Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Shahmohammadi HR, Bakar J, Rahman RA, Adzhan NM
    J Food Sci, 2014 Feb;79(2):E178-83.
    PMID: 24410375 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12324
    To improve textural attributes of puffed corn-fish snack, the effects of 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate (talc), sodium bicarbonate as well as 5% and 10% of wheat bran (as the nucleating materials) on textural attributes were studied. Sensory evaluation, bulk density, expansion ratio, maximum force, and count peaks were measured using the Kramer test. The results showed that all of the additives except bran significantly enhanced the texture. Among them, talc at 0.5% was the best to enhance the density and expansion ratio. Effects of using 0.5% talc on puffed corn-fish snack microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average cell diameter of 109 ± 48 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 67.4 for talc-treated products were obtained, while for nontalc-treated extrudates, average cell diameter of 798 ± 361 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 13.9 were found. Incorporation of 0.5% w/w of magnesium silicate reduced (7-fold) the average cell diameter while increased (4-fold) the cell number.
  2. Nurkhoeriyati T, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci, 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):S48-55.
    PMID: 21535715 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01963.x
    The gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid solubilization (ACS) or alkaline solubilization (ALS) were studied and compared with conventionally processed (CON) surimi-like material. The ACS process yielded the highest protein recovery (P < 0.05). The ALS process generated the highest lipid reduction, and the CON process yielded the lowest reduction (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced by the CON process had the highest gel strength, salt extractable protein (SEP), and water holding capacity (WHC), followed by materials produced via the ALS and ACS processes and untreated duck meat (P < 0.05). The material produced by the CON process also had the highest cohesiveness, hardness, and gumminess values and the lowest springiness value. Material produced by the ACS and ALS processes had higher whiteness values than untreated duck meat gels and gels produced by the CON method (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced using the ACS and CON processes had significantly higher myoglobin removal (P < 0.05) than that produced by the ALS method and untreated duck meat. Among all surimi-like materials, the highest Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found in conventionally produced gels (P < 0.05). This suggests that protein oxidation was induced by acid-alkaline solubilization. The gels produced by ALS had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) total SH content than the other samples. This result showed that the acid-alkaline solubilization clearly improved gelation and color properties of spent duck and possibly applied for other high fat raw material.
  3. Nurkhoeriyati T, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci, 2012 Jan;77(1):S91-8.
    PMID: 22260136 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02519.x
    The physicochemical properties and sensory analysis of duck meatballs containing duck meat surimi-like material during frozen storage were evaluated. Properties of meatballs containing duck surimi-like material prepared by acid solubilization (ACDS), alkaline solubilization (ALDS), and conventional processing (CDS) as well as duck mince (as the control, CON) were compared. ACDS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture and protein content and lower fat content compared with CON. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value of all samples increased as the storage time increased up to week 8 (P < 0.05), but thereafter it decreased in most of the samples. ACDS and ALDS had significantly higher TBARS values (P < 0.05), and these values remained higher than those of the other samples throughout the frozen storage period. Addition of surimi-like material to the meatballs had significant effects (P < 0.05) on springiness, gumminess, and chewiness values of all samples. Ingredients and frozen storage affected most sensory attributes in samples significantly (P<0.05). No significant increase in growth of organisms occurred during 12-wk frozen storage The results indicate that acid-alkaline solubilization methods improve both physicochemical and sensory properties of duck meatballs containing duck surimi-like material. Thus, these techniques should be applicable to product development of duck surimi-like material.
  4. Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Tan CP, Rashid U, Al-Resayes SI
    J Food Sci, 2018 Mar;83(3):624-630.
    PMID: 29377104 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14033
    This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia.

  5. Alrosan M, Tan TC, Easa AM, Gammoh S, Alu'datt MH
    J Food Sci, 2021 Dec;86(12):5282-5294.
