Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Dianawati D, Mishra V, Shah NP
    J Food Sci, 2016 Jun;81(6):M1472-9.
    PMID: 27145163 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13313
    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment.
  2. Al-Sheraji SH, Ismail A, Manap MY, Mustafa S, Yusof RM
    J Food Sci, 2012 Nov;77(11):M624-30.
    PMID: 23106104 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02955.x
    The viability and activity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, B. longum BB 536 and yoghurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.75% Mangefira pajang fibrous polysaccharides (MPFP) and inulin. Growth of probiotic organisms, their proteolytic activities, the production of short chain fatty acids (lactic, acetic and propionic) and the pH of the yoghurt samples were determined during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 28 d. B. pseudocatenulatum G4 and B. longum BB 536 showed better growth and activity in the presence of MPFP and inulin, which significantly increased the production of short chain fatty acids as well as the proteolytic activity of these organisms.
  3. Huynh HL, Danhi R, Yan SW
    J Food Sci, 2016 Jan;81(1):S150-5.
    PMID: 26613570 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13171
    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.
  4. Mustafa RA, Abdul Hamid A, Mohamed S, Bakar FA
    J Food Sci, 2010 Jan-Feb;75(1):C28-35.
    PMID: 20492146 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01401.x
    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants.
  5. Lim PK, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP, Khatib A
    J Food Sci, 2014 Jan;79(1):T115-21.
    PMID: 24344977 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12250
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.
  6. Md Zain SN, Bennett R, Flint S
    J Food Sci, 2017 Mar;82(3):751-756.
    PMID: 28135405 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13633
    The objective of this study was to determine the possible source of predominant Bacillus licheniformis contamination in a whey protein concentrate (WPC) 80 manufacturing plant. Traditionally, microbial contaminants of WPC were believed to grow on the membrane surfaces of the ultrafiltration plant as this represents the largest surface area in the plant. Changes from hot to cold ultrafiltration have reduced the growth potential for bacteria on the membrane surfaces. Our recent studies of WPCs have shown the predominant microflora B. licheniformis would not grow in the membrane plant because of the low temperature (10 °C) and must be growing elsewhere. Contamination of dairy products is mostly due to bacteria being released from biofilm in the processing plant rather from the farm itself. Three different reconstituted WPC media at 1%, 5%, and 20% were used for biofilm growth and our results showed that B. licheniformis formed the best biofilm at 1% (low solids). Further investigations were done using 3 different media; tryptic soy broth, 1% reconstituted WPC80, and 1% reconstituted WPC80 enriched with lactose and minerals to examine biofilm growth of B. licheniformis on stainless steel. Thirty-three B. licheniformis isolates varied in their ability to form biofilm on stainless steel with stronger biofilm in the presence of minerals. The source of biofilms of thermo-resistant bacteria such as B. licheniformis is believed to be before the ultrafiltration zone represented by the 1% WPC with lactose and minerals where the whey protein concentration is about 0.6%.
  7. Sajali N, Wong SC, Hanapi UK, Abu Bakar Jamaluddin S, Tasrip NA, Mohd Desa MN
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2409-2414.
    PMID: 30184265 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14338
    High-quality DNA extracts are imperative for downstream applications in molecular identification. Most processed food products undergo heat treatments causing DNA degradation, which hampers application of DNA-based techniques for food authentication. Moreover, the presence of inhibitors in processed food products is also problematic, as inhibitors can impede the process of obtaining high qualities and quantities of DNA. Various approaches in DNA extraction and factors in structure and texture of various food matrices affecting DNA extraction are explained in this review.
  8. Hajiaghaalipour F, Sanusi J, Kanthimathi MS
    J Food Sci, 2016 Jan;81(1):H246-54.
    PMID: 26613545 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13149
    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.
  9. Shahmohammadi HR, Bakar J, Rahman RA, Adzhan NM
    J Food Sci, 2014 Feb;79(2):E178-83.
    PMID: 24410375 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12324
    To improve textural attributes of puffed corn-fish snack, the effects of 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate (talc), sodium bicarbonate as well as 5% and 10% of wheat bran (as the nucleating materials) on textural attributes were studied. Sensory evaluation, bulk density, expansion ratio, maximum force, and count peaks were measured using the Kramer test. The results showed that all of the additives except bran significantly enhanced the texture. Among them, talc at 0.5% was the best to enhance the density and expansion ratio. Effects of using 0.5% talc on puffed corn-fish snack microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average cell diameter of 109 ± 48 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 67.4 for talc-treated products were obtained, while for nontalc-treated extrudates, average cell diameter of 798 ± 361 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 13.9 were found. Incorporation of 0.5% w/w of magnesium silicate reduced (7-fold) the average cell diameter while increased (4-fold) the cell number.
