Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 51 in total

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  1. Che Hamzah AM, Yeo CC, Puah SM, Chua KH, A Rahman NI, Abdullah FH, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2019 Sep;68(9):1299-1305.
    PMID: 31140965 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000993
    The spread of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a public health concern. The inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogrammin B (iMLSB ) phenotype (or inducible clindamycin resistance) is associated with false clindamycin susceptibility in routine laboratory testing and may lead to treatment failure. Tigecycline resistance remains rare in S. aureus worldwide. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of S. aureus obtained from the main tertiary hospital in Terengganu state, Malaysia, from July 2016 to June 2017. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 90 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were determined by disc diffusion with the iMLSB phenotype determined by D-test. Multidrug resistance (MDR) and the iMLSB phenotype were more prevalent in MRSA (84.4 and 46.7  %, respectively) compared to MSSA isolates. All five tigecycline-resistant isolates were MRSA. The high incidence of MDR and the iMLSB phenotype and the emergence of tigecycline resistance in the Terengganu S. aureus isolates warrants continuous vigilance.
  2. Sosroseno W, Herminajeng E
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2002 Jul;51(7):581-8.
    PMID: 12132775
    The aim of this study was to determine the role of macrophages in the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-induced murine immune response. BALB/c mice were given carrageenan solution by intraperitoneal injection before immunisation with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans. Mice immunised with antigens and phosphate-buffered saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively. One week after the last immunisation, the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed by measurement of footpad swelling. Serum IgG and IgM anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibody levels and culture supernate levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma were determined by ELISA. The diameter of abscess formation was determined every 5 days. Sham-immunised spleen cells were transferred to carrageenan-untreated recipients (groups A and B) and to carrageenan-treated recipients (group D). Antigen-immunised spleen cells were transferred to carrageenan-untreated (group C) and carrageenan-treated (group E) recipients. The carrageenan-treated recipients in groups F and G received macrophages from antigen- and sham-immunised mice respectively. All mice except those in group A were immunised with antigen 24 h after cell transfer. After 1 week, a partial suppression of DTH response, reduced levels of IFN-gamma, serum IgG and IgM anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans antibodies and delayed healing were seen in carrageenan-treated mice when compared with the positive control. The immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans in groups A, B and D was lower than that in groups C and E. Healing of the lesion in the former groups was also delayed when compared with the latter groups. The immune response and the healing of the lesion could be partially restored in carrageenan-treated mice that received antigen-pulsed macrophages (group F) but not in those that received naive macrophages (group G). These results suggest that macrophages play a partial role in the induction of the murine immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans.
  3. Pathmanathan SG, Cardona-Castro N, Sánchez-Jiménez MM, Correa-Ochoa MM, Puthucheary SD, Thong KL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2003 Sep;52(Pt 9):773-6.
    PMID: 12909653
    The suitability of a PCR procedure using a pair of primers targeting the hilA gene was evaluated as a means of detecting Salmonella species. A total of 33 Salmonella strains from 27 serovars and 15 non-Salmonella strains from eight different genera were included. PCR with all the Salmonella strains produced a 784 bp DNA fragment that was absent from all the non-Salmonella strains tested. The detection limit of the PCR was 100 pg with genomic DNA and 3 x 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1) with serial dilutions of bacterial culture. An enrichment-PCR method was further developed to test the sensitivity of the hilA primers for the detection of Salmonella in faecal samples spiked with different concentrations of Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar Typhimurium. The method described allowed the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in faecal samples at a concentration of 3 x 10(2) c.f.u. ml(-1). In conclusion, the hilA primers are specific for Salmonella species and the PCR method presented may be suitable for the detection of Salmonella in faeces.
  4. Alfizah H, Norazah A, Hamizah R, Ramelah M
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2014 May;63(Pt 5):703-9.
