An alarming increase in the prevalence of depression has been found among Malaysian young adults which necessitates responsiveness. This study sought to better understand the subjective personal growth experience in terms of the processes among young adults recovering from major depressive disorder (MDD). A qualitative, transcendental phenomenological design was adopted by collecting data through in-depth, semi-structured interviews, audio recordings, interview transcripts and documents. Nine Malaysian young adults with MDD (Mean age=28) who reported being in recovery from MDD for at least one year were recruited from local mental health settings through purposive sampling. Data analysis involved Colaizzi’s eight-step method. The findings revealed eight personal growth processes themes: revealing the struggles, self-discovery and personal strength, personal responsibility, readiness for change, hope, redefining the meaning, forgiveness, and acceptance. Noticeably, each theme was interconnected to facilitate personal growth among major depressive young adults. The implications for mental health psychotherapy practice and future research were discussed.
What does this term medical education conjure up? Does it refer to the teaching and learning of medicine and therefore relates to students and the curriculum? Does it refer to the process of teaching and therefore relates to teachers? Perhaps it is both, since teaching and learning go hand in hand.(Copied from article).
A case of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) like illness was identified recently. Diagnosis CFS is commonly used in the western countries but not in Malaysia or other parts of Asia. It is probably because the diagnosis of neurasthenia has gradually disappeared especially in the United States and United Kingdom. Neurasthenia is dropped in the DSM-111 and DSM-1V but is still retained in the 10th International Classification of Disease. This paper is reporting the case and discussing the definition of chronic fatigue syndrome. (JUMMEC 2000; 2:103-104).
Anomalies of the genitourinary tract occur in approximately 10% of the population and account for about one third of all congenital malformations in children (1). Congenital malformations involving the genitourinary system are major therapeutic challenges faced by the practising urologist.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease. The reported prevalence is around one per million in the West but the exact prevalence in Asia is unknown. It affects primarily young women of reproductive age, with a mean age of onset at 34 years. The disease is characterised by an abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that grow over a course of time to obstruct airways, lymphatic and blood vessels. We report a case of LAM in a young woman who presented with a spontaneous pneumothorax. Computed tomography scan of the thorax and abdomen showed homogenous thin-walled cystic lesions with normal intervening lung parenchyma and multiple lesions in her kidneys with Hounsfield units similar to that of fat.
Pulmonary embolism is the obstruction of the pulmonary artery or its branches, commonly by thrombus or
fat. We report an unusual case of double pathology - both pulmonary thromboembolism and fat embolism
syndrome in a patient with bilateral femur and bilateral tibia fractures. This highlights the importance of a high
index of suspicion of these conditions while managing patients with multiple long bone fractures. Morbidity
and mortality can be significantly reduced with prompt and appropriate prevention strategies.
Comparison and evaluation of physicochemical properties of the six betamethasone·17-valerate creams available locally were studied. Tests that were conducted include stiffness/hardness, grittiness. colour, odour, homogeneity (phase separation), pH, weight of loss, tackiness (stickiness) and microscopic examination. A point grading system was used 10 assess and compare the products. Results revealed that BetnovateT and CamnovaleT to be the most superior followed by BeavateT, SetrosoneT, BetasoneT and UniflexT
Substance abuse is one of the leading and most complicated health and social problems faced by our country. Unfortunately, after three decades of managing these problems, outcomes are unpromising and poor.(Copied from the article).
A case of an unusual foreign body aspiration in a child was managed T&ently. The mainstay in treahnen! is urgent extraction of the aspirated foreign body via a bronchoscope under general anaesthesia. A thoracotomy may sometimes be required when endoscopic retrieval fails, as illustrated by this case. She had an increased hospital Slay of 16 days, was ventilated for 8 days and her most serious complication was septic shock from which she recovered. KEYWORDS: Foreign body aspiration, children.
Tendon is a dense connective tissue that connects muscle to bone. Tendon can adapt to mechanical forces passing across it, through a reciprocal relationship between its cellular components (tenocytes and tenoblasts) and the extracellular matrix (ECM). In early development, the formation of scleraxis-expressing tendon progenitor population in the sclerotome is induced by a fibroblast growth factor signal secreted by the myotome. Tendon injury has been defined as a loss of cells or ECM caused by trauma. It represents a failure of cells and matrix adaptation to mechanical loading. Injury initiates attempts of tendon to repair itself, which has been defined as replacement of damaged or lost cells and ECM by new cells or new matrices. Tendon healing generally consists of four different phases: the inflammatory, proliferation, differentiation and remodelling phases. Clinically, tendons are repaired with a variety of surgical techniques, which show various degrees of success. In order to improve the conventional tendon repair methods, current tendon tissue engineering aims to investigate a repair method which can restore tissue defects with living cells, or cell based therapy. Advances in tissue engineering techniques would potentially yield to a cell-based product that could regenerate functional tendon tissue.
Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by the bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi, which can be transmitted to humans through the bite of infected trombiculid chigger mites. Besides the typical clinical features of fever and eschar formation, the central nervous system has been reported to be involved as evidenced of reported cases ranging from meningitis to meningoencephalitis. Here, we describe an atypical presentation of scrub typhus case that occurred in a 34-year-old Malay male who presented with quadriplegia following an insect bite at the back of his neck. Our case displayed unusual findings of this rare condition in a non-aboriginal Malaysian population. Based on previous literature, we emphasized the importance of prompt diagnosis of scrub typhus in order to reduce the mortality and morbidity and to improve the quality of life for patients with complications of this disease.
We evaluated the use of Desflurane anaesthesia in this prospective observational audit in the University of Malaya Medical Centre Day Surgery Unit. Fifty ASA I-II unpremedicated day surgery patients received fentanyl and propofol induction after preoxygenation. Desflurane was introduced initially at 2% and the concentration was increased gradually to 4%, then 6%, 8% and 10% in nitrous oxide and oxygen. Patients breathed spontaneously throughout the surgery. Desflurane was switched off at the end of surgery and patients breathed 100% oxygen. The haemodynamic effect, perioperative complications and recovery profiles were recorded. Systolic arterial pressure and heart rate decreased after induction of anaesthesia but returned to baseline value at discharge. Adverse airway event such as coughing and postoperative nausea and vomiting are two unwanted complications. KEYWORDS: Desflurane, day surgery, propofol induction
It is important to provide effective postoperative analgesia following a Caesarean section because mothers wish to be pain-free, mobile and alert while caring for their babies. The role of regular oral diclofenac as postoperative analgesia was evaluated in a randomized controlled study and it was compared to the established method of parenteral pethidine. Forty healthy women scheduled for elective Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with 2-2.5 mg of heavy bupivacaine 0.5% were randomized to receive either 75 mg of oral diclofenac twice daily or 1 mg/kg of subcutaneous pethidine every 8 hourly. Efficacy of pain relief (visual analogue score), patients' satisfaction and side effects such as sedation, nausea and vomiting were recorded for three days. The demographic variables were similar in both groups. Pain relief was adequate and comparable in both groups with similar mean visual analogue score during the second and third day of the study period. However, on the first postoperative day, 60% of the diclofenac group population required rescuemedication consisting of subcutaneous pethidine in order to achieve the same pain scores as those in the pethidine group who did not require any rescue medications. Women who received oral diclofenac reported lower sedation and higher overall satisfaction. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in both groups. This concluded that although oral diclofenac 75mg twice daily may not be superior to the traditional method of subcutaneous pethidine for pain relief following caesarean section, it can still be used alone as an alternative, as it has other benefits of a non-opioid analgesia.
Aortic dissection (AD) is a rare cardiovascular emergency with a high rate of mortality. Most patients present with typical signs and symptoms of AD. However, atypical presentation increases risk of delay in diagnosis and treatment. Patients may present with syncope, seizures or other neurological symptoms which may deceive the diagnosis of AD. Dissection can be in the acute or chronic phase, but there has been no documentation of an acute dissection which occurs in a chronic dissection. We hereby to report a case of an acute on chronic thoraco-abdominal dissection.
We describe a rare encounte.r with a 6-year old Indian boy admitted with acute epiglottitis due to Haemophilus influenzae. Acute epiglottitis is an uncommon cause of lifethreatening upper airway obstruction and a rare presentation of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in this region, compared to Ihe more developed West. The cause for this observation is often attributed to differences in the genetic predisposition and socio-economk parameters. The organism subtype and the host response have been shown to determine the type of invasive Hib disease. However, the evidence to explain this difference is poorly understood and remains an intriguing enigma. KEYWORDS: Epiglottitis, Haemophilus influenzae
The clinical experience of the novel drug temsirolimus on eight patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and who were refractory to other forms of treatment is reported. Although none of the patients showed complete or partial response, three patients had stable disease. One patient was prematurely withdrawn due to pneumonitis. Five patients died during the period of observation of twenty months and the median survival time from start of treatment was ten months. Three patients showed no evidence of adverse events (AE). Five patients showed dyslipidemia and two had pneumonitis for which, the drug had to be withdrawn in one of them. None had significant leucopenia. We conclude that temsirolimus has activity even in heavily pretreated patients in advanced renal cell carcinoma and in addition, has the benefits of ease of administration and good tolerability.
The biocompatibility and similarity of hydroxyapatite (HA) to the mineral composition of the bone has made HA a potential candidate in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Over the past few decades, its application as bone graft in combination with stem cells has gained much importance. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) will enhance the rate and quality of defect repair. However, application of hydroxyapatite as a material to develop a 3-dimension scaffold or carrier to support MSCs in vitro is still in its infant stage. This review will discuss the source, manufacturing methods and advantages of using HA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications.