MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vivo toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity) study was carried out by oral administration of TQNLC and TQ to BALB/c mice. Animal survival, body weight, organ weight-to-body weight ratio, hematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed.
RESULTS: In acute toxicity, TQ that is loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was found to be less toxic than pure TQ. It can be concluded that encapsulation of TQ in lipid carrier minimizes the toxicity of the compound. In the subacute toxicity study, oral administration of 100 mg/kg of TQNLC and TQ did not cause mortality to either male or female but resulted in toxicity to the liver. It is postulated that long-term consumption of TQNLC and TQ may cause toxicity to the liver but not to the extent of altering the functions of the organ. For both treatments, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was found to be 10 mg/kg/d for mice in both sexes.
CONCLUSION: For long-term oral consumption, TQ and TQNLC at a dose of 10 mg/kg is safe in mice and does not exert any toxic effect. The results provide safety information of TQNLC, which would further help researchers in clinical use.
Materials and methods: QOS collagen nanofibers were electrospun by incorporating various concentrations of QOS (0.1%-10% w/w) and were cross-linked in situ after exposure to ammonium carbonate. The QOS cross-linked scaffolds were characterized and their biological properties were evaluated in terms of their biocompatibility, cellular adhesion and metabolic activity for primary human dermal fibroblasts and human fetal osteoblasts.
Results and discussion: The study revealed that 1) QOS cross-linking increased the flexibility of otherwise rigid collagen nanofibers and improved the thermal stability; 2) QOS cross-linked mats displayed potent antibacterial activity and 3) the biocompatibility of the composite mats depended on the amount of QOS present in dope solution - at low QOS concentrations (0.1% w/w), the mats promoted mammalian cell proliferation and growth, whereas at higher QOS concentrations, cytotoxic effect was observed.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that QOS cross-linked mats possess anti-infective properties and confer niches for cellular growth and proliferation, thus offering a useful approach, which is important for hard and soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Materials and methods: In this study, aptamer-antibody complementation was implemented on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold conjugated sensing surface with a dielectrode to detect pandemic pdmH1N1. Preliminary biomolecular and dielectrode surface analyses were performed by molecular and microscopic methods. A stable anti-pdmH1N1 aptamer sequence interacted with hemagglutinin (HA) and was compared with the antibody interaction. Both aptamer and antibody attachments on the surface as the basic molecule attained the saturation at nanomolar levels.
Results: Aptamers were found to have higher affinity and electric response than antibodies against HA of pdmH1N1. Linear regression with aptamer-HA interaction displays sensitivity in the range of 10 fM, whereas antibody-HA interaction shows a 100-fold lower level (1 pM). When sandwich-based detection of aptamer-HA-antibody and antibody-HA-aptamer was performed, a higher response of current was observed in both cases. Moreover, the detection strategy with aptamer clearly discriminated the closely related HA of influenza B/Tokyo/53/99 and influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2).
Conclusion: The high performance of the abovementioned detection methods was supported by the apparent specificity and reproducibility by the demonstrated sensing system.
Methods: Niosomes were prepared from a mixture of sorbitan monostearate 60, cholesterol, and synthesized D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (synthesis confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Niosomes were radiolabeled by surface chelation with reduced 99mTc. Parameters affecting the radiolabeling efficiency such as concentration of stannous chloride (SnCl2·H2O), pH, and incubation time were evaluated. In vitro stability of radiolabeled niosomes was studied in 0.9% saline and human serum at 37°C for up to 8 hours.
Results: Niosomes had an average particle size of 110.2±0.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.008, and zeta potential of -64.8±1.2 mV. Experimental data revealed that 30 µg/mL of SnCl2·H2O was the optimal concentration of reducing agent required for the radiolabeling process. The pH and incubation time required to obtain high radiolabeling efficiency was pH 5 and 15 minutes, respectively. 99mTc-labeled niosomes exhibited high radiolabeling efficiency (>90%) and showed good in vitro stability for up to 8 hours.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study published on the surface chelation of niosomes with 99mTc. The formulated 99mTc-labeled niosomes possessed high radiolabeling efficacy, good stability in vitro, and show good promise for potential use in nuclear imaging in the future.