detected EMGs are passed through a band-pass filter and root mean square features are extracted. Various combinations of gestures with a different number of gestures in each group are made from the existing facial gestures. Finally, all combinations are trained and classified by a Fuzzy c-means classifier. In conclusion, combinations with the highest recognition accuracy in each group are chosen. An average accuracy >90% of chosen combinations proved their ability to be used as command controllers.
  10. Hussein Al Ali SH, Al-Qubaisi M, Hussein MZ, Zainal Z, Hakim MN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:3099-111.
    PMID: 22163163 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S24510
    A new simple preparation method for a hippurate-intercalated zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanohybrid has been established, which does not need an anion-exchange procedure to intercalate the hippurate anion into ZLH interlayers.
  11. Sahib MN, Darwis Y, Peh KK, Abdulameer SA, Tan YT
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2351-66.
    PMID: 22072872 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S25363
    Inhaled corticosteroids provide unique systems for local treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the use of poorly soluble drugs for nebulization has been inadequate, and many patients rely on large doses to achieve optimal control of their disease. Theoretically, nanotechnology with a sustained-release formulation may provide a favorable therapeutic index. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles of budesonide for pulmonary delivery via nebulization.
  12. Mahdi ES, Noor AM, Sakeena MH, Abdullah GZ, Abdulkarim MF, Sattar MA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2499-512.
    PMID: 22072884 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S22337
    Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) for skin antiaging.
  13. Huang NM, Lim HN, Chia CH, Yarmo MA, Muhamad MR
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:3443-8.
    PMID: 22267928 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S26812
    Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer's method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm(2), respectively. The simplified Hummer's method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO.
  14. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Husin MS, Wahab ZA, Nazarpour FK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2221-4.
    PMID: 22114485 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23830
    In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 μm and a length of 1.472 μm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles.
  15. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Abbastabar H, Darroudi M, Husin MS, Mahdi MA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:565-8.
    PMID: 21698083 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16384
    Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by ablation of a pure silver plate immersed in castor oil. A Nd:YAG-pulsed Q-switch laser with 1064-nm wavelength and 10-Hz frequency was used to ablate the plate for 10 minutes. The sample was characterized by ultraviolet-visible, atomic absorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the fabricated sample showed that the nanoparticles in castor oil were about 5-nm in diameter, well dispersed, and showed stability for a long period of time.
  16. Kalani M, Yunus R, Abdullah N
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1101-5.
    PMID: 21698077 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S18979
    The aim of this study was to optimize the different process parameters including pressure, temperature, and polymer concentration, to produce fine small spherical particles with a narrow particle size distribution using a supercritical antisolvent method for drug encapsulation. The interaction between different process parameters was also investigated.
  17. Jalil MA, Suwanpayak N, Kulsirirat K, Suttirak S, Ali J, Yupapin PP
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2925-32.
    PMID: 22131837 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S26266
    A novel nanomicro syringe system was proposed for drug storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator and atomic buffer. A PANDA ring is a modified optical add/drop filter, named after the well known Chinese bear. In principle, the molecule/drug is trapped by the force generated by different combinations of gradient fields and scattering photons within the PANDA ring. A nanomicro needle system can be formed by optical vortices in the liquid core waveguide which can be embedded on a chip, and can be used for long-term treatment. By using intense optical vortices, the required genes/molecules can be trapped and transported dynamically to the intended destinations via the nanomicro syringe, which is available for drug delivery to target tissues, in particular tumors. The advantage of the proposed system is that by confining the treatment area, the effect can be decreased. The use of different optical vortices for therapeutic efficiency is also discussed.
  18. Zak AK, Razali R, Majid WH, Darroudi M
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1399-403.
    PMID: 21796242 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S19693
    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized via a solvothermal method in triethanolamine (TEA) media. TEA was utilized as a polymer agent to terminate the growth of ZnO-NPs. The ZnO-NPs were characterized by a number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction analysis, transition electron microscopy, and field emission electron microscopy. The ZnO-NPs prepared by the solvothermal process at 150°C for 18 hours exhibited a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, with a crystalline size of 33 ± 2 nm, and particle size of 48 ± 7 nm. The results confirm that TEA is a suitable polymer agent to prepare homogenous ZnO-NPs.
  19. Hussein MZ, Al Ali SH, Zainal Z, Hakim MN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1373-83.
    PMID: 21796241 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S21567
    An ellagic acid (EA)-zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanohybrid (EAN) was synthesized under a nonaqueous environment using EA and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the precursors. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the basal spacing of the nanohybrid was 10.4 Å, resulting in the spatial orientation of EA molecules between the interlayers of 22.5° from z-axis with two negative charges at 8,8' position of the molecules pointed toward the ZLH interlayers. FTIR study showed that the intercalated EA spectral feature is generally similar to that of EA, but with bands slightly shifted. This indicates that some chemical bonding of EA presence between the nanohybrid interlayers was slightly changed, due to the formation of host-guest interaction. The nanohybrid is of mesopores type with 58.8% drug loading and enhanced thermal stability. The release of the drug active, EA from the nanohybrid was found to be sustained and therefore has good potential to be used as a drug controlled-release formulation. In vitro bioassay study showed that the EAN has a mild effect on the hepatocytes cells, similar to its counterpart, free EA.
  20. Kalani M, Yunus R
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1429-42.
    PMID: 21796245 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S19021
    The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation. The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated. The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.
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