    PMID: 34796499 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15974
    Poor solubility is a substantial factor that restricts the production of high value-added lentil proteins (LPs). In this study, whey protein isolates (WPIs), which have high solubility and are used in various food industries, were mixed with LPs at pH 12 to create LP-WPI protein complexes with improved water solubility properties using pH-recycling approach (maintained at pH 12.0 for 60 min and then readjusting to pH 7.0). LP-WPI protein complexes produced in this study have gained high surface charge, increased in the solubilization of protein complexes to ≈92%, as well as improved resistance against protein aggregation. The ratio of LPs to WPIs has a significant effect on the generation of unique tertiary and secondary protein structures based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) technique via pH-recycling. The protein interaction between LPs and WPIs resulted in alteration on the surface morphology of the produced protein complexes. This study showed that electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic force, and hydrogen bond appear as major molecular forces in this PPI. The efficacy of the pH-recycling method used in this research indicates that this approach could be a robust approach to enhance the functional properties of food proteins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The pH-recycling technique is a proven technique for protein complexation in creating novel protein complexes with improved functional properties. Even though lentils are a rich source of plant-based protein, its utilization by food industries is restricted due to the poor water solubility of lentil proteins (LPs). However, by using complexing lentil proteins with whey protein isolates (WPIs), that is, LP-WPI protein complex, was developed. The water solubility of LP-WPI protein complex was significantly higher than LPs, up to approximately 92%. In addition, this could improve the utilization of lentil seeds in food application as an alternative for animal-based proteins.
  6. Mustafa RA, Abdul Hamid A, Mohamed S, Bakar FA
    J Food Sci, 2010 Jan-Feb;75(1):C28-35.
    PMID: 20492146 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01401.x
    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants.
  7. Saadi S, Ariffin AA, Ghazali HM, Miskandar MS, Abdulkarim SM, Boo HC
    J Food Sci, 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):C21-30.
    PMID: 21535649 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01922.x
    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine the best level of stearin to impart the required microstructure properties and body to the finished products.
  8. Arief II, Afiyah DN, Wulandari Z, Budiman C
    J Food Sci, 2016 Nov;81(11):M2761-M2769.
    PMID: 27712046 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13509
    Probiotics may be used to enhance the functionality and nutritional values of fermented sausages. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef sausages fermented by lactic acid bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and L. acidophilus IIA-2B4. These strains were isolated from beef cattle and have shown to display probiotic features. While the nutrient contents were not affected by the probiotics, the pH, texture, and color varied among the sausages. Further analysis on fatty acids showed different profiles of saturated (C14:0, C17:0, and C20:0) and unsaturated (C14:1, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C22:6n3) fatty acids in sausages with probiotics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further revealed some flavor development compounds including acid, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic, ketones, sulfur, hydrocarbons and terpenes, varied among the sausages. Hedonic test showed no difference in the preference toward aroma, texture, and color for untrained panelists.
  9. Teh T, Dougherty MP, Camire ME
    J Food Sci, 2007 Sep;72(7):S516-21.
    PMID: 17995666
    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.
  10. Ong WD, Tey BT, Quek SY, Tang SY, Chan ES
    J Food Sci, 2015 Jan;80(1):E93-E100.
    PMID: 25529579 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12729
    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-gel systems containing high oil payloads are of increasing interest for food applications because of the reduction in encapsulation cost, consumption frequency or volume of food products. This study shows a facile approach to prepare stable alginate-based O/W emulsions at high oil loading using a mixture of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20) as a template to form gelled-emulsions. The synergistic effects of alginate and surfactants on the O/W emulsion properties were evaluated in terms of oil droplet size and emulsion stability. At 2% (w/v) of alginate and 1% (w/v) of surfactants, the size distribution of oil droplets was narrow and monomodal, even at an oil loading of 70% (v/v). The emulsions formed were stable against phase separation. The oil droplet size could be further reduced to below 1 μm using a high-shear homogenizer. The emulsions formed could be easily molded and gelled into solids of different shapes via ionic gelation. The findings of this study create possible avenues for applications in food industries.
