Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Manickavasagam G, Saaid M, Lim V, Saad MIZM, Azmi NAS, Osman R
    J Food Sci, 2023 Mar 15.
    PMID: 36922718 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.16535
    The popularity of Malaysian stingless bee honey is rising among health-conscious individuals; thus, chemical and physical evaluations of Malaysian stingless bee honey are vital to ensure the honey has achieved the optimum limits set by Malaysian and international regulatory standards so that it can be commercialized locally and internationally. Therefore, in the present study, the physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, total dissolved solids, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, and ash content), antioxidant properties (total phenolic and flavonoid contents), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) of Heterotrigona itama (H. itama) honey from different sites in Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Subsequently, the correlation between these chemical and physical parameters was studied using Spearman correlation coefficients. The significant difference between H. itama honey from different topographical origins was studied using univariate analysis (one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's test). The discrimination pattern of 45 honey samples based on their topographical origins was evaluated using cluster analysis (heatmap and dendrogram) and chemometrics analysis (partial least squares-discriminant analysis). Results showed that some samples of certain parameters (electrical conductivity, free acidity, and moisture content) have exceeded the limit set by the international regulatory standard. However, the 5-HMF content of all samples was within the allowed range. A statistically significant difference (p 
  2. Yue CS, Lim AK, Chia ML, Wong PY, Chin JSR, Wong WH
    J Food Sci, 2023 Feb;88(2):650-665.
    PMID: 36624628 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.16404
    In this study, an improved dansyl-chloride derivatization technique using a microwave synthesizer was used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of biogenic amine in the fresh meat samples. The derivatization technique was optimized in terms of temperature, reaction time, and spinning speed. The derivatization method together with a validated reversed-phase HPLC-DAD method was used for the determination of biogenic amines in chicken, beef, and mutton sold in the wet market. The results of the analyses showed that tryptamine, putrescine, and histamine were generally detected in all the three types of meat. Higher levels of histamine were found in chicken and beef. However, low levels of histamine were observed in mutton. Tyramine was either detected low or moderate in all the three types of meat. The biogenic amines of the fresh meat sold in the wet market is generally higher than the reported values. The mechanisms of biogenic amines-dansyl-chloride formation were investigated and proposed. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The biogenic amine derivatization method was improved. The improved derivatization method can be potentially used for various food products beside meats for routine biogenic amine analyses due to its fast analysis time and simplicity. High levels of biogenic amines were generally found in the meat sold in the wet markets. However, proper handling of the raw meat can reduce the risk of infection.
  3. Schouteten JJ, Llobell F, Chheang SL, Jin D, Jaeger SR
    J Food Sci, 2022 Nov 22.
    PMID: 36413025 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.16374
    In line with the increasing popularity of emoji, the need for methodological research into these pictorial representations of emotion remains. The present research contributes to this goal by continuing to establish the meaning of emoji and exploring these according to between-country and interpersonal differences. The emoji (n = 12) were selected to span the valence × arousal emotion space, and the PAD model (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) was used to establish emoji meaning for the three dimensions, operationalized as measurement on 6 × 3 semantic differentials. Participants in the main study came from three countries-Germany, Singapore, and Malaysia (n = 2465), and a supplementary study included the United Kingdom and New Zealand (n = 600) (subset of four emoji). The results confirmed that emoji meanings according to the PAD model were largely similar between countries (albeit not identical). There were multiple minor significant differences for individual emoji, and where these existed, they often related to the dimension of Arousal, prompting a need for further investigation. Interpersonal differences were examined for gender (men and women), age group (18-45 and 46-69 years old), and frequency of emoji use. Again, significant differences were smaller rather than larger and supported the notion that emoji are generally applicable for multicountry research. However, caution regarding the participants who use emoji infrequently may be warranted. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings from this research will help academics and practitioners who are interested in using emoji for sensory and consumer research (or are already doing so) with more robust interpretations of their findings. For a set of 12 emoji that provide broad coverage of the valence × arousal emotional space, meanings are provided on the three dimensions of the PAD model. The data is collected in five countries and contributes to increased confidence that emoji meanings are by and large similar in these countries.