    PMID: 24757218 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.069781-0
    Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, and it has been regarded as the main factor reducing the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype and genotype of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori in the Malaysian population and to evaluate the impact of antibiotic resistance to eradication outcome. One hundred and sixty-one H. pylori isolates were analysed in this study. Metronidazole, clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, amoxicillin and tetracycline susceptibilities were determined by Etest. PCR followed by DNA sequencing was carried out to determine mutations. The medical records of the patients infected with resistant strains were reviewed to determine the eradication outcome. Metronidazole resistance was encountered in 36.6 % of H. pylori isolates, whereas clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance was observed in 1.2  and 1.9 % of isolates, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Frameshift and nonsense mutations in rdxA and frxA genes resulting in stop codons contributed to metronidazole resistance, which leads to reduced eradication efficacy. A2142G and A2143G mutations of 23S rRNA were identified as causing failure of the eradication therapy. Mutation at either codon 87 or 91 of the gyrA gene was identified in fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. However, the effect of resistance could not be assessed. This study showed that frameshift and nonsense mutations in rdxA or frxA genes and point mutations in the 23S rRNA affected the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy.
  5. Chong PP, Chieng DC, Low LY, Hafeez A, Shamsudin MN, Seow HF, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2006 Apr;55(Pt 4):423-8.
    PMID: 16533990
    The incidence of candidaemia among immunocompromised patients in Malaysia is increasing at an alarming rate. Isolation of clinical strains that are resistant to fluconazole has also risen markedly. We report here the repeated isolation of Candida tropicalis from the blood of a neonatal patient with Hirschsprung's disease. In vitro fluconazole susceptibility tests of the eight isolates obtained at different time points showed that seven of the isolates were resistant and one isolate was scored as susceptible dose-dependent. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA fingerprinting of the isolates using three primers and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates were highly similar strains having minor genetic divergence, with a mean pairwise similarity coefficient of 0.893+/-0.041. The source of the infectious agent was thought to be the central venous catheter, as culture of its tip produced fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis. This study demonstrates the utility of applying molecular epidemiology techniques to complement traditional mycological culture and drug susceptibility tests for accurate and appropriate management of recurrent candidaemia and highlights the need for newer antifungals that can combat the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis strains.
  6. Nami Y, Haghshenas B, Abdullah N, Barzegari A, Radiah D, Rosli R, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Feb;64(Pt 2):137-46.
    PMID: 25525206 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.078923-0
    Genetic and environmental factors can affect the intestinal microbiome and microbial metabolome. Among these environmental factors, the consumption of antibiotics can significantly change the intestinal microbiome of individuals and consequently affect the corresponding metagenome. The term 'probiotics' is related to preventive medicine rather than therapeutic procedures and is, thus, considered the opposite of antibiotics. This review discusses the challenges between these opposing treatments in terms of the following points: (i) antibiotic resistance, the relationship between antibiotic consumption and microbiome diversity reduction, antibiotic effect on the metagenome, and disease associated with antibiotics; and (ii) probiotics as living drugs, probiotic effect on epigenetic alterations, and gut microbiome relevance to hygiene indulgence. The intestinal microbiome is more specific for individuals and may be affected by environmental alterations and the occurrence of diseases.
  7. Nami Y, Abdullah N, Haghshenas B, Radiah D, Rosli R, Khosroushahi AY
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2014 Aug;63(Pt 8):1044-51.
    PMID: 24913559 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.074161-0
    Forty-five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the vaginal specimens of healthy fertile women, and the identities of the bacteria were confirmed by sequencing of their 16S rDNA genes. Among these bacteria, only four isolates were able to resist and survive in low pH, bile salts and simulated in vitro digestion conditions. Lactococcus lactis 2HL, Enterococcus durans 6HL, Lactobacillus acidophilus 36YL and Lactobacillus plantarum 5BL showed the best resistance to these conditions. These strains were evaluated further to assess their ability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Lactococcus lactis 2HL and E. durans 6HL were the most adherent strains. In vitro tests under neutralized pH proved the antimicrobial activity of both strains. Results revealed that the growth of Escherichia coli O26, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri was suppressed by both LAB strains. The antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that these strains were sensitive to all nine antibiotics: vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. These data suggest that E. durans 6HL and Lactococcus lactis 2HL could be examined further for their useful properties and could be developed as new probiotics.