  11. Lim SY, Tham PY, Lim HYL, Heng WS, Chang YP
    J Food Sci, 2018 Jun;83(6):1522-1532.
    PMID: 29745989 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14155
    The valorization of guava waste requires compositional and functional studies. We tested three byproducts of guava purée processing, namely refiner, siever, and decanter. We analyzed the chemical composition and quantified the prebiotic activity score and selected carbohydrates; we also determined the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), cation exchange capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose dialysis retardation (GDR) of the solid fraction and the antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory capacities (AIC) of the ethanolic extract. Refiner contained 7.7% lipid, 7.08% protein and a relatively high phytate content; it had a high prebiotic activity score and possessed the highest binding capacity with deoxycholic acid. Siever contained high levels of low molecular weight carbohydrates and total tannin but relatively low crude fiber and cellulose contents. It had the highest binding with chenodeoxycholic acid (74.8%), and exhibited the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Decanter was rich in cellulose and had a high prebiotic activity score. The WHC and OHC values of decanter were within a narrow range and also exhibited the highest binding with cholic acid (86.6%), and the highest values of GDR and AIC. The refiner waste could be included in animal feed but requires further processing to reduce the high phytate levels. All three guava byproducts had the potential to be a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF), a finding that warrants further in vivo study.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: To differing extents, the guava byproducts exhibited useful physicochemical binding properties and so possessed the potential for health-promoting activity. These byproducts could also be upgraded to other marketable products so the manufacturers of processed guava might be able to develop their businesses sustainably by making better use of them.

  12. Azman EM, Charalampopoulos D, Chatzifragkou A
    J Food Sci, 2020 Nov;85(11):3745-3755.
    PMID: 32990367 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15466
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different solvent and extraction temperatures on the free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of dried blackcurrant skins (DBS). Apart from acetic acid buffer solution, different solvent systems, including water, methanol, and mixtures of methanol/water, were also employed and the effects of solvent and temperature (30 and 50 °C) on the free and bound forms of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols yield were assessed. The results showed that among all solvents, acetic acid buffer resulted in the highest free anthocyanin content (1,712.3 ± 56.1 mg/100 g) (P
  13. Nhari RM, Ismail A, Che Man YB
    J Food Sci, 2012 Jan;77(1):R42-6.
    PMID: 22260124 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02514.x
    Usage of gelatin in food products has been widely debated for several years, which is about the source of gelatin that has been used, religion, and health. As an impact, various analytical methods have been introduced and developed to differentiate gelatin whether it is made from porcine or bovine sources. The analytical methods comprise a diverse range of equipment and techniques including spectroscopy, chemical precipitation, chromatography, and immunochemical. Each technique can differentiate gelatins for certain extent with advantages and limitations. This review is focused on overview of the analytical methods available for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatin and gelatin in food products so that new method development can be established.
  14. Ramli MR, Siew WL, Cheah KY
    J Food Sci, 2008 Apr;73(3):C140-5.
    PMID: 18387090 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00657.x
    High-oleic palm oil (HOPO) with an oleic acid content of 59.0% and an iodine value (IV) of 78.2 was crystallized in a 200-kg De Smet crystallizer with a predetermined cooling program and appropriate agitation. The slurry was then fractionated by means of dry fractionation at 4, 8, 10, 12, and 15 degrees C. The oil and the fractionated products were subjected to physical and chemical analyses, including fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, cloud point, slip melting point, and cold stability test. Fractionation at 15 degrees C resulted in the highest olein yield but with minimal oleic acid content. Due to the enhanced unsaturation of the oil, fractionation at relatively lower crystallization temperature showed a considerable effect on fatty acid composition as well as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of liquid fractions compared to higher crystallization temperature. The olein and stearin fractionated at 4 degrees C had the best cold stability at 0 degrees C and sharper melting profile, respectively.