  4. Ng PC, Ahmad Ruslan NAS, Chin LX, Ahmad M, Abu Hanifah S, Abdullah Z, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2022 Jan;87(1):8-35.
    PMID: 34954819 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15998
    Increasing public awareness of food quality and safety has prompted a rapid increase in food authentication of halal food, which covers the production method, technical processing, identification of undeclared components, and species substitution in halal food products. This urges for extensive research into analytical methods to obtain accurate and reliable results for monitoring and controlling the authenticity of halal food. Nonetheless, authentication of halal food is often challenging because of the complex nature of food and the increasing number of food adulterants that cause detection difficulties. This review provides a comprehensive and impartial overview of recent studies on the analytical techniques used in the analysis of halal food authenticity (from 1980 to the present, but there has been no significant trend in the choice of techniques for authentication of halal food during this period). Additionally, this review highlights the classification of different methodologies based on validity measures that provide valuable information for future developments in advanced technology. In addition, methodological developments, and novel emerging techniques as well as their implementations have been explored in the evaluation of halal food authentication. This includes food categories that require halal authentication, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages as well as shortcomings during the use of all approaches in the halal food industry.
  5. Alrosan M, Tan TC, Easa AM, Gammoh S, Alu'datt MH
    J Food Sci, 2021 Dec;86(12):5282-5294.
    PMID: 34796499 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15974
    Poor solubility is a substantial factor that restricts the production of high value-added lentil proteins (LPs). In this study, whey protein isolates (WPIs), which have high solubility and are used in various food industries, were mixed with LPs at pH 12 to create LP-WPI protein complexes with improved water solubility properties using pH-recycling approach (maintained at pH 12.0 for 60 min and then readjusting to pH 7.0). LP-WPI protein complexes produced in this study have gained high surface charge, increased in the solubilization of protein complexes to ≈92%, as well as improved resistance against protein aggregation. The ratio of LPs to WPIs has a significant effect on the generation of unique tertiary and secondary protein structures based on the protein-protein interaction (PPI) technique via pH-recycling. The protein interaction between LPs and WPIs resulted in alteration on the surface morphology of the produced protein complexes. This study showed that electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic force, and hydrogen bond appear as major molecular forces in this PPI. The efficacy of the pH-recycling method used in this research indicates that this approach could be a robust approach to enhance the functional properties of food proteins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The pH-recycling technique is a proven technique for protein complexation in creating novel protein complexes with improved functional properties. Even though lentils are a rich source of plant-based protein, its utilization by food industries is restricted due to the poor water solubility of lentil proteins (LPs). However, by using complexing lentil proteins with whey protein isolates (WPIs), that is, LP-WPI protein complex, was developed. The water solubility of LP-WPI protein complex was significantly higher than LPs, up to approximately 92%. In addition, this could improve the utilization of lentil seeds in food application as an alternative for animal-based proteins.
  6. R SR, M E A, M M
    J Food Sci, 2021 Sep;86(9):4159-4171.
    PMID: 34383295 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15877
    This study was conducted to evaluate consumer profiling of pineapple at five maturity stages using check-all-that-apply (CATA) method and to determine the influence of post-harvest physiological changes on the physical and chemical properties of the pineapple. Nineteen CATA terms describing sensory attributes of pineapples at five maturity stages were generated. Seventy-five consumers were involved in describing the changes in the organoleptic properties of pineapple using CATA questions. The relationship between physicochemical properties and sensory description of pineapples was analyzed using correspondence analysis (CA). The total variance of 97.7% and 92.2% obtained in the CA plot of the physical and chemical properties with the consumer profiling data suggests that consumers have effectively described the pineapple harvested at five maturity stages. Changes in physical and chemical compositions in pineapple upon maturation result in the development of pineapple's desirable organoleptic characteristics, characterized as fresh, attractive, and bright yellowish, with a soft, fibrous, and juicy texture, a sweet odor and pineapple aroma as well as sweet taste. Index 3 pineapple has been described as pale, hard, and crunchy in texture at the early stage of maturity and has a sour taste. The characteristic was transformed to bright yellow, soft, fibrous, and juicy texture after maturation, (25% ripeness onwards), as well as the production of sweet taste and aroma of pineapple. Instrument analysis of yellowness (b value) and carotenoid has strongly influenced the sensory attributes of brightness, freshness, and attractiveness of the pineapple. Changes in total soluble solids (TSS) and a ratio of TSS to total acids (TA) contributes to the development of aromatic compound which increases the appealing quality of the pineapple. Pineapple sensory characteristics, physical properties, and chemical compositions were significantly affected by post-harvest physiology. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Sensory and instrumental methods were used to construct the properties of pineapple at different stages of post-harvest physiology. This article demonstrates that the Check-all-that-apply (CATA) analysis provides adequate sensory profiling information based on customer perceptions in relation to instrumental details, and it can be extended to other pineapple varieties and citrus fruits.