  10. Karim NA, Noor AM, Lee YY, Lai OM
    J Food Sci, 2015 Dec;80(12):C2678-85.
    PMID: 26523850 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13119
    The oxidative and thermal stability of low diglycerides palm oil produced via silica treatment (sPO) and enzymatic treatment (ePO) compared with standard quality palm oil (SQ) and premium quality palm oil (PQ) was investigated. Both of the oils displayed better oxidative stability compared with SQ as well as significantly higher (P < 0.05) thermal resistance and oxidative strength than SQ and PQ due to lower amounts of partial glycerides. Although the initial induction periods (IPs) of sPO and ePO were significantly lower compared with SQ and PQ, both the oils showed slower drops in their IP values. The darkening effect after frying was significantly (P < 0.05) slower in sPO compared with SQ, PQ, and ePO. Besides, there is no difference p > 0.05 in the rate of FFA formation between sPO and PQ. The anisidine value and peroxide values were lowest in sPO, followed by ePO, PQ, and SQ.
  11. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2457-2465.
    PMID: 30178877 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14332
    Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide a better understanding on the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in oil-in-water nanoemulsions that stabilized by similar ternary emulsifiers during storage at different temperatures. In addition, this study could be used as a predictive model to estimate the shelf life of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions.

  12. Lioe HN, Selamat J, Yasuda M
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):R71-6.
    PMID: 20492309 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01529.x
    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.
  13. Ng PC, Ahmad Ruslan NAS, Chin LX, Ahmad M, Abu Hanifah S, Abdullah Z, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2022 Jan;87(1):8-35.
    PMID: 34954819 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15998
    Increasing public awareness of food quality and safety has prompted a rapid increase in food authentication of halal food, which covers the production method, technical processing, identification of undeclared components, and species substitution in halal food products. This urges for extensive research into analytical methods to obtain accurate and reliable results for monitoring and controlling the authenticity of halal food. Nonetheless, authentication of halal food is often challenging because of the complex nature of food and the increasing number of food adulterants that cause detection difficulties. This review provides a comprehensive and impartial overview of recent studies on the analytical techniques used in the analysis of halal food authenticity (from 1980 to the present, but there has been no significant trend in the choice of techniques for authentication of halal food during this period). Additionally, this review highlights the classification of different methodologies based on validity measures that provide valuable information for future developments in advanced technology. In addition, methodological developments, and novel emerging techniques as well as their implementations have been explored in the evaluation of halal food authentication. This includes food categories that require halal authentication, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages as well as shortcomings during the use of all approaches in the halal food industry.
  14. Manickavasagam G, Saaid M, Lim V, Saad MIZM, Azmi NAS, Osman R
    J Food Sci, 2023 Mar 15.
    PMID: 36922718 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.16535
    The popularity of Malaysian stingless bee honey is rising among health-conscious individuals; thus, chemical and physical evaluations of Malaysian stingless bee honey are vital to ensure the honey has achieved the optimum limits set by Malaysian and international regulatory standards so that it can be commercialized locally and internationally. Therefore, in the present study, the physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, total dissolved solids, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, and ash content), antioxidant properties (total phenolic and flavonoid contents), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) of Heterotrigona itama (H. itama) honey from different sites in Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Subsequently, the correlation between these chemical and physical parameters was studied using Spearman correlation coefficients. The significant difference between H. itama honey from different topographical origins was studied using univariate analysis (one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's test). The discrimination pattern of 45 honey samples based on their topographical origins was evaluated using cluster analysis (heatmap and dendrogram) and chemometrics analysis (partial least squares-discriminant analysis). Results showed that some samples of certain parameters (electrical conductivity, free acidity, and moisture content) have exceeded the limit set by the international regulatory standard. However, the 5-HMF content of all samples was within the allowed range. A statistically significant difference (p 
  15. Ramli MR, Siew WL, Cheah KY
    J Food Sci, 2008 Apr;73(3):C140-5.
