Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Daood U, Malik AA, Ilyas MS, Ahmed A, Qasim SSB, Banavar SR, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2021 Nov;109(11):2392-2406.
    PMID: 34018311 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.37221
    The aim of the study is to investigate a new formulation, based on dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium-bromide (QA) and riboflavin (RF), combining antimicrobial activities and protease inhibitory properties with collagen crosslinking without interference to bonding capabilities in a rabbit model. Quaternary ammonium riboflavin (QARF) experimental adhesives modified with dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium-bromide and riboflavin were bonded (0.5/1.0/2.0%) to rabbit dentin to investigate for pulpal-histology, interfacial-morphology, transmission electron microscopy, mechanical properties, collagen crosslinking, micro-Raman analysis, antimicrobial, and anti-protease activities. Collagen type-I molecules were generated using molecular-docking. Odontoblasts appeared with normal histology, were seen in controls with no inflammatory cells detected in 0.5% specimens at day 7 and mild inflammatory response at day 30. In QARF 2.0%, inflammatory cells were not detected at day 7 and 30 (p 
  2. Nour S, Imani R, Chaudhry GR, Sharifi AM
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2020 Sep 27.
    PMID: 32985051 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.37105
    Skin injuries and in particular, chronic wounds, are one of the major prevalent medical problems, worldwide. Due to the pivotal role of angiogenesis in tissue regeneration, impaired angiogenesis can cause several complications during the wound healing process and skin regeneration. Therefore, induction or promotion of angiogenesis can be considered as a promising approach to accelerate wound healing. This article presents a comprehensive overview of current and emerging angiogenesis induction methods applied in several studies for skin regeneration, which are classified into the cell, growth factor, scaffold, and biological/chemical compound-based strategies. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these angiogenic strategies along with related research examples are discussed in order to demonstrate their potential in the treatment of wounds.
  3. Lukman SK, Saidin S
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2020 05;108(5):1171-1185.
    PMID: 31994824 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36891
    Even though drug-eluting stent (DES) has prominently reduced restenosis, however, its complication of delayed endothelialization has caused chronic side effect. A coating of ginseng-based biodegradable polymer could address this issue due to its specific therapeutic values. However, deposition of this type of stable coating on metallic implant often scarce. Therefore, in this study, different polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine compositions were adopted to electrodeposit ginsenoside encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcapsules coating. The coating surfaces were analyzed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy instruments. A month coating stability was then investigated with an evaluation of in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell analyses consisted of cytotoxicity and cells attachment assessments. The 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine has assisted the formation of stable, uniform, and rounded microcapsules coating with appropriate wettability and roughness. Less than 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine was not enough to drive the formation of microcapsules coating while greater than 1.5 mg caused the deposition of melted microcapsules. The similar coating also has promoted greater cells proliferation and attachment compared to other coating variation. Therefore, the utilization of electrodeposition to deposit a drug-based polymer coating could be implemented to develop DES, in accordance to stent implantation which ultimately aims for enrich endothelialization.
  4. Kouhi M, Jayarama Reddy V, Fathi M, Shamanian M, Valipouri A, Ramakrishna S
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2019 06;107(6):1154-1165.
    PMID: 30636094 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36607
    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) has been established to be an effective method for the repair of defective tissues, which is based on isolating bone defects with a barrier membrane for faster tissue reconstruction. The aim of the present study is to develop poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/fibrinogen (FG)/bredigite (BR) membranes with applicability in GBR. BR nanoparticles were synthesized through a sol-gel method and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer. PHBV, PHBV/FG, and PHBV/FG/BR membranes were fabricated using electrospinning and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, pore size, thermogravimetric analysis and tensile strength. The electrospun PHBV, PHBV/FG, and PHBV/FG/BR nanofibers were successfully obtained with the mean diameter ranging 240-410 nm. The results showed that Young's modulus and ultimate strength of the PHBV membrane reduced upon blending with FG and increased by further incorporation of BR nanoparticles, Moreover hydrophilicity of the PHBV membrane improved on addition of FG and BR. The in vitro degradation assay demonstrated that incorporation of FG and BR into PHBV matrix increased its hydrolytic degradation. Cell-membrane interactions were studied by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells on the fabricated membrane. According to the obtained results, osteoblasts seeded on PHBV/FG/BR displayed higher cell adhesion and proliferation compared to PHBV and PHBV/FG membrane. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red-s staining indicated enhanced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of cells on PHBV/FG/BR membranes. The results demonstrated that developed electrospun PHBV/FG/BR nanofibrous mats have desired potential as a barrier membrane for guided bone tissue engineering. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 1154-1165, 2019.
