Three new fully dehydrogenated naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids, the 7,1'-coupled ent-dioncophylleine A (3a), the likewise 7,1'-coupled 5'-O-demethyl-ent-dioncophylleine A (4), and the 7,8'-linked dioncophylleine D (5), have been isolated from the leaves of the recently described Malaysian highland liana Ancistrocladusbenomensis. All of them lack an oxygen function at C-6; this so-called Dioncophyllaceae-type structural subclass had previously been found only in naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids from West and Central African plants. Moreover, compounds 3a and 4 are the first fully dehydrogenated, i.e., only axially chiral, naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids of this type that are optically active; compound 5, by contrast, is fully racemic, due to its configurationally unstable biaryl axis. The structural elucidation was achieved by spectroscopic and chiroptical methods. Biological activities of these alkaloids against different protozoan parasites are described.
Phytochemical and cytotoxicity investigations on organic solvent extracts of the aerial parts of Tinospora crispa have led to the isolation of 15 cis-clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids. Of these, nine compounds (1-9) were found to be new. Spectroscopic assignments of a previously reported compound, borapetoside A (13), were revised on the basis of HMQC and HMBC correlations. No discernible activity was observed when compounds 10-13 were subjected to evaluation in cytotoxicity assays against human prostate cancer (PC-3) and the normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines.
Nine new xanthones, parvixanthones A-I (1-9), isolated from the dried bark of Garcinia parvifolia, were found to have a common 1,3,6,7-oxygenated pattern for their xanthone nucleus, but various oxygenated isoprenyl or geranyl substituent groups. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.
Six new bisindole alkaloids of the iboga-vobasine type, vobatensines A-F (1-6), in addition to four known bisindoles (8-11), were isolated from a stem bark extract of a Malayan Tabernaemontana corymbosa. The structures of these alkaloids were determined based on analysis of the spectroscopic data and in the case of vobatensines A (1), B (2), and 16'-decarbomethoxyvoacamine (8) also confirmed by partial syntheses. Nine of these alkaloids (1-5, 8-11) showed pronounced in vitro growth inