Eleven new indole alkaloids (1-11) comprising seven aspidofractinine and four eburnane alkaloids, were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Kopsia pauciflora occurring in Malaysian Borneo. The aspidofractinine alkaloids include a ring-contracted, an additional ring-fused, a paucidactine regioisomer, two paucidactine, and one kopsine alkaloid. The structures of several of these alkaloids were also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. The bisindole alkaloids isolated, norpleiomutine and kopsoffinol, showed in vitro growth inhibitory activity against human PC-3, HCT-116, MCF-7, and A549 cells and moderate effects in reversing multidrug-resistance in vincristine-resistant human KB cells.
Seven new indole alkaloids (1-7) comprising four vobasine, two tacaman, and one corynanthe-tryptamine bisindole alkaloid were isolated from the stem-bark extract of a Malayan Tabernaemontana. Two of the new vobasine alkaloids (1, 3), as well as 16-epivobasine (15) and 16-epivobasenal (17), showed appreciable cytotoxicity toward KB cells (IC50 ca. 5 μg/mL). The structure of the known Tabernaemontana alkaloid tronoharine (8) was revised based on newly acquired NMR data, as well as X-ray diffraction analysis.
A total of 20 new indole alkaloids comprising mainly oxidized derivatives of macroline- (including alstofonidine, a macroline indole incorporating a butyrolactone ring-F), pleiocarpamine-, and sarpagine-type alkaloids were isolated from the bark and leaf extracts of Alstonia angustifolia. The structures and relative configurations of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analyses and in some instances confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. Alkaloids 3, 7, 35, and 41 showed moderate to weak activity, while 21 showed strong activity in reversing multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
Four new stichoneurine-type alkaloids, stichoneurines F and G (1-2) and sessilistemonamines E and F (3-4), have been isolated from the root extracts of Stichoneuron caudatum. The structures and relative configurations of these alkaloids have been determined by spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling experiments. Compounds 1-4 were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities against human AChE. Compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 9.1±0.15 μM.
Racemic andransinine (1), an indole alkaloid derivative obtained during isolation of alkaloids from Alstonia angustiloba and Kopsia pauciflora, was found to undergo spontaneous resolution when crystallized in EtOAc, forming racemic conglomerates (an equimolar mechanical mixture of enantiomerically pure individual crystals). X-ray analyses of the enantiomers (obtained from crystals from EtOAc solution and from chiral-phase HPLC) provided the absolute configuration of each enantiomer as (15R,16S,21R)-(+)-andransinine (1a or I+) and (15S,16R,21S)-(-)-andransinine (1b or I-).
Two new acridone alkaloids, chlorospermines A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the stem bark of Glycosmis chlorosperma, together with the known atalaphyllidine (3) and acrifoline (4), by means of bioguided isolation using an in vitro enzyme assay against DYRK1A. Acrifoline (4) and to a lesser extent chlorospermine B (2) and atalaphyllidine (3) showed significant inhibiting activity on DYRK1A with IC50's of 0.075, 5.7, and 2.2 μM, respectively. Their selectivity profile was evaluated against a panel of various kinases, and molecular docking calculations provided structural details for the interaction between these compounds and DYRK1A.
Several transformations of the seco Aspidosperma alkaloid leuconolam were carried out. The based-induced reaction resulted in cyclization to yield two epimers, the major product corresponding to the optical antipode of a (+)-meloscine derivative. The structures and relative configuration of the products were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Reaction of leuconolam and epi-leuconolam with various acids, molecular bromine, and hydrogen gave results that indicated that the structure of the alkaloid, previously assigned as epi-leuconolam, was incorrect. This was confirmed by an X-ray diffraction analysis, which revealed that epi-leuconolam is in fact 6,7-dehydroleuconoxine. Short partial syntheses of the diazaspiro indole alkaloid leuconoxine and the new leuconoxine-type alkaloids leuconodines A and F were carried out.
Eight new indole alkaloids (1-8) belonging to the rhazinilam-leuconolam-leuconoxine group, in addition to 52 other alkaloids, were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Leuconotis griffithii, viz., nor-rhazinicine (1), 5,21-dihydrorhazinilam-N-oxide (2), 3,14-dehydroleuconolam (3), and leuconodines A-E (4-8). The structures of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analyses and in some instances confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. Alkaloids 1, 5, and 7 showed only moderate to weak cytotoxicity toward KB cells (IC50 12-18 μg/mL), while 8 showed moderate activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
Three new bisindole alkaloids of the macroline-macroline type, perhentidines A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Alstonia macrophylla and Alstonia angustifolia. The structures of these alkaloids were established on the basis of NMR and MS analyses. The absolute configurations of perhentinine (4) and macralstonine (5) were established by X-ray diffraction analyses, which facilitated assignment of the configuration at C-20 in the regioisomeric bisindole alkaloids perhentidines A-C (1-3). A potentially useful method for the determination of the configuration at C-20 based on comparison of the NMR chemical shifts of the bisindoles and their acetate derivatives, in these and related bisindoles with similar constitution and branching of the monomeric units, is also presented.