    PMID: 18387090 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00657.x
    High-oleic palm oil (HOPO) with an oleic acid content of 59.0% and an iodine value (IV) of 78.2 was crystallized in a 200-kg De Smet crystallizer with a predetermined cooling program and appropriate agitation. The slurry was then fractionated by means of dry fractionation at 4, 8, 10, 12, and 15 degrees C. The oil and the fractionated products were subjected to physical and chemical analyses, including fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, cloud point, slip melting point, and cold stability test. Fractionation at 15 degrees C resulted in the highest olein yield but with minimal oleic acid content. Due to the enhanced unsaturation of the oil, fractionation at relatively lower crystallization temperature showed a considerable effect on fatty acid composition as well as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of liquid fractions compared to higher crystallization temperature. The olein and stearin fractionated at 4 degrees C had the best cold stability at 0 degrees C and sharper melting profile, respectively.
  16. Paydar M, Wong YL, Wong WF, Hamdi OA, Kadir NA, Looi CY
    J Food Sci, 2013 Dec;78(12):T1940-7.
    PMID: 24279333 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12313
    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents.
  17. Lim SY, Tham PY, Lim HYL, Heng WS, Chang YP
    J Food Sci, 2018 Jun;83(6):1522-1532.
    PMID: 29745989 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14155
    The valorization of guava waste requires compositional and functional studies. We tested three byproducts of guava purée processing, namely refiner, siever, and decanter. We analyzed the chemical composition and quantified the prebiotic activity score and selected carbohydrates; we also determined the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), cation exchange capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose dialysis retardation (GDR) of the solid fraction and the antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory capacities (AIC) of the ethanolic extract. Refiner contained 7.7% lipid, 7.08% protein and a relatively high phytate content; it had a high prebiotic activity score and possessed the highest binding capacity with deoxycholic acid. Siever contained high levels of low molecular weight carbohydrates and total tannin but relatively low crude fiber and cellulose contents. It had the highest binding with chenodeoxycholic acid (74.8%), and exhibited the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. Decanter was rich in cellulose and had a high prebiotic activity score. The WHC and OHC values of decanter were within a narrow range and also exhibited the highest binding with cholic acid (86.6%), and the highest values of GDR and AIC. The refiner waste could be included in animal feed but requires further processing to reduce the high phytate levels. All three guava byproducts had the potential to be a source of antioxidant dietary fiber (DF), a finding that warrants further in vivo study.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: To differing extents, the guava byproducts exhibited useful physicochemical binding properties and so possessed the potential for health-promoting activity. These byproducts could also be upgraded to other marketable products so the manufacturers of processed guava might be able to develop their businesses sustainably by making better use of them.

  18. Al-Zuaidy MH, Hamid AA, Ismail A, Mohamed S, Abdul Razis AF, Mumtaz MW, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2016 May;81(5):C1080-90.
    PMID: 27074520 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13293
    Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in combinational therapy.
  19. Aziman N, Abdullah N, Noor ZM, Kamarudin WS, Zulkifli KS
    J Food Sci, 2014 Apr;79(4):M583-92.
    PMID: 24666004 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12419
    Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products.
  20. Nurkhoeriyati T, Huda N, Ahmad R
    J Food Sci, 2012 Jan;77(1):S91-8.
    PMID: 22260136 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02519.x
    The physicochemical properties and sensory analysis of duck meatballs containing duck meat surimi-like material during frozen storage were evaluated. Properties of meatballs containing duck surimi-like material prepared by acid solubilization (ACDS), alkaline solubilization (ALDS), and conventional processing (CDS) as well as duck mince (as the control, CON) were compared. ACDS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture and protein content and lower fat content compared with CON. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value of all samples increased as the storage time increased up to week 8 (P < 0.05), but thereafter it decreased in most of the samples. ACDS and ALDS had significantly higher TBARS values (P < 0.05), and these values remained higher than those of the other samples throughout the frozen storage period. Addition of surimi-like material to the meatballs had significant effects (P < 0.05) on springiness, gumminess, and chewiness values of all samples. Ingredients and frozen storage affected most sensory attributes in samples significantly (P<0.05). No significant increase in growth of organisms occurred during 12-wk frozen storage The results indicate that acid-alkaline solubilization methods improve both physicochemical and sensory properties of duck meatballs containing duck surimi-like material. Thus, these techniques should be applicable to product development of duck surimi-like material.
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