  8. Mohd Rani F, A Rahman NI, Ismail S, Abdullah FH, Othman N, Alattraqchi AG, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2018 Nov;67(11):1538-1543.
    PMID: 30251951 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000844
    A total of 153 non-repeat Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates obtained in 2015 from Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah (HSNZ) in Terengganu, Malaysia, were characterized. Identification of the isolates at species level was performed by ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) followed by sequencing of the rpoB gene. The majority of the isolates (n=128; 83.7 %) were A. baumannii while the rest were identified as A. nosocomialis (n=16), A. calcoaceticus (n=5), A. soli (n=2), A. berezeniae (n=1) and A. variabilis (n=1). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was most prevalent in A. baumannnii (66.4 %) whereas only one non-baumannii isolate (A. nosocomialis) was MDR. The blaOXA-23 gene was the predominant acquired carbapenemase gene (56.2 %) and was significantly associated (P<0.001) with carbapenem resistance. However, no significant association was found for carbapenem resistance and isolates that contained the ISAba1-blaOXA-51 configuration.
  9. Benacer D, Mohd Zain SN, Ahmed AA, Mohd Khalid MK, Hartskeerl RA, Thong KL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2016 Jun;65(6):574-7.
    PMID: 27058766 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000262
  10. Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD, Phipps M, Chee YW
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1995 Mar;42(3):171-4.
    PMID: 7884797
    Eighteen strains of Aeromonas hydrophila from patients with bacteraemia were investigated for possible virulence factors. Cytotoxin and haemolysin were produced by all strains, whereas cholera toxin-like factor was produced by 33% of strains only. Enterotoxin production was not detected. Haemagglutination of guinea-pig, fowl and rabbit erythrocytes was demonstrated by 83%, 67% and 61% of strains, respectively. Fucose- and mannose-sensitive haemagglutinins were predominant. None of the strains agglutinated sheep erythrocytes. Extrachromosomal DNA was detected in 17 strains, 16 of which had a plasmid (3.6-5.1 MDa), the majority being between 4.6 and 5.1 MDa.
  11. Tay ST, Tan HW, Na SL, Lim SL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2011 Nov;60(Pt 11):1591-7.
    PMID: 21700741 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.032854-0
    In this study, six clinical isolates (two from blood, two from urine and one each from a bronchoalveolar lavage and a vaginal swab) were identified as Candida rugosa based on carbohydrate assimilation profiles using API 20C AUX and ID32 C kits (bioMérieux). Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the yeasts differentiated the isolates into two subgroups, A and B (three isolates per subgroup), which were closely related (99.1-99.6 % nucleotide similarity) to C. rugosa strain ATCC 10571. Compared with the C. rugosa type strain, the intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) nucleotide similarity for subgroup A was only 89.2 % (29 mismatches and one deletion) and for subgroup B was 93.7 % (20 mismatches). All isolates grew green colonies on Oxoid Chromogenic Candida Agar, with darker pigmentation observed for subgroup A. All isolates were able to grow at 25-42 °C but not at 45 °C. The isolates had identical enzymic profiles, as determined by API ZYM (bioMérieux) analysis, and produced proteinase. High amphotericin MICs (≥1 µg ml(-1)) were noted for two isolates from each subgroup. Dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC 32 µg ml(-1)) was noted in a blood isolate. The biofilms of the isolates demonstrated increased resistance to amphotericin and fluconazole. The greater ITS sequence variability of subgroup A isolates is in support of this yeast being recognized as a distinct species; however, further verification using more sophisticated molecular approaches is required. A sequence comparison study suggested the association of subgroup A with environmental sources and subgroup B with clinical sources. Accurate identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of C. rugosa are important in view of its decreased susceptibility to amphotericin and fluconazole. The ITS region has been shown to be a valuable region for differentiation of closely related subgroups of C. rugosa.