  5. Irfan M, Irfan M, Idris A, Baig N, Saleh TA, Nasiri R, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2019 03;107(3):513-525.
    PMID: 30484939 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36566
    This study focused to optimize the performance of polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis (HD) membrane using carboxylic functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and lower molecular weight grade of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-k30). Initially, MWCNT were chemically functionalized by acid treatment and nanocomposites (NCs) of PVP-k30 and c-MWCNT were formed and subsequently blended with PES polymer. The spectra of FTIR of the HD membranes revealed that NCs has strong hydrogen bonding and their addition to PES polymer improved the capillary system of membranes as confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and leaching of the additive decreased to 2% and hydrophilicity improved to 22%. The pore size and porosity of NCs were also enhanced and rejection rate was achieved in the establish dialysis range (<60 kDa). The antifouling studies had shown that NCs membrane exhibited 30% less adhesion of protein with 80% flux recovery ratio. The blood compatibility assessment disclosed that NCs based membranes showed prolonged thrombin and prothrombin clotting times, lessened production of fibrinogen cluster, and greatly suppressed adhesion of blood plasma than a pristine PES membrane. The results also unveiled that PVP-k30/NCs improved the surface properties of the membrane and the urea and creatinine removal increased to 72% and 75% than pure PES membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 513-525, 2019.
  6. Rizwan M, Alias R, Zaidi UZ, Mahmoodian R, Hamdi M
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2018 02;106(2):590-605.
    PMID: 28975693 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36259
    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an advance technique to develop porous oxidation layer on light metals, primarily to enhance corrosion and wear resistance. The oxidation layer can also offer a wide variety of mechanical, biomedical, tribological, and antibacterial properties through the incorporation of several ions and particles. Due to the increasing need of antimicrobial surfaces for biomedical implants, antibacterial PEO coatings have been developed through the incorporation of antibacterial agents. Metallic nanoparticles that have been employed most widely as antibacterial agents are reported to demonstrate serious health and environmental threats. To overcome the current limitations of these coatings, there is a significant need to develop antibacterial surfaces that are not harmful for patient's health and environment. Attention of the readers has been directed to utilize bioactive glasses as antibacterial agents for PEO coatings. Bioactive glasses are well known for their excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility, and antibacterial character. PEO coatings incorporated with bioactive glasses can provide environment-friendly antimicrobial surfaces with exceptional bioactivity, biocompatibility, and osseointegration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 590-605, 2018.
  7. Rizwan M, Hamdi M, Basirun WJ
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 Nov;105(11):3197-3223.
    PMID: 28686004 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36156
    Bioglass® 45S5 (BG) has an outstanding ability to bond with bones and soft tissues, but its application as a load-bearing scaffold material is restricted due to its inherent brittleness. BG-based composites combine the amazing biological and bioactive characteristics of BG with structural and functional features of other materials. This article reviews the composites of Bioglass® in combination with metals, ceramics and polymers for a wide range of potential applications from bone scaffolds to nerve regeneration. Bioglass® also possesses angiogenic and antibacterial properties in addition to its very high bioactivity; hence, composite materials developed for these applications are also discussed. BG-based composites with polymer matrices have been developed for a wide variety of soft tissue engineering. This review focuses on the research that suggests the suitability of BG-based composites as a scaffold material for hard and soft tissues engineering. Composite production techniques have a direct influence on the bioactivity and mechanical behavior of scaffolds. A detailed discussion of the bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation is presented as a function of materials and its processing techniques. Finally, an outlook for future research is also proposed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3197-3223, 2017.
  8. Baba Ismail YM, Wimpenny I, Bretcanu O, Dalgarno K, El Haj AJ
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 Jun;105(6):1775-1785.
    PMID: 28198131 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36038
    Ionic substitutions have been proposed as a tool to control the functional behavior of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), particularly for Bone Tissue Engineering applications. The effect of simultaneous substitution of different levels of carbonate (CO3) and silicon (Si) ions in the HA lattice was investigated. Furthermore, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on multi-substituted HA (SiCHA) to determine if biomimetic chemical compositions were osteoconductive. Of the four different compositions investigates, SiCHA-1 (0.58 wt % Si) and SiCHA-2 (0.45 wt % Si) showed missing bands for CO3and Si using FTIR analysis, indicating competition for occupation of the phosphate site in the HA lattice; 500°C was considered the most favorable calcination temperature as: (i) the powders produced possessed a similar amount of CO3(2-8 wt %) and Si (<1.0 wt %) as present in native bone; and (ii) there was a minimal loss of CO3and Si from the HA structure to the surroundings during calcination. Higher Si content in SiCHA-1 led to lower cell viability and at most hindered proliferation, but no toxicity effect occurred. While, lower Si content in SiCHA-2 showed the highest ALP/DNA ratio after 21 days culture with hMSCs, indicating that the powder may stimulate osteogenic behavior to a greater extent than other powders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1775-1785, 2017.
