Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 143 in total

  1. Jahangirian H, Lemraski EG, Webster TJ, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Abdollahi Y
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:2957-2978.
    PMID: 28442906 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S127683
    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.
  2. Jahangirian H, Kalantari K, Izadiyan Z, Rafiee-Moghaddam R, Shameli K, Webster TJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:1633-1657.
    PMID: 30880970 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S184723
    Conventional cancer treatment techniques show several limitations including low or no specificity and consequently a low efficacy in discriminating between cancer cells and healthy cells. Recent nanotechnology developments have introduced smart and novel therapeutic nanomaterials that take advantage of various targeting approaches. The use of nanotechnology in medicine and, more specifically, drug delivery is set to spread even more rapidly than it has over the past two decades. Currently, many nanoparticles (NPs) are under investigation for drug delivery including those for cancer therapy. Targeted nanomaterials bind selectively to cancer cells and greatly affect them with only a minor effect on healthy cells. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), specifically, have been identified as significant candidates for new cancer therapeutic modalities because of their biocompatibility, easy functionalization and fabrication, optical tunable characteristics, and chemophysical stability. In the last decade, there has been significant research on Au-NPs and their biomedical applications. Functionalized Au-NPs represent highly attractive and promising candidates for drug delivery, owing to their unique dimensions, tunable surface functionalities, and controllable drug release. Further, iron oxide NPs due to their "superparamagnetic" properties have been studied and have demonstrated successful employment in numerous applications. In targeted drug delivery systems, drug-loaded iron oxide NPs can accumulate at the tumor site with the aid of an external magnetic field. This can lead to incremental effectiveness in drug release to the tumor site and vanquish cancer cells without harming healthy cells. In order for the application of iron oxide NPs in the human body to be realized, they should be biodegradable and biocompatible to minimize toxicity. This review illustrates recent advances in the field drug and small molecule delivery such as fluorouracil, folic acid, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and daunorubicin, specifically when using gold and iron oxide NPs as carriers of anticancer therapeutic agents.
  3. Lee JJ, Saiful Yazan L, Che Abdullah CA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:2373-2384.
    PMID: 28392694 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S127329
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, especially among women, with substantial after-treatment effects. The survival rates of breast cancer have decreased over the years even with the existence of various therapeutic strategies, specifically, chemotherapy. Clinical drugs administered for breast cancer appear to be non-targeting to specific cancer sites leading to severe side effects and potentially harming healthy cells instead of just killing cancer cells. This leads to the need for designing a targeted drug delivery system. Nanomaterials, both organic and inorganic, are potential drug nanocarriers with the ability of targeting, imaging and tracking. Various types of nanomaterials have been actively researched together with their drug conjugate. In this review, we focus on selected nanomaterials, namely solid-lipid, liposomal, polymeric, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes and their drug conjugates, for breast cancer studies. Their advantages, disadvantages and previously conducted studies were highlighted.
  4. Salleh SH, Hussain HS, Swee TT, Ting CM, Noor AM, Pipatsart S, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:2873-81.
    PMID: 22745550 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S32315
    Auscultation of the heart is accompanied by both electrical activity and sound. Heart auscultation provides clues to diagnose many cardiac abnormalities. Unfortunately, detection of relevant symptoms and diagnosis based on heart sound through a stethoscope is difficult. The reason GPs find this difficult is that the heart sounds are of short duration and separated from one another by less than 30 ms. In addition, the cost of false positives constitutes wasted time and emotional anxiety for both patient and GP. Many heart diseases cause changes in heart sound, waveform, and additional murmurs before other signs and symptoms appear. Heart-sound auscultation is the primary test conducted by GPs. These sounds are generated primarily by turbulent flow of blood in the heart. Analysis of heart sounds requires a quiet environment with minimum ambient noise. In order to address such issues, the technique of denoising and estimating the biomedical heart signal is proposed in this investigation. Normally, the performance of the filter naturally depends on prior information related to the statistical properties of the signal and the background noise. This paper proposes Kalman filtering for denoising statistical heart sound. The cycles of heart sounds are certain to follow first-order Gauss-Markov process. These cycles are observed with additional noise for the given measurement. The model is formulated into state-space form to enable use of a Kalman filter to estimate the clean cycles of heart sounds. The estimates obtained by Kalman filtering are optimal in mean squared sense.
  5. Ong YS, Saiful Yazan L, Ng WK, Noordin MM, Sapuan S, Foo JB, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2016 11 09;11:5905-5915.
    PMID: 27877037
    BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ), the predominant active lipophilic component in Nigella sativa seed oil, has a variety of pharmacological properties such as anticancer activities. However, translation of TQ to clinical phase is still not possible due to its hydrophobic properties. This problem can be solved by encapsulating it in nanoformulations to enhance its pharmacological properties. In our previous study, TQ has been successfully encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (hereinafter referred to as TQNLC) with excellent physiochemical properties such as high encapsulation efficiency, high drug-loading capacity, particle diameter less than 100 nm, and stability up to 2 years. In vitro studies also proved that TQNLC exhibited antiproliferative activity toward breast and cervical cancer cell lines. However, no toxicity profile related to this formulation has been reported. In this study, we determine and compare the in vivo toxicity of both TQNLC and TQ.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vivo toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity) study was carried out by oral administration of TQNLC and TQ to BALB/c mice. Animal survival, body weight, organ weight-to-body weight ratio, hematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed.