  7. Gao X, Yanan J, Santhanam RK, Wang Y, Lu Y, Zhang M, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2021 Feb;86(2):366-375.
    PMID: 33448034 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15599
    Liver damage is a common liver disorder, which could induce liver cancer. Oral antioxidant is one of the effective treatments to prevent and alleviate liver damage. In this study, three flavonoids namely myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin were isolated and identified from Laba garlic. The isolated compounds were investigated on the protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells and apoptosis inducing mechanism in hepatic cancer cells HepG2 by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis. Myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin showed proliferation inhibition on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 44.32 ± 0.213 µM, 49.68 ± 0.192 µM, and 54.32 ± 0.176 µM, respectively. While they showed low toxicity on normal cell lines L02. They could significantly alleviate the oxidative damage towards L02 cells (P < 0.05), via inhibiting the morphological changes in mitochondria and upholding the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function. The fluorescence intensity of L02 cells pre-treated with myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin (100 µM) was 89.23 ± 1.26%, 89.35 ± 1.43% and 88.97 ± 0.79%, respectively. Moreover, the flavonoids could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via Bcl-2/Caspase pathways, where it could up-regulate the expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, pro-Caspase-3, and pro-Caspase-9 proteins in a dose dependent manner. Overall, the results suggested that the flavonoids from Laba garlic might be a promising candidate for the treatment of various liver disorders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Flavonoids from Laba garlic showed selective toxicity towards HepG2 cells in comparison to L02 cells via regulating Bcl-2/caspase pathway. Additionally, the isolated flavonoids expressively barred the oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 in L02 cells. These results suggested that the flavonoids from laba garlic could be a promising agent towards the development of functional foods.
  8. Azman EM, Charalampopoulos D, Chatzifragkou A
    J Food Sci, 2020 Nov;85(11):3745-3755.
    PMID: 32990367 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15466
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different solvent and extraction temperatures on the free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of dried blackcurrant skins (DBS). Apart from acetic acid buffer solution, different solvent systems, including water, methanol, and mixtures of methanol/water, were also employed and the effects of solvent and temperature (30 and 50 °C) on the free and bound forms of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols yield were assessed. The results showed that among all solvents, acetic acid buffer resulted in the highest free anthocyanin content (1,712.3 ± 56.1 mg/100 g) (P
  9. Wan-Mohtar WAAQI, Halim-Lim SA, Kamarudin NZ, Rukayadi Y, Abd Rahim MH, Jamaludin AA, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2020 Oct;85(10):3124-3133.
