Four complex flavanones, kurziflavolactones A , B , C , and D  and a complex chalcone 6 with an unprecedented carbon side chain on the flavanone or chalcone A ring have been isolated from a Malaysian plant, Cryptocarya kurzii (Lauraceae). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D nmr experiments. Compounds 3 and 6 showed slight cytotoxicity against KB cells, with IC50 values of 4 and 15 micrograms/ml, respectively. A biosynthetic pathway for the formation of these compounds is suggested.
Four new 2,3-secodammarane triterpenoids, stellatonins A-D (3-6), together with a new 3,4-secodammarane triterpenoid, stellatonin E (7), and the known silvestrol (1), 5‴-episilvestrol (2), and β-sitosterol, were isolated from a methanol extract of the stems of Aglaia stellatopilosa through bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines and for their antimicrobial activity using a microtiter plate assay against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi.
A polysaccharide, Ali-1, was isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia, a popular traditional medicinal herb in Malaysia. The structure of Ali-1 was characterized by monosaccharide, methylation, and NMR data analyses. The average molecular weight of Ali-1 is 14.3 ku, and it is composed of arabinose (14.31%), xylose (57.69%), galacturonic acid (13.03%), and glucuronic acid (14.86%). The main chain comprises (1→4)-linked xylose residues. It has branch points in the main chain; (1→2,4)-linked xylose residues, 1,2-linked glucuronic acid residues, and 1,2-linked arabinose residues form the branches, and the branches are terminated with T-linked galacturonic acid residues and T-linked arabinose residues. Ali-1 significantly improves the pinocytic and phagocytic abilities of RAW264.7 cells and facilitates cytokine secretion according to an immunostimulation assay. These results demonstrate that Ali-1 has potential as a functional supplement for people with compromised immune systems.
Oligostilbenoids (e.g., ampelopsin F, viniferin, pallidol) result from homogeneous or heterogeneous coupling of monomeric stilbenoid units, leading to various chemical structures. Oligostilbenoid synthesis is regio- and stereocontrolled. To tackle this regio- and stereocontrol, a supramolecular chemistry approach is required that can be achieved by quantum chemistry. The stability of noncovalent π-stacks, formed between two stilbenoid units prior to oxidation, is accurately evaluated with density functional theory (DFT) including dispersive effects (within the DFT-D formalism). These noncovalent arrangements drive the regiocontrol. The rest of the chemical pathway is a succession of dearomatization and rearomatization stages. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes are calculated with classical hybrid functionals. This study allows discrimination between the two main possible chemical pathways, namely, radical-neutral and radical-radical reactions. The former appears more likely, thermodynamics and kinetics being in perfect agreement with the experimental 1:2 ratio obtained for ampelopsin F:pallidol analogues, respectively.
Svalbardines A and B (1 and 2) and annularin K (3) were isolated from cultures of Poaceicola sp. E1PB, an endophyte isolated from the petals of Papaver dahlianum from Svalbard, Norway. Svalbardine A (1) is a pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-4-one, a new analogue of citromycetin. Svalbardine B (2) displays an unprecedented carbon skeleton based on a 5'-benzyl-spiro[chroman-3,7'-isochromene]-4,8'-dione core. Annularin K (3) is a hydroxylated derivative of annularin D. The structure of these new polyketides, along with those of known compounds 4-6, was established by spectrometric analysis, including extensive ESI-CID-MS n processing in the case of svalbardine B (2).
Two new diterpene pyrones, asperginols A (1) and B (2), and four known analogues (3-6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. HAB10R12. The structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were elucidated based on the analysis of their NMR, MS, and X-ray diffraction data. The revision of the absolute configurations at C-10, C-11, and C-14 of the known diterpene pyrones (3-6) and the determination of the configuration at the polyene side chain for compounds (4-6) were made using chemical methods and vibrational circular dichroism analysis. This group of diterpene pyrone compounds showed unique structural features including a 7/6/6 tricyclic diterpene moiety with an unusual trans-syn-trans stereochemical arrangement. Compound 6 showed moderate activity against the HT-29 colon cancer cell line.
A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Lansium domesticum showed antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5 H-pyrido[4,3- b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- bI]pyridine (PhIP) using the Ames assay. Nine new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids I-IX (1-9), and nine known compounds (10-16) were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined via their electronic circular dichroism spectra. Several isolated onoceranoid-type triterpeneoids showed antimutagenic effects in an in vitro Ames assay. Moreover, oral intake of a major constituent, lansionic acid (10), showed antimutagenic effects against PhIP in an in vivo micronucleus test.
Two new prenylated compounds, the benzoquinone atrovirinone (1) and the depsidone atrovirisidone (2), were isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were determined on the basis of the analysis of spectroscopic data. While compound 2 showed some cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, both compounds 1 and 2 were only mildly inhibitory toward Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.
A new anthraquinone, 2-hydroxymethyl-10-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone (1), was isolated from Hedyotis herbacea along with three other known derivatives: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (2); 2, 3-dimethoxy-9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 1,4-dihydroxy-2, 3-dimethoxyanthraquinone. The structure of 1 was determined based on analysis of its spectroscopic data.
