The current toxicity concerns of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have birthed the need to regulate and, sometimes restrict its clinical administration. However, tolerable concentration levels of Gd in the water sector have not been set. Therefore, the detection and speedy increase of the anthropogenic Gd-GBCAs in the various water bodies, including those serving as the primary source of drinking water for adults and children, is perturbing. Nevertheless, the strongly canvassed risk-benefit considerations and superior uniqueness of GBCAs compared to the other ferromagnetic metals guarantees its continuous administration for Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations regardless of the toxicity concerns. Unfortunately, findings have shown that both the advanced and conventional wastewater treatment processes do not satisfactorily remove GBCAs but rather risk transforming the chelated GBCAs to their free ionic metal (Gd 3+) through inadvertent degradation processes. This unintentional water processing-induced GBCA dechelation leads to the intricate pathway for unintentional human intake of Gd ion. Hence exposure to its probable ecotoxicity and several reported inimical effects on human health such as; digestive symptoms, twitching or weakness, cognitive flu, persistent skin diseases, body pains, acute renal and non-renal adverse reactions, chronic skin, and eyes changes. This work proposed an economical and manageable remediation technique for the potential remediation of Gd-GBCAs in wastewater, while a precautionary limit for Gd in public water and commercial drinks is advocated.
Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out to assess the influence of water infiltration on pooled light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) redistribution in porous media. A simplified image analysis method (SIAM) was used to evaluate the saturation distributions of the LNAPL and water in the entire domain under dynamic conditions. The experiments were conducted for high/low LNAPL volumes LNAPL volumes differentiated as low and high volumes. High resolution SIAM images of the soil column during LNAPL migration and water infiltration events were captured and analyzed. Results indicated that the capillary fringe is about 6-7 cm which was consistent with the capillary height derived from empirical equations. Moreover, SIAM provided an estimate of the field capacity (30%) of the sand. Once the LNAPL infiltration stage was started, the LNAPL was observed to rapidly migrate through the vadose zone. For the case of large LNAPL volume, the LNAPL penetrated further into capillary fringe zone. Analysis of SIAM images showed that the LNAPL redistribution was observed to vary significantly with the rate of infiltration. For higher water infiltration intensity, the injected water exerted a larger hydrodynamic force on the entrapped LNAPL forcing it move further downward into the capillary zone and the saturated zone. Overall, this study demonstrated that the SIAM technique is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the visualization of the time-dependent NAPL/water movement in laboratory-scale experiments and dynamic changes in fluid saturation in porous media.
This article provides an analytical solute transport model to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polluted surface water in a two dimensional domain. The clogging of streambed which makes the aquifer partially penetrated by the stream, is considered in the model. The impacts of pumping process, hydraulic conductivity and clogging layer on the quality of water produced from nearby drinking water wells are evaluated. It is found that results are consistent with numerical simulation conducted by MODFLOW software. Moreover, the model is applied using data of contamination occurrence in Malaysia, where high contaminants concentrations are found close to streams. Results show that the pumping activities (rate and time period) are crucial factors when evaluating the risk of groundwater contamination from surface water. Additionally, this study illustrates that the increase in either hydraulic conductivity or leakance coefficient parameters due to the clogging layer will enlarge the area of contamination. The model is able to determine the suitable pumping rate and location of the well so that the contamination plume never reaches the extraction well, which is useful in constructing riverbank filtration sites.
Surfactant solutions have been frequently studied for soil remediation. However, since they are expensive, massive consumption of surfactant solution can constrain their application. Surfactant microbubbles, or colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs), can serve as cost effective alternatives of surfactant solution because the use of CGAs reduce the amount of surfactant consumption. Moreover, CGAs can also improve the contact with the contaminated environment due to their unique surface properties, e.g. containing 40-70% of gas, small size, large interfacial areas, water-like flow properties and buoyant rise velocities. In this review paper, the properties and flow character of CGAs in soil matrix reviewed due to their relevance to soil remediation process. A comprehensive overview of the application of CGAs in flushing off organic pollutants and heavy metals, and carrying oxygen, bacteria and dissolved materials for soil remediation were provided. This paper also highlighted the limitation of CGAs application and important future research scopes.
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.