    PMID: 32860235 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15402
    In a commercial oyster mushroom farm, from 300 g of the total harvest, only the cap and stem of the fruiting body parts are harvested (200 g) while the unused lower section called fruiting-body-base (FBB) is discarded (50 g). A new antioxidative FBB flour (FBBF) conversion to mixed-ratio chicken patty was recently developed which converts 16.67% of FBB into an edible flour. At the initial stage, pretreatments of FBBF were optimized at particle size (106 µm) and citric acid concentration (0.5 g/100 mL) to improve flour antioxidant responses. Such pretreatments boosted total phenolic content (2.31 ± 0.53 mg GAE/g) and DPPH (51.53 ± 1.51%) of pretreated FBBF. Mixed-ratio chicken patty containing FBBF (10%, 20%, 30%) significantly (P
  10. Ojukwu M, Tan JS, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2020 Sep;85(9):2720-2727.
    PMID: 32776580 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15357
    A process for enhancing textural and cooking properties of fresh rice flour-soy protein isolate noodles (RNS) to match those of yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) was developed by incorporating microbial transglutaminase (RNS-MTG), glucono-δ-lactone (RNS-GDL), and both MTG and GDL into the RNS noodles (RNS-COM). The formation of γ-glutamyl-lysine bonds in RNS-COM and RNS-MTG was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scanning electron microscope showed that compared to others, the structure of RNS-COM was denser, smoother with extensive apparent interconnectivity of aggregates. The optimum cooking time was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN (rice flour noodles); tensile strength was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN; and elasticity were in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG, RNS-GDL > RN. Overall, RNS-COM showed similar textural and structural breakdown parameters as compared to those of YAN. Changes in microstructures and improvement of RNS-COM in certain properties were likely due to enhanced crosslinking of proteins attributed to MTG- and GDL-induced cold gelation of proteins at reduced pH value. It is possible to use the combination of MTG and GDL to improve textural and mechanical properties of RNS comparable to those of YAN. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Combined MTG and GDL yield rice flour noodles with improved textural properties. The restructured rice flour noodles have the potential to replace yellow alkaline noodles.
  11. Mohd Roby BH, Muhialdin BJ, Abadl MMT, Mat Nor NA, Marzlan AA, Lim SAH, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2020 Aug;85(8):2286-2295.
    PMID: 32691422 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15302
    This study aimed to produce sourdough bread using an encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter culture without the addition of baker's yeast. The bioactive metabolites of kombucha sourdough starter and sourdough starter without kombucha were identified using 1 H-NMR analysis with multivariate analysis. The physical properties, including loaf volume, specific loaf volume, firmness, and water activity were determined following standard methods. The shelf life and consumer acceptability of the bread were also being evaluated. The principal component analyses showed the presence of 15 metabolites in kombucha sourdough starter. The major compounds that contributed to the differences from sourdough starter without kombucha were alpha-aminobutyric acid, alanine, acetic acid, riboflavin, pyridoxine, anserine, tryptophan, gluconic acid, and trehalose. The encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter increased the loaf volume (976.7 ± 25.2 mL) and specific loaf volume (4.38 ± 0.12 mL/g) compared to yeast bread. Thus, significant (P
  12. Gao X, Santhanam RK, Xue Z, Jia Y, Wang Y, Lu Y, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2020 Apr;85(4):1060-1069.
    PMID: 32147838 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15084
    Inonotus obliquus is a traditional mushroom well known for its therapeutic value. In this study, various solvent fractions of I. obliquus were preliminarily screened for their antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. To improve the drug delivery, the active fraction (ethyl acetate fraction) of I. obliquus was synthesized into fungisome (ethyl acetate phophotidyl choline complex, EAPC) and its physical parameters were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ς potential analysis. Then normal human hepatic L02 cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of EAPC. The results showed that EA fraction possesses significant free radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. FTIR, SEM, and HPLC analysis confirmed the fungisome formation. The particle size of EAPC was 102.80 ± 0.42 nm and the ς potential was -54.30 ± 0.61 mV. The percentage of drug entrapment efficiency was 97.13% and the drug release rates of EAPC in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid were 75.04 ± 0.29% and 93.03 ± 0.36%, respectively. EAPC was nontoxic to L02 cells, however it could selectively fight against the H2 O2 induced oxidative damage in L02 cells. This is the first study to provide scientific information to utilize the active fraction of I. obliquus as fungisome. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a traditional medicinal fungus. The extracts of IO have obvious antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of IO was encapsulated in liposomes to form EAPC. EAPC has a sustained-release effect. It has nontoxic to L02 cells and could protect L02 cells from oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. This study could provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetes.