  9. Sangkert S, Kamonmattayakul S, Chai WL, Meesane J
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 Jun;105(6):1624-1636.
    PMID: 28000362 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35983
    Maxillofacial bone defect is a critical problem for many patients. In severe cases, the patients need an operation using a biomaterial replacement. Therefore, to design performance biomaterials is a challenge for materials scientists and maxillofacial surgeons. In this research, porous silk fibroin scaffolds with mimicked microenvironment based on decellularized pulp and fibronectin were created as for bone regeneration. Silk fibroin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying before modification with three different components: decellularized pulp, fibronectin, and decellularized pulp/fibronectin. The morphologies of the modified scaffolds were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Existence of the modifying components in the scaffolds was proved by the increase in weights and from the pore size measurements of the scaffolds. The modified scaffolds were seeded with MG-63 osteoblasts and cultured. Testing of the biofunctionalities included cell viability, cell proliferation, calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), mineralization and histological analysis. The results demonstrated that the modifying components organized themselves into aggregations of a globular structure. They were arranged themselves into clusters of aggregations with a fibril structure in the porous walls of the scaffolds. The results showed that modified scaffolds with a mimicked microenvironment of decellularized pulp/fibronectin were suitable for cell viability since the cells could attach and spread into most of the pores of the scaffold. Furthermore, the scaffolds could induce calcium synthesis, mineralization, and ALP activity. The results indicated that modified silk fibroin scaffolds with a mimicked microenvironment of decellularized pulp/fibronectin hold promise for use in tissue engineering in maxillofacial bone defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1624-1636, 2017.
  10. Zailani MZ, Ismail AF, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Othman MH, Goh PS, Hasbullah H, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 05;105(5):1510-1520.
    PMID: 28000366 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35986
    In this study, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate) (POC) was used to modify polyethersulfone (PES)-based membrane to enhance its hemocompatibility. Different compositions of POC (0-3%) were added into the polyethersulfone (PES) dope solutions and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as pore forming agent. The hemocompatible POC modified PES membranes were fabricated through phase-inversion technique. The prepared membranes were characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic-force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, Zeta-potential, membrane porosity and pore size and pure water flux (PWF) and BSA rejection. The hemocompatibility of the modified PES membranes was evaluated by human serum fibrinogen (FBG) protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT), complement (C3a and C5a) activation and Ca2+ absorption on membrane. Results showed that by increasing POC concentration, FBG adsorption was reduced, less platelets adhesion, prolonged APTT and PT, lower TAT, C5a and C3a activation and absorb more Ca2+ ion. These results indicated that modification of PES with POC has rendered improved hemocompatibility properties for potential application in the field of blood purification, especially in hemodialysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1510-1520, 2017.
  11. Gong T, Heng BC, Xu J, Zhu S, Yuan C, Lo EC, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 04;105(4):1083-1093.
    PMID: 28076902 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36003
    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.
  12. Jayash SN, Hashim NM, Misran M, Baharuddin NA
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 02;105(2):398-407.
    PMID: 27684563 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35919
    The osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. The study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a newly formulated OPG-chitosan gel. The OPG-chitosan gel was formulated using human OPG protein and water-soluble chitosan. The physicochemical properties were determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Gel morphology was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then it was subjected to a protein release assay and biodegradability test. An in vitro cytotoxicity test on normal human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts and normal human (NH) osteoblasts was carried out using the AlamarBlue assay. In vivo evaluation in a rabbit model involved creating critical-sized defects in calvarial bone, filling with the OPG-chitosan gel and sacrificing at 12 weeks. In vitro results demonstrated that the 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel had the highest rate of protein release and achieved 90% degradation in 28 days. At 12 weeks, the defects filled with 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel showed significant (p 
  13. Jaffar N, Miyazaki T, Maeda T
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2016 11;104(11):2873-80.