  15. Gao X, Yanan J, Santhanam RK, Wang Y, Lu Y, Zhang M, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2021 Feb;86(2):366-375.
    PMID: 33448034 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15599
    Liver damage is a common liver disorder, which could induce liver cancer. Oral antioxidant is one of the effective treatments to prevent and alleviate liver damage. In this study, three flavonoids namely myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin were isolated and identified from Laba garlic. The isolated compounds were investigated on the protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells and apoptosis inducing mechanism in hepatic cancer cells HepG2 by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis. Myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin showed proliferation inhibition on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 44.32 ± 0.213 µM, 49.68 ± 0.192 µM, and 54.32 ± 0.176 µM, respectively. While they showed low toxicity on normal cell lines L02. They could significantly alleviate the oxidative damage towards L02 cells (P < 0.05), via inhibiting the morphological changes in mitochondria and upholding the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function. The fluorescence intensity of L02 cells pre-treated with myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin (100 µM) was 89.23 ± 1.26%, 89.35 ± 1.43% and 88.97 ± 0.79%, respectively. Moreover, the flavonoids could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via Bcl-2/Caspase pathways, where it could up-regulate the expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, pro-Caspase-3, and pro-Caspase-9 proteins in a dose dependent manner. Overall, the results suggested that the flavonoids from Laba garlic might be a promising candidate for the treatment of various liver disorders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Flavonoids from Laba garlic showed selective toxicity towards HepG2 cells in comparison to L02 cells via regulating Bcl-2/caspase pathway. Additionally, the isolated flavonoids expressively barred the oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 in L02 cells. These results suggested that the flavonoids from laba garlic could be a promising agent towards the development of functional foods.
  16. Gao X, Santhanam RK, Xue Z, Jia Y, Wang Y, Lu Y, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2020 Apr;85(4):1060-1069.
    PMID: 32147838 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15084
    Inonotus obliquus is a traditional mushroom well known for its therapeutic value. In this study, various solvent fractions of I. obliquus were preliminarily screened for their antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. To improve the drug delivery, the active fraction (ethyl acetate fraction) of I. obliquus was synthesized into fungisome (ethyl acetate phophotidyl choline complex, EAPC) and its physical parameters were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ς potential analysis. Then normal human hepatic L02 cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of EAPC. The results showed that EA fraction possesses significant free radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. FTIR, SEM, and HPLC analysis confirmed the fungisome formation. The particle size of EAPC was 102.80 ± 0.42 nm and the ς potential was -54.30 ± 0.61 mV. The percentage of drug entrapment efficiency was 97.13% and the drug release rates of EAPC in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid were 75.04 ± 0.29% and 93.03 ± 0.36%, respectively. EAPC was nontoxic to L02 cells, however it could selectively fight against the H2 O2 induced oxidative damage in L02 cells. This is the first study to provide scientific information to utilize the active fraction of I. obliquus as fungisome. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a traditional medicinal fungus. The extracts of IO have obvious antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of IO was encapsulated in liposomes to form EAPC. EAPC has a sustained-release effect. It has nontoxic to L02 cells and could protect L02 cells from oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. This study could provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetes.
  17. Zhang Q, Noryati I, Cheng LH
    J Food Sci, 2008 Mar;73(2):E82-7.
    PMID: 18298729 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00627.x
    Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) and modified waxy cornstarch (MWCS) blends were prepared at different pH conditions (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). The blends were characterized by light microscopy, frequency sweep, flow analysis, and freeze-thaw stability analysis. Light microscopy showed that the blend structure was coarse at pH conditions close to the isoelectric point of protein and became finer with increasing pH. Frequency sweep demonstrated that the blend was more liquid-like with relatively lower storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli as the pH was increased from pH 4 to pH 9. Flow analysis revealed that thixotropy behavior was evident in samples treated at pHs 4 and 5, whereas antithixotropy was shown by those adjusted to pHs 6, 7, 8, and 9. The CBMP-MWCS blends were found to show better freeze-thaw stability at pH 8 that could be attributed to the formation of a highly interactive network structure of CBMP and MWCS.