  13. Giwa Ibrahim S, Karim R, Saari N, Wan Abdullah WZ, Zawawi N, Ab Razak AF, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2019 Aug;84(8):2015-2023.
    PMID: 31364175 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14714
    Kenaf belongs to the family Malvaceae noted for their economic and horticultural importance. Kenaf seed is a valuable component of kenaf plant. For several years, it has been primarily used as a cordage crop and secondarily as a livestock feed. The potential for using kenaf seeds as a source of food-based products has not been fully exploited. Consumers are becoming more interested in naturally healthy plant-based food products. Kenaf seed, the future crop with a rich source of essential nutrients and an excellent source of phytocompounds, might serve suitable roles in the production of value-added plant-based foods. At present kenaf seed and its value-added components have not been effectively utilized for both their nutritional and functional properties as either ingredient or major constituent of food products. This review focuses on the possible food applications of kenaf seed and its value-added components based on their nutritional composition and functional properties available in literature, with the purpose of providing an overview on the possible food applications of this underutilized seed. The review focuses on a brief introduction on kenaf plant, nutritional function, lipids and proteins composition and food applications of the seed. The review elaborately discusses the seed in terms of; bioactive components, antioxidants enrichment of wheat bread, antimicrobial agents, as edible flour, as edible oil and a source of protein in food system. The review closes with discussion on other possible food applications of kenaf seed. The need for food scientists and technologists to exploit this natural agricultural product as a value-added food ingredient is of great significance and is emphasized.
  14. Ibrahim NUA, Abd Aziz S, Hashim N, Jamaludin D, Khaled AY
    J Food Sci, 2019 Apr;84(4):792-797.
    PMID: 30861127 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14436
    Total polar compounds (TPC) and free fatty acids (FFA) are important indicators in evaluating the quality of frying oil. Conventional methods to determine TPC and FFA are often time consuming, involved laboratory analyses which required skilled personnel and used substantial amount of harmful solvent. In this study, dielectric spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the relation between dielectric property of refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) during deep frying with TPC and FFA. In total, 150 batches of French fries were intermittently fried at 185 ± 5 °C for 7 hr a day over 5 consecutive days. A total of 30 frying oil samples were collected. The dielectric property of frying oil samples were measured using impedance analyzer with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 10 MHz. The TPC of frying oil samples were measured with a Testo 270, while the FFA analysis was done using Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) test method. Results showed that dielectric constant, TPC and FFA of RBDPO increased as the frying time increased. Dielectric constant increased from 3.09 to 3.17, while TPC and FFA increased from 9.96 to 19.52 and from 0.08% to 0.36%, respectively. Partial least square (PLS) analysis produced good prediction of TPC and FFA with the application of genetic algorithm (GA). Model developed for prediction of TPC and FFA yielded highly significant correlation with R2 of 0.91 and 0.95, respectively and both had root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.06%. This study demonstrates the potential of dielectric spectroscopy in monitoring palm olein degradation during frying. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The application of dielectric spectroscopy to detect degradation of palm olein during frying was studied. The dielectric property of palm olein during frying has successfully correlated with TPC and FFA. The model developed in this study could be used for the development of a sensing system for palm olein degradation monitoring.
  15. Hassan N, Ahmad T, Zain NM
    J Food Sci, 2018 Dec;83(12):2903-2911.
    PMID: 30440088 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14370
    The issue of food authenticity has become a concern among religious adherents, particularly Muslims, due to the possible presence of nonhalal ingredients in foods as well as other commercial products. One of the nonhalal ingredients that commonly found in food and pharmaceutical products is gelatin which extracted from porcine source. Bovine and fish gelatin are also becoming the main commercial sources of gelatin. However, unclear information and labeling regarding the actual sources of gelatin in food and pharmaceutical products have become the main concern in halal authenticity issue since porcine consumption is prohibited for Muslims. Hence, numerous analytical methods involving chemical and chemometric analysis have been developed to identify the sources of gelatin. Chemical analysis techniques such as biochemical, chromatography, electrophoretic, and spectroscopic are usually combined with chemometric and mathematical methods such as principal component analysis, cluster, discriminant, and Fourier transform analysis for the gelatin classification. A sample result from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, which combines Fourier transform and spectroscopic technique, is included in this paper. This paper presents an overview of chemical and chemometric methods involved in identification of different types of gelatin, which is important for halal authentication purposes.