    PMID: 27390886 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35827
    Biofilm formation of periodontal pathogens on teeth surfaces promotes the progression of periodontal disease. Hence, understanding the mechanisms of bacterial attachment to the dental surfaces may inform strategies for the maintenance of oral health. Although hydroxyapatite (HA) is a major calcium phosphate component of teeth, effect of biofilm formation on HA surfaces remains poorly characterized. In this study, biofilm-forming abilities by the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 and Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 were investigated on dense and porous HAs that represent enamel and dentin surfaces, respectively. These experiments showed greater biofilm formation on porous HA, but differing attachment profiles and effects of the two pathogens. Specifically, while the detachment of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 biofilm was observed, P. gingivalis 381 biofilm increased with time. Moreover, observations of HA morphology following formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 biofilm revealed gaps between particles, whereas no significant changes were observed in the presence of P. gingivalis 381. Finally, comparisons of calcium leakage showed only slight differences between bacterial species and HA types and may be masked by bacterial calcium uptake. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2873-2880, 2016.
  14. Rozila I, Azari P, Munirah S, Wan Safwani WK, Gan SN, Nur Azurah AG, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2016 Feb;104(2):377-87.
    PMID: 26414782 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35573
    The osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) co-cultured with human osteoblasts (HOBs) using selected HADSCs/HOBs ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, respectively, is evaluated. The HADSCs/HOBs were seeded on electrospun three-dimensional poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] (PHB) blended with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Monocultures of HADSCs and HOBs were used as control groups. The effects of PHB-BHA scaffold on cell proliferation and cell morphology were assessed by AlamarBlue assay and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic-related gene expression of co-culture HADSCs/HOBs were examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin Red S assay, and quantitative real time PCR, respectively. The results showed that co-culture of HADSCs/HOBs, 1:1 grown into PHB-BHA promoted better cell adhesion, displayed a significant higher cell proliferation, higher production of ALP, extracellular mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression of run-related transcription factor, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin compared to other co-culture groups. This result also suggests that the use of electrospun PHB-BHA in a co-culture HADSCs/HOBs system may serve as promising approach to facilitate osteogenic differentiation activity of HADSCs through direct cell-to-cell contact with HOBs.
  15. Moradi A, Ataollahi F, Sayar K, Pramanik S, Chong PP, Khalil AA, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2016 Jan;104(1):245-56.
    PMID: 26362913 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35561
    Extracellular matrices have drawn attention in tissue engineering as potential biomaterials for scaffold fabrication because of their bioactive components. Noninvasive techniques of scaffold fabrication and cross-linking treatments are believed to maintain the integrity of bioactive molecules while providing proper architectural and mechanical properties. Cartilage matrix derived scaffolds are designed to support the maintenance of chondrocytes and provide proper signals for differentiation of chondroinducible cells. Chondroinductive potential of bovine articular cartilage matrix derived porous scaffolds on human dermal fibroblasts and the effect of scaffold shrinkage on chondrogenesis were investigated. An increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans production along with upregulation of chondrogenic genes confirmed that physically treated cartilage matrix derived scaffolds have chondrogenic potential on human dermal fibroblasts.
  16. Abdullah MR, Goharian A, Abdul Kadir MR, Wahit MU
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Nov;103(11):3689-702.
    PMID: 25856801 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35480
    The use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites in the trauma plating system, total replacement implants, and tissue scaffolds has found great interest among researchers. In recent years (2008 afterward), this type of composites has been examined for suitability as substitute material over stainless steel, titanium alloys, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, or even biodegradable materials in orthopedic implant applications. Biomechanical and bioactivity concepts were contemplated for the development of PEEK orthopedic implants and a few primary clinical studies reported the clinical outcomes of PEEK-based orthopedic implants. This study aims to review and discuss the recent concepts and contribute further concepts in terms of biomechanical and bioactivity challenges for the development of PEEK and PEEK composites in orthopedic implants.
  17. Mirza EH, Pan-Pan C, Wan Ibrahim WM, Djordjevic I, Pingguan-Murphy B
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Nov;103(11):3554-63.
    PMID: 25940780 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35495
    Articular cartilage is a tissue specifically adapted to a specific niche with a low oxygen tension (hypoxia), and the presence of such conditions is a key factor in regulating growth and survival of chondrocytes. Zinc deficiency has been linked to cartilage-related disease, and presence of Zinc is known to provide antibacterial benefits, which makes its inclusion attractive in an in vitro system to reduce infection. Inclusion of 1% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) in poly octanediol citrate (POC) polymer cultured in hypoxia has not been well determined. In this study we investigated the effects of ZnONP on chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis cultured under normoxia (21% O2 ) and hypoxia (5% O2 ). We report an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in hypoxic culture. Results demonstrate a synergistic effect of oxygen concentration and 1% ZnONP in up-regulation of anabolic gene expression (Type II collagen and aggrecan), and a down regulation of catabolic (MMP-13) gene expression. Furthermore, production of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF-1A) in response to hypoxic condition to regulate chondrocyte survival under hypoxia is not affected by the presence of 1% ZnONP. Presence of 1% ZnONP appears to act to preserve homeostasis of cartilage in its hypoxic environment.