Bioassay (P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and human tumor cell lines)-guided separation of the extracts prepared from the tropical and coastal trees Hernandia peltata (Malaysia) and Hernandianymphaeifolia (Republic of Maldives) led to the isolation of a new lignan designated as hernanol (1) and 12 previously known lignans: (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (2), deoxypicropodophyllin (3), (+)-epiaschantin (4), (+)-epieudesmin (5), praderin (6), 5'-methoxyyatein (7), podorhizol (8), deoxypodorhizone (9), bursehernin (10), kusunokinol (11), clusin (12), and (-)-maculatin (13). The oxidative cyclization (with VOF(3)) of lignans 8, 9, and 10 resulted in a new and unusual benzopyran (14), isostegane (15), and a new dibenzocyclooctadiene lactone (16), respectively. The structure and relative stereochemistry of hernanol (1) and lignans 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 were determined by 1D and 2DNMR and HRMS analyses. The structures and absolute stereochemistry of structures 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, and 16 were unequivocally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Evaluation against the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and human tumor cell lines showed podophyllotoxin derivatives 2 and 3 to be strong cancer cell line growth inhibitors and substances 4, 5, 8, and 15 to have marginal cancer cell line inhibitory activities. Seven of the lignans and one of the synthetic modifications (14) inhibited growth of the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Microtubule disassembly inhibitory properties have been established for the known polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol (1a) and guttiferone E (1b). The compounds were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia pyrifera collected in Malaysia. A structure-activity relationship study, including natural and semisynthetic derivatives, delineated some structural features necessary for the interaction with tubulin within this compound class.
From the aerial parts of Atriplex littoralis, three new flavonoid glycosides named atriplexins I-III (1-3), a known flavonoid glycoside, spinacetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), arbutin (5), and 4-hydroxybenzyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) and HRESITOF MS data. The compounds were tested for in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using a cytochalasin-B-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in a concentration range of 0.8-7.4 μM of final culture solution. Chromosomal damage was induced by 2 Gy of γ-radiation on binucleated human lymphocytes, and the effects of the compounds were tested 2 to 19 h after irradiation. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in binucleated cells, and the nuclear proliferation index was calculated. The highest prevention of in vitro biochemical and cytogenetic damage of human lymphocytes induced by γ-radiation was exhibited by 3 (reduction of MN frequency by 31%), followed by 4 and 6.
Five new indole alkaloids of the ibogan type (1-5), in addition to 12 other known iboga alkaloids, were obtained from the leaf and stem-bark extract of the Malayan species Tabernaemontana corymbosa, viz., 19(S)-hydroxyibogamine (1), 19-epi-isovoacristine (2), isovoacryptine (3), 3R/S-ethoxyheyneanine (4), and 3R/S-ethoxy-19-epi-heyneanine (5). The structures were determined using NMR and MS analysis and comparison with known related compounds.
The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway is constitutively active in many types of cancers and is a potential therapeutic target. Using a cell-based assay for stability of inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB), a critical regulator of NF-kappaB activity, we found that an organic solvent extract of the plant Cryptocarya rugulosa inhibited constitutive NF-kappaB activity in human lymphoma cell lines. The active components were identified as rugulactone, a new alpha-pyrone (1), and the known cryptocaryone (2). Rugulactone was the more active compound, exhibiting up to 5-fold induction of IkappaB at 25 microg/mL; maximal activity was observed with 10 h exposure of test cells to 1 or 2.
A new 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic, named langkolide, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062. The langkolide structure was determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR as a 32-membered macrolactone connected from an overhanging polyketide tail to a naphthoquinone unit mediated by two carbohydrate moieties. The producing strain was isolated from a rhizosphere soil of Clitorea sp. collected at Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by its morphological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was identified as a member of the Streptomyces galbus clade. Langkolide exhibited various bioactivities including antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, langkolide inhibited human recombinant phosphodiesterase 4 with an IC(50) value of 0.48 μM.
Phytochemical investigation on the fruits of Mesua lepidota (Calophyllaceae) led to the isolation of seven new phenylcoumarin derivatives named lepidotols A-E (1-5) and lepidotins A and B (6, 7). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, NMR, and HRMS. Lepidotol A (1), the major compound, was evaluated for its inhibitory effect on inflammation and immunity using endothelial cell-based cellular assays. At 10 μM, 1 exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity, with a significant inhibition of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-α. Lepidotol A also showed a mild immunosuppressive effect, with inhibition of the major histocompatibility complex molecules, namely, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and HLA-E.
A new labdane diterpene glucoside, curcumanggoside (1), together with nine known compounds, including labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial (2), calcaratarin A (3), zerumin B (4), scopoletin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, curcumin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR techniques. All diarylheptanoids and scopoletin showed significant antioxidant activity. Zerumin B, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and curcumin also exhibited cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human tumor cell lines.
Four new stichoneurine-type alkaloids, stichoneurines F and G (1-2) and sessilistemonamines E and F (3-4), have been isolated from the root extracts of Stichoneuron caudatum. The structures and relative configurations of these alkaloids have been determined by spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling experiments. Compounds 1-4 were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities against human AChE. Compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 9.1±0.15 μM.
Two new resveratrol tetramers, hopeaphenol A (1) and isohopeaphenol A (2), along with the known vaticaphenol A (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Vatica oblongifolia ssp. oblongifolia through bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures and their relative stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1 and 3 demonstrated moderate activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis.
Nine 3,4-secoapotirucallanes, argentinic acids A-I, were isolated from the bark of Aglaia argentea and transformed to their methyl esters 1-9. The structures were determined by spectral and chemical means. Compounds 1-8 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against KB cells (IC50 1.0-3.5 microg/mL).