  18. Puah SM, Tan JAMA, Chew CH, Chua KH
    J Food Sci, 2018 Sep;83(9):2337-2342.
    PMID: 30101982 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14300
    Staphylococcus aureus is able to form multilayer biofilms embedded within a glycocalyx or slime layer. Biofilm formation poses food contamination risks and can subsequently increase the risk of food poisoning. Identification of food-related S. aureus strains will provide additional data on staphylococcal food poisoning involved in biofilm formation. A total of 52 S. aureus strains isolated from sushi and sashimi was investigated to study their ability for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. The presence of accessory gene regulator (agr) groups and 15 adhesion genes was screened and their associations in biofilm formation were studied. All 52 S. aureus strains showed biofilm production on the tested hydrophobic surface with 44% (23/52) strains classified as strong, 33% (17/52) as moderate, and 23% (12/52) as weak biofilm producers. The frequency of agr-positive strains was 71% (agr group 1 = 21 strains; agr group 2 = 2 strains; agr group 3 = 12 strains; agr group 4 = 2 strains) whereas agr-negative strains were 29% (15/52). Twelve adhesion genes were detected and 98% of the S. aureus strains carried at least one adhesion gene. The ebps was significantly (p < .05) associated with strong biofilm producing strains. In addition, eno, clfA, icaAD, sasG, fnbB, cna, and sasC were significantly higher in the agr-positive group compared to the agr-negative group. The results of this study suggest that the presence of ebps, eno, clfA, icaAD, sasG, fnbB, cna, and sasC may play an important role in enhancing the stage of biofilm-related infections and warrants further investigation.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work contributes to the knowledge on the biofilm formation and the distribution of agr groups in S. aureus strains as well as microbial surface components in recognizing adherence matrix molecules of organisms isolated from ready-to-eat sushi and sashimi. The findings provide valuable information to further study the roles of specific genes in causing biofilm-related infections.

  19. Hussin M, Hamid AA, Mohamad S, Saari N, Bakar F, Dek SP
    J Food Sci, 2009 Mar;74(2):H72-8.
    PMID: 19323754 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01045.x
    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica leaf on lipid metabolism of oxidative stress rats. The rats were fed 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with either 0.3% (w/w) C. asiatica extract, 5%C. asiatica powder (w/w), or 0.3% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol for 25 wk. Results of the study showed that C. asiatica powder significantly (P < 0.05) lowered serum low-density lipoprotein compared to that of control rats (rats fed H(2)O(2) only). At the end of the study C. asiatica-fed rats were also found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher high-density lipoprotein and lower triglyceride level compared to rats fed only normal diet. However, cholesterol level of rats fed both C. asiatica extract and powder was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to that of control rats. It was interesting to note that consumption of C. asiatica significantly decreased body and liver weights of the rats. Histological examinations revealed no obvious changes in all rats studied. Quantitative analysis of C. asiatica leaf revealed high concentration of total phenolic compounds, in particular, catechin, quercetin, and rutin.
  20. Wai WW, Alkarkhi AF, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2009 Oct;74(8):C637-41.
    PMID: 19799660 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01331.x
    Response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out to study the effect of temperature, pH, and heating time as input variables on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) as the output (responses). The results showed that yield and DE of extracted pectin ranged from 2.27% to 9.35% (w/w, based on dry weight of durian rind) and 47.66% to 68.6%, respectively. The results also showed that a 2nd-order model adequately fitted the experimental data for the yield and DE. Optimum condition for maximum yield and DE was achieved at 85 degrees C, a time of either 4 or 1 h, and a pH of 2 or 2.5.
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