  12. Swathirajan CR, Vignesh R, Boobalan J, Solomon SS, Saravanan S, Balakrishnan P
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2017 Oct;66(10):1379-1382.
    PMID: 28901908 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000514
    BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays.

    METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system. A total of 96 plasma specimens ranging from 2.5 log10 copies ml(-1) to 4.99 log10 copies ml(-1) and proficiency testing panel specimens were used. Precision and accuracy were checked using the Pearson correlation co-efficient test and Bland-Altman analysis.

    RESULTS: Compared to the Abbott RealTime PCR, the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay showed a good correlation (Pearson r=0.81; P<0.0001) with a mean difference of 0.27 log10 copies ml(-1) (95 % CI, -0.41 to 0.96 log10 copies ml(-1); sd, 0.35 log10 copies ml(-1)).

    CONCLUSION: Reliable and ease of testing individual specimens could make the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay an efficient alternative method for ART monitoring in clinical management of HIV disease in resource-limited settings. The rapid test results (less than 2 h) could help in making an immediate clinical decision, which further strengthens patient care.

  13. Kor SB, Choo QC, Chew CH
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2013 Mar;62(Pt 3):412-20.
    PMID: 23180481 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.053645-0
    This study investigated 147 multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in Malaysia. Class 1 integrons were the most dominant class identified (45.6%). Three isolates were shown to contain class 2 integrons (2.0%), whilst one isolate harboured both class 1 and 2 integrons. No class 3 integrons were detected in this study. In addition, the sul1 gene was amplified in 35% of isolates and was significantly associated with the presence of integrase genes in an integron structure. RFLP and DNA sequencing analyses revealed the presence of 19 different cassette arrays among the detected integrons. The most common gene cassettes were those encoding resistance towards aminoglycosides (aad) and trimethoprim (dfr). As far as is known, this study is the first to identify integron-carrying cassette arrays such as aadA2-linF, aacC3-cmlA5 and aacA4-catB8-aadA1 in the Malaysian population. Patients' age was demonstrated as a significant risk factor for the acquisition of integrons (P=0.028). Epidemiological typing using PFGE also demonstrated a clonal relationship among isolates carrying identical gene cassettes in Klebsiella pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa but not in Escherichia coli isolates.
  14. Norazah A, Lim VK, Koh YT, Rohani MY, Zuridah H, Spencer K, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2002 Dec;51(12):1113-6.
    PMID: 12466411
    The emergence and spread of multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, especially those resistant to fusidic acid and rifampicin, in Malaysian hospitals is of concern. In this study DNA fingerprinting by PFGE was performed on fusidic acid- and rifampicin-resistant isolates from Malaysian hospitals to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and their relationship with the endemic MRSA strains. In all, 32 of 640 MRSA isolates from 9 Malaysian hospitals were resistant to fusidic acid and rifampicin. Seven PFGE types (A, ZC, ZI, ZJ, ZK, ZL and ZM) were observed. The commonest type was type ZC, seen in 72% of isolates followed by type A, seen in 13%. Each of the other types (ZI, ZJ, ZK, ZL and ZM) was observed in a single isolate. Each type, even the commonest, was found in only one hospital. This suggests that the resistant strains had arisen from individual MRSA strains in each hospital and not as a result of the transmission of a common clone.