    RESULTS: In acute toxicity, TQ that is loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was found to be less toxic than pure TQ. It can be concluded that encapsulation of TQ in lipid carrier minimizes the toxicity of the compound. In the subacute toxicity study, oral administration of 100 mg/kg of TQNLC and TQ did not cause mortality to either male or female but resulted in toxicity to the liver. It is postulated that long-term consumption of TQNLC and TQ may cause toxicity to the liver but not to the extent of altering the functions of the organ. For both treatments, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was found to be 10 mg/kg/d for mice in both sexes.

    CONCLUSION: For long-term oral consumption, TQ and TQNLC at a dose of 10 mg/kg is safe in mice and does not exert any toxic effect. The results provide safety information of TQNLC, which would further help researchers in clinical use.

  6. Ali Khan A, Mudassir J, Mohtar N, Darwis Y
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:2733-44.
    PMID: 23926431 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S41521
    The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system. The lymphatic route plays an important role in transporting extracellular fluid to maintain homeostasis and in transferring immune cells to injury sites, and is able to avoid first-pass metabolism, thus acting as a bypass route for compounds with lower bioavailability, ie, those undergoing more hepatic metabolism. The lymphatic route also provides an option for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs to treat cancer and human immunodeficiency virus, which can travel through the lymphatic system. Lymphatic imaging is useful in evaluating disease states and treatment plans for progressive diseases of the lymph system. Novel lipid-based nanoformulations, such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have unique characteristics that make them promising candidates for lymphatic delivery. These formulations are superior to colloidal carrier systems because they have controlled release properties and provide better chemical stability for drug molecules. However, multiple factors regulate the lymphatic delivery of drugs. Prior to lymphatic uptake, lipid-based nanoformulations are required to undergo interstitial hindrance that modulates drug delivery. Therefore, uptake and distribution of lipid-based nanoformulations by the lymphatic system depends on factors such as particle size, surface charge, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity. Types of lipid and concentration of the emulsifier are also important factors affecting drug delivery via the lymphatic system. All of these factors can cause changes in intermolecular interactions between the lipid nanoparticle matrix and the incorporated drug, which in turn affects uptake of drug into the lymphatic system. Two lipid-based nanoformulations, ie, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, have been administered via multiple routes (subcutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal) for targeting of the lymphatic system. This paper provides a detailed review of novel lipid-based nanoformulations and their lymphatic delivery via different routes, as well as the in vivo and in vitro models used to study drug transport in the lymphatic system. Physicochemical properties that influence lymphatic delivery as well as the advantages of lipid-based nanoformulations for lymphatic delivery are also discussed.
  7. Saeed BA, Lim V, Yusof NA, Khor KZ, Rahman HS, Abdul Samad N
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:5135-5146.
    PMID: 31371952 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S199974
    Nanoparticles appear to be one of the most promising agents that offer efficacy in angiogenesis-related disease therapy. The objective of this research is to systematically review studies that have probed into the effect of nanoparticles on angiogenesis. Selected inclusion criteria were used to extract articles, references that were cited in the initial search were sought to identify more potential articles, and articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria and duplicates were discarded. The spherical shape was shown to be the most common shape employed to investigate the role of nanoparticles in angiogenesis therapy. The size of nanoparticles appears to play a crucial role for efficacy on angiogenesis, in which 20 nm emerged as the preferred size. Gold nanoparticles exhibit the most promise as an antiangiogenesis agent, and the toxicity was adjustable based on the dosages applied.