A new 32-membered macrolactone antibiotic, named langkolide, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces sp. Acta 3062. The langkolide structure was determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR as a 32-membered macrolactone connected from an overhanging polyketide tail to a naphthoquinone unit mediated by two carbohydrate moieties. The producing strain was isolated from a rhizosphere soil of Clitorea sp. collected at Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by its morphological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was identified as a member of the Streptomyces galbus clade. Langkolide exhibited various bioactivities including antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, langkolide inhibited human recombinant phosphodiesterase 4 with an IC(50) value of 0.48 μM.
Four new linearly fused bisindole alkaloids, lumutinines A-D (1-4), were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Alstonia macrophylla. Lumutinines A (1) and B (2) represent the first examples of linear, ring A/F-fused macroline-macroline-type bisindoles, while lumutinines C (3) and D (4) were constituted from the union of macroline and sarpagine moieties. A reinvestigation of the stereochemical assignment of alstoumerine (8) by NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the configuration at C-16 and C-19 required revision.
Three new limonoids, chisomicines A-C (1-3), have been isolated from the bark of Chisocheton ceramicus. Their structures were determined by 2D NMR, CD spectroscopic methods, and X-ray analysis. Chisomicine A (1) exhibited NO production inhibitory activity in J774.1 cells stimulated by LPS dose-dependently at high cell viability.
Three new indole alkaloids (1-3), named grandilodines A-C, and five known ones were obtained from the Malayan Kopsia grandifolia. The structures were established using NMR and MS analyses and, in the case of 1 and 2, were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. Alkaloids 1, 3, and lapidilectine B (8) were found to reverse multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
A methanol-soluble extract of the bark of Myristica cinnamomea was found to exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity, and subsequent bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of the active compound malabaricone C (1). Compound 1 inhibited violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 when grown in the presence of a cognate signaling molecule, N-3-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone. Furthermore, 1 inhibited the quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. These results suggest that the anti-quorum sensing activity of 1 and related molecules should be investigated further.
Five new stilbenoids, vatalbinosides A-E (1-5), and 13 known compounds (6-18) were isolated from the stem of Vatica albiramis. The effects of these new compounds on interleukin-1β-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human dermal fibroblasts were examined. Three resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (6), vaticanol C (13), and stenophyllol C (14), were identified as strong inhibitors of MMP-1 production.
Phytochemical and cytotoxicity investigations on organic solvent extracts of the aerial parts of Tinospora crispa have led to the isolation of 15 cis-clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids. Of these, nine compounds (1-9) were found to be new. Spectroscopic assignments of a previously reported compound, borapetoside A (13), were revised on the basis of HMQC and HMBC correlations. No discernible activity was observed when compounds 10-13 were subjected to evaluation in cytotoxicity assays against human prostate cancer (PC-3) and the normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines.
A total of 25 alkaloids were isolated from the leaf and stem-bark extracts of Alstonia spatulata, of which five are new alkaloids of the strychnan type (alstolucines A-E, 1-5) and the other, a new alkaloid of the secoangustilobine A type (alstolobine A, 6). The structures of these alkaloids were established using NMR and MS analysis and, in the case of alstolucine B (2), also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A reinvestigation of the stereochemical assignment of scholaricine (13) by NMR and X-ray analyses indicated that the configuration at C-20 required revision. Alkaloids 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 13 reversed multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
Four new bisindole alkaloids of the Strychnos-Strychnos type, leucoridines A-D (1-4), were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Leuconotis griffithii. Alkaloids 1-4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against drug-sensitive and vincristine-resistant human KB cells.
In our search for inhibitors of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, investigation of Xylopia caudata afforded a new diterpenoid, ent-trachyloban-4beta-ol (2), and five known ent-trachylobane or ent-atisane compounds. Only ent-trachyloban-18-oic acid (1) exhibited weak binding activity to Bcl-xL. These compounds exhibited cytotoxicity against KB and HCT-116 cell lines with IC(50) values between 10 and 30 microM. Bioconversion of compound 1 by Rhizopus arrhizus afforded new hydroxylated metabolites (3-7) of the ent-trachylobane and ent-kaurene type and compound 8, with a rearranged pentacyclic carbon framework that was named rhizopene. Compounds 3-8 were noncytotoxic to the two cancer cell lines, and compounds 3 and 5 exhibited only weak binding affinity for Bcl-xL.
Eucophylline (1), a new tetracyclic vinylquinoline alkaloid, was isolated from the bark of Leuconotis eugenifolius together with leucophyllidine (2). The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations and simulated CD analysis. Leucophyllidine (2) showed iNOS inhibitory activity and decreased the iNOS protein expression dose-dependently.