  15. Tay ST, Na SL, Chong J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2009 Feb;58(Pt 2):185-91.
    PMID: 19141735 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.004242-0
    The genetic heterogeneity and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis isolated from blood cultures of patients were investigated in this study. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis generated 5 unique profiles from 42 isolates. Based on the major DNA fragments of the RAPD profiles, the isolates were identified as RAPD type P1 (29 isolates), P2 (6 isolates), P3 (4 isolates), P4 (2 isolates) and P5 (1 isolate). Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of the isolates identified RAPD type P1 as C. parapsilosis, P2 and P3 as Candida orthopsilosis, P4 as Candida metapsilosis, and P5 as Lodderomyces elongisporus. Nucleotide variations in ITS gene sequences of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing using Etests showed that all isolates tested in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. C. parapsilosis isolates exhibited higher MIC(50) values than those of C. orthopsilosis for all of the drugs tested in this study; however, no significant difference in the MICs for these two Candida species was observed. The fact that C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were responsible for 23.8 and 4.8 % of the cases attributed to C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections, respectively, indicates the clinical relevance of these newly described yeasts. Further investigations of the ecological niche, mode of transmission and virulence of these species are thus essential.
  16. Biglari S, Alfizah H, Ramliza R, Rahman MM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):53-8.
    PMID: 25381148 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.082263-0
    Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
  17. Mohd Khalid MKN, Ahmad N, Hii SYF, Abd Wahab MA, Hashim R, Liow YL
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2019 Jan;68(1):105-110.
    PMID: 30465638 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000881
    Sporadic diphtheria cases in Malaysia have remained low in number since the 1990s. However, in 2016 a total of 31 cases were reported nationwide and to investigate this we performed molecular characterization of 30 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected from 1981 to 2016 using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. diphtheriae isolates were identified and biotyped using the API Coryne kit, while the toxigenicity was determined by PCR and the Elek test. All of the 2016 isolates belonged to biotype mitis, caused respiratory diphtheria and were toxigenic strains. MLST analysis identified 17 sequence types (STs), including 11 new ones. ST453 was the most common clone (7/30, 23.3 %), followed by ST141 (5/30, 16.7 %), ST451 (3/30, 10.0 %) and ST248 (2/30, 6.7 %). The clones identified in 2016 had not been detected in previous isolations and they were phylogenetically distinct. Our results suggest that the diphtheria cases in 2016 were caused by the emergence and spread of new clones in Malaysia.
  18. Thong KL, Ling GY, Kong LW, Theam LC, Ngeow YF
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2004 Oct;53(Pt 10):991-7.
    PMID: 15358821
    Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococci (GBS) often colonize the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of women, who may transmit these organisms to their offspring during the birth process. Using PFGE analysis, the genetic diversity of GBS was studied for strains isolated from pregnant women and their newborn infants in a teaching hospital. A total of 48 different PFGE profiles were obtained from 123 strains, with one profile (S1) appearing to be predominant among both groups studied. There was good overall correlation between the profiles obtained for strains from mother-infant pairs and for strains isolated from different body sites in the same individual. Occasional discrepancies seen in related body sites and among mother-infant pairs suggest concurrent carriage of different strains in the same individual as well as the possibility of an environmental source of organism for the neonate. The overall results demonstrated that many variants of GBS strains occur in Malaysia.
  19. Naidu AJ, Yadav M
    J. Med. Microbiol., 1997 Oct;46(10):833-8.
    PMID: 9364139
    Aeromonas hydrophila strains obtained from diarrhoeal samples of human patients (19 isolates) and freshwater ponds (11 isolates) were analysed for siderophore production. Both clinical and environmental isolates showed significantly increased siderophore production under iron-limiting conditions both at 28 degrees C and at 37 degrees C. Clinical isolates consistently produced higher levels of siderophores than did the environmental isolates. The role of plasmids in moderating siderophore production was studied after curing with acridine orange. Treatment with acridine orange for 24 h removed the larger plasmids but the smaller plasmids (< 5 MDa), more common in the environmental isolates, were resistant to curing. As found in the untreated isolates, the cured clinical isolates produced higher mean levels of siderophores than the cured environmental isolates. Siderophore production in A. hydrophila was significantly influenced by iron-limiting cultural conditions and the source of isolates, but plasmid content and growth temperature at 28 degrees C or 37 degrees C had little effect on production. The basis for the greater production of siderophores in clinical isolates than in environmental isolates needs further study.
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