  8. Barahuie F, Hussein MZ, Abd Gani S, Fakurazi S, Zainal Z
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:3137-49.
    PMID: 25061291 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S59541
    We characterize a novel nanocomposite that acts as an efficient anticancer agent.
  9. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, How CW, Zeenathul NA, Chartrand MS, Yeap SK, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:1649-66.
    PMID: 25767386 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S67113
    Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER) has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects of ZER-NLC. In conclusion, ZER-NLC was shown to induce a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in murine leukemia. Loading of ZER in NLC did not compromise the anticancer effect of the compound, suggesting ZER-NLC as a promising and effective delivery system for treatment of cancers.
  10. Dhand C, Balakrishnan Y, Ong ST, Dwivedi N, Venugopal JR, Harini S, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:4473-4492.
    PMID: 30122921 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S159770
    Introduction: In search for cross-linkers with multifunctional characteristics, the present work investigated the utility of quaternary ammonium organosilane (QOS) as a potential cross-linker for electrospun collagen nanofibers. We hypothesized that the quaternary ammonium ions improve the electrospinnability by reducing the surface tension and confer antimicrobial properties, while the formation of siloxane after alkaline hydrolysis could cross-link collagen and stimulate cell proliferation.

    Materials and methods: QOS collagen nanofibers were electrospun by incorporating various concentrations of QOS (0.1%-10% w/w) and were cross-linked in situ after exposure to ammonium carbonate. The QOS cross-linked scaffolds were characterized and their biological properties were evaluated in terms of their biocompatibility, cellular adhesion and metabolic activity for primary human dermal fibroblasts and human fetal osteoblasts.

    Results and discussion: The study revealed that 1) QOS cross-linking increased the flexibility of otherwise rigid collagen nanofibers and improved the thermal stability; 2) QOS cross-linked mats displayed potent antibacterial activity and 3) the biocompatibility of the composite mats depended on the amount of QOS present in dope solution - at low QOS concentrations (0.1% w/w), the mats promoted mammalian cell proliferation and growth, whereas at higher QOS concentrations, cytotoxic effect was observed.

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that QOS cross-linked mats possess anti-infective properties and confer niches for cellular growth and proliferation, thus offering a useful approach, which is important for hard and soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  11. Kalani M, Yunus R
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:1429-42.
    PMID: 21796245 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S19021
    The review focuses on the application of supercritical fluids as antisolvents in the pharmaceutical field and demonstrates the supercritical antisolvent method in the use of drug encapsulation. The main factors for choosing the solvent and biodegradable polymer to produce fine particles to ensure effective drug delivery are emphasized and the effect of polymer structure on drug encapsulation is illustrated. The review also demonstrates the drug release mechanism and polymeric controlled release system, and discusses the effects of the various conditions in the process, such as pressure, temperature, concentration, chemical compositions (organic solvents, drug, and biodegradable polymer), nozzle geometry, CO(2) flow rate, and the liquid phase flow rate on particle size and its distribution.
  12. Wang F, Gopinath SC, Lakshmipriya T
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:8469-8481.
    PMID: 31695375 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S219976
    Background: A pandemic influenza viral strain, influenza A/California/07/2009 (pdmH1N1), has been considered to be a potential issue that needs to be controlled to avoid the seasonal emergence of mutated strains.