  16. Sajali N, Wong SC, Hanapi UK, Abu Bakar Jamaluddin S, Tasrip NA, Mohd Desa MN
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2409-2414.
    PMID: 30184265 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14338
    High-quality DNA extracts are imperative for downstream applications in molecular identification. Most processed food products undergo heat treatments causing DNA degradation, which hampers application of DNA-based techniques for food authentication. Moreover, the presence of inhibitors in processed food products is also problematic, as inhibitors can impede the process of obtaining high qualities and quantities of DNA. Various approaches in DNA extraction and factors in structure and texture of various food matrices affecting DNA extraction are explained in this review.
  17. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2457-2465.
    PMID: 30178877 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14332
    Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide a better understanding on the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in oil-in-water nanoemulsions that stabilized by similar ternary emulsifiers during storage at different temperatures. In addition, this study could be used as a predictive model to estimate the shelf life of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions.

  18. Puah SM, Tan JAMA, Chew CH, Chua KH
    J Food Sci, 2018 Sep;83(9):2337-2342.
    PMID: 30101982 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14300
    Staphylococcus aureus is able to form multilayer biofilms embedded within a glycocalyx or slime layer. Biofilm formation poses food contamination risks and can subsequently increase the risk of food poisoning. Identification of food-related S. aureus strains will provide additional data on staphylococcal food poisoning involved in biofilm formation. A total of 52 S. aureus strains isolated from sushi and sashimi was investigated to study their ability for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. The presence of accessory gene regulator (agr) groups and 15 adhesion genes was screened and their associations in biofilm formation were studied. All 52 S. aureus strains showed biofilm production on the tested hydrophobic surface with 44% (23/52) strains classified as strong, 33% (17/52) as moderate, and 23% (12/52) as weak biofilm producers. The frequency of agr-positive strains was 71% (agr group 1 = 21 strains; agr group 2 = 2 strains; agr group 3 = 12 strains; agr group 4 = 2 strains) whereas agr-negative strains were 29% (15/52). Twelve adhesion genes were detected and 98% of the S. aureus strains carried at least one adhesion gene. The ebps was significantly (p < .05) associated with strong biofilm producing strains. In addition, eno, clfA, icaAD, sasG, fnbB, cna, and sasC were significantly higher in the agr-positive group compared to the agr-negative group. The results of this study suggest that the presence of ebps, eno, clfA, icaAD, sasG, fnbB, cna, and sasC may play an important role in enhancing the stage of biofilm-related infections and warrants further investigation.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work contributes to the knowledge on the biofilm formation and the distribution of agr groups in S. aureus strains as well as microbial surface components in recognizing adherence matrix molecules of organisms isolated from ready-to-eat sushi and sashimi. The findings provide valuable information to further study the roles of specific genes in causing biofilm-related infections.

  19. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Sep;83(9):2288-2294.
    PMID: 30074623 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14291
    Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, and total oxidation value of BRKSO were significantly higher than the MRKSO at day 24. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were reduced 66.1% and 56.8% in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. There was a reduction of 71.7% and 23.5% of phytosterol content in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in BRKSO was higher than that of MRKSO. This study showed that the current microencapsulation technique is a feasible way to retard the oxidation of kenaf seed oil.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is increasing research on the functional properties of crude kenaf seed oil, but the crude kenaf seed oil is not edible. This study offered in developing of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil by spray drying, which is suitable for food application. The microencapsulation of refined kenaf seed oil with healthier wall materials is beneficial in developing a diversity of functional food products and supplements.

  20. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Jul;83(7):1964-1969.
    PMID: 29802733 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14191
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and <3), suggesting that it can be fortified into beverages within this pH range PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The production of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields.
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