  18. Zawawi MS, Marino V, Perilli E, Cantley MD, Xu J, Purdue PE, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Nov;103(11):3572-9.
    PMID: 25903444 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35484
    The study aimed to determine the effects of parthenolide (PAR) on bone volume (BV) and bone surface resorption as assessed by live-animal microcomputed tomography (μCT) and possible osteocyte death as indicated by empty lacunae histologically in polyethylene (PE) particle-induced calvarial osteolysis in mice. Baseline μCT scans were conducted 7 days preimplantation of 2 × 10(8) PE particles/mL over the calvariae (day 0). PAR at 1 mg/kg/day was subcutaneously injected on days 0, 4, 7, and 10. At day 14, BV and surface resorption was analyzed with μCT. Calvarial tissue was processed for histomorphometric osteocyte evaluation. Serum was analyzed for type-1 carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX-1) and osteoclast associated receptor (OSCAR) levels by ELISA. PE significantly decreased BV (p = 0.0368), increased surface bone resorption area (p = 0.0022), and increased the percentage of empty lacunae (p = 0.0043). Interestingly, PAR significantly reduced the resorption surface area (p = 0.0022) and the percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae (p = 0.0087) in the PE-calvariae, but it did not affect BV, serum CTX-1 or OSCAR levels. The ability of PAR to inhibit PE-induced surface bone erosion may better reflect the in vivo situation, where bone resorption occurs on the surface at the bone-implant interface and may also be related to the role of osteocytes in this pathology.
  19. Zare-Zardini H, Amiri A, Shanbedi M, Taheri-Kafrani A, Kazi SN, Chew BT, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Sep;103(9):2959-65.
    PMID: 25690431 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35425
    One of the novel applications of the nanostructures is the modification and development of membranes for hemocompatibility of hemodialysis. The toxicity and hemocompatibility of Ag nanoparticles and arginine-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-Arg) and possibility of their application in membrane technology are investigated here. MWNT-Arg is prepared by amidation reactions, followed by characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed a good hemocompatibility and the hemolytic rates in the presence of both MWNT-Arg and Ag nanoparticles. The hemolytic rate of Ag nanoparticles was lower than that of MWNT-Arg. In vivo study revealed that Ag nanoparticle and MWNT-Arg decreased Hematocrit and mean number of red blood cells (RBC) statistically at concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . The mean decrease of RBC and Hematocrit for Ag nanoparticles (18% for Hematocrit and 5.8 × 1,000,000/µL) was more than MWNT-Arg (20% for Hematocrit and 6 × 1000000/µL). In addition, MWNT-Arg and Ag nanoparticles had a direct influence on the White Blood Cell (WBC) drop. Regarding both nanostructures, although the number of WBC increased in initial concentration, it decreased significantly at the concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . It is worth mentioning that the toxicity of Ag nanoparticle on WBC was higher than that of MWNT-Arg. Because of potent antimicrobial activity and relative hemocompatibility, MWNT-Arg could be considered as a new candidate for biomedical applications in the future especially for hemodialysis membranes.
  20. Ali Akbari Ghavimi S, Ebrahimzadeh MH, Solati-Hashjin M, Abu Osman NA
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Jul;103(7):2482-98.
    PMID: 25407786 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35371
    Interests in the use of biodegradable polymers as biomaterials have grown. Among the different polymeric composites currently available, the blend of starch and polycaprolactone (PCL) has received the most attention since the 1980s. Novamont is the first company that manufactured a PCL/starch (SPCL) composite under the trademark Mater-Bi®. The properties of PCL (a synthetic, hydrophobic, flexible, expensive polymer with a low degradation rate) and starch (a natural, hydrophilic, stiff, abundant polymer with a high degradation rate) blends are interesting because of the composite components have completely different structures and characteristics. PCL can adjust humidity sensitivity of starch as a biomaterial; while starch can enhance the low biodegradation rate of PCL. Thus, by appropriate blending, SPCL can overcome important limitations of both PCL and starch components and promote controllable behavior in terms of mechanical properties and degradation which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. This article reviewed the different fabrication and modification methods of the SPCL composite; different properties such as structural, physical, and chemical as well as degradation behavior; and different applications as biomaterials.
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