    Materials and methods: In this study, aptamer-antibody complementation was implemented on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold conjugated sensing surface with a dielectrode to detect pandemic pdmH1N1. Preliminary biomolecular and dielectrode surface analyses were performed by molecular and microscopic methods. A stable anti-pdmH1N1 aptamer sequence interacted with hemagglutinin (HA) and was compared with the antibody interaction. Both aptamer and antibody attachments on the surface as the basic molecule attained the saturation at nanomolar levels.

    Results: Aptamers were found to have higher affinity and electric response than antibodies against HA of pdmH1N1. Linear regression with aptamer-HA interaction displays sensitivity in the range of 10 fM, whereas antibody-HA interaction shows a 100-fold lower level (1 pM). When sandwich-based detection of aptamer-HA-antibody and antibody-HA-aptamer was performed, a higher response of current was observed in both cases. Moreover, the detection strategy with aptamer clearly discriminated the closely related HA of influenza B/Tokyo/53/99 and influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2).

    Conclusion: The high performance of the abovementioned detection methods was supported by the apparent specificity and reproducibility by the demonstrated sensing system.

  13. Pasupuleti VR, Prasad TN, Shiekh RA, Balam SK, Narasimhulu G, Reddy CS, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2013;8:3355-64.
    PMID: 24039419 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S49000
    Nanotechnology is gaining momentum due to its ability to transform metals into nanoparticles. The synthesis, characterization, and applications of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. Plant extracts are a cost-effective, ecologically friendly, and efficient alternative for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNps) were synthesized using Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf extract. After exposing the silver ions to the leaf extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of AgNps in solution. The synthesis was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the AgNps synthesized using R. nasutus leaf extract was investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus using a disc diffusion method. The AgNps showed potential activity against all of the bacterial strains and fungal colonies, indicating that R. nasutus has the potential to be used in the development of value-added products in the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.
  14. John AA, Subramanian AP, Vellayappan MV, Balaji A, Mohandas H, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:4267-77.
    PMID: 26170663 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S83777
    Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products involved in neurodegeneration and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Nowadays, application of nanotechnology is commonly used in developing nanomedicines to advance pharmacokinetics and drug delivery exclusively for central nervous system pathologies. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that disrupt disarranged protein aggregation in the central nervous system, deliver functional neuroprotective growth factors, and change the oxidative stress and excitotoxicity of affected neural tissues to regenerate the damaged neurons. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are allotropes of carbon that have been exploited by researchers because of their excellent physical properties and their ability to interface with neurons and neuronal circuits. This review describes the role of carbon nanotubes and graphene in neuroregeneration. In the future, it is hoped that the benefits of nanotechnologies will outweigh their risks, and that the next decade will present huge scope for developing and delivering technologies in the field of neuroscience.
  15. Abedini F, Hosseinkhani H, Ismail M, Domb AJ, Omar AR, Chong PP, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:4159-68.
    PMID: 22888250 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S29823
    The failure of colorectal cancer treatments is partly due to overexpression of CXCR4 by tumor cells, which plays a critical role in cell metastasis. Moreover, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels are frequently elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of siRNA. Spermine was conjugated to oxidized dextran by reductive amination process to obtain cationized dextran, so-called dextran-spermine, in order to prepare CXCR4-siRNAs/dextran-spermine nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were used in order to investigate whether downregulation of CXCR4 expression could affect serum ALP in mouse models of colorectal cancer.
  16. Charbgoo F, Ahmad MB, Darroudi M
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:1401-1413.
    PMID: 28260887 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S124855
    CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promising approaches as therapeutic agents in biology and medical sciences. The physicochemical properties of CeO2-NPs, such as size, agglomeration status in liquid, and surface charge, play important roles in the ultimate interactions of the NP with target cells. Recently, CeO2-NPs have been synthesized through several bio-directed methods applying natural and organic matrices as stabilizing agents in order to prepare biocompatible CeO2-NPs, thereby solving the challenges regarding safety, and providing the appropriate situation for their effective use in biomedicine. This review discusses the different green strategies for CeO2-NPs synthesis, their advantages and challenges that are to be overcome. In addition, this review focuses on recent progress in the potential application of CeO2-NPs in biological and medical fields. Exploiting biocompatible CeO2-NPs may improve outcomes profoundly with the promise of effective neurodegenerative therapy and multiple applications in nanobiotechnology.
  17. Ishaka A, Umar Imam M, Mahamud R, Zuki AB, Maznah I
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:2261-9.
    PMID: 24872689 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S56999
    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times.
  18. De Silva L, Fu JY, Htar TT, Muniyandy S, Kasbollah A, Wan Kamal WHB, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2019;14:1101-1117.
    PMID: 30863048 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S184912
    Background and purpose: Niosomes are nonionic surfactant-based vesicles that exhibit certain unique features which make them favorable nanocarriers for sustained drug delivery in cancer therapy. Biodistribution studies are critical in assessing if a nanocarrier system has preferential accumulation in a tumor by enhanced permeability and retention effect. Radiolabeling of nanocarriers with radioisotopes such as Technetium-99m (99mTc) will allow for the tracking of the nanocarrier noninvasively via nuclear imaging. The purpose of this study was to formulate, characterize, and optimize 99mTc-labeled niosomes.

    Methods: Niosomes were prepared from a mixture of sorbitan monostearate 60, cholesterol, and synthesized D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (synthesis confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Niosomes were radiolabeled by surface chelation with reduced 99mTc. Parameters affecting the radiolabeling efficiency such as concentration of stannous chloride (SnCl2·H2O), pH, and incubation time were evaluated. In vitro stability of radiolabeled niosomes was studied in 0.9% saline and human serum at 37°C for up to 8 hours.

    Results: Niosomes had an average particle size of 110.2±0.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.008, and zeta potential of -64.8±1.2 mV. Experimental data revealed that 30 µg/mL of SnCl2·H2O was the optimal concentration of reducing agent required for the radiolabeling process. The pH and incubation time required to obtain high radiolabeling efficiency was pH 5 and 15 minutes, respectively. 99mTc-labeled niosomes exhibited high radiolabeling efficiency (>90%) and showed good in vitro stability for up to 8 hours.

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study published on the surface chelation of niosomes with 99mTc. The formulated 99mTc-labeled niosomes possessed high radiolabeling efficacy, good stability in vitro, and show good promise for potential use in nuclear imaging in the future.

  19. Thavanathan J, Huang NM, Thong KL
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:2711-22.
    PMID: 25897217 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S74753
    We have developed a colorimetric biosensor using a dual platform of gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide sheets for the detection of Salmonella enterica. The presence of the invA gene in S. enterica causes a change in color of the biosensor from its original pinkish-red to a light purplish solution. This occurs through the aggregation of the primary gold nanoparticles-conjugated DNA probe onto the surface of the secondary graphene oxide-conjugated DNA probe through DNA hybridization with the targeted DNA sequence. Spectrophotometry analysis showed a shift in wavelength from 525 nm to 600 nm with 1 μM of DNA target. Specificity testing revealed that the biosensor was able to detect various serovars of the S. enterica while no color change was observed with the other bacterial species. Sensitivity testing revealed the limit of detection was at 1 nM of DNA target. This proves the effectiveness of the biosensor in the detection of S. enterica through DNA hybridization.
  20. Hussein Al Ali SH, Al-Qubaisi M, Hussein MZ, Ismail M, Zainal Z, Hakim MN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:4251-62.
    PMID: 22904631 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S32267
    The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w) indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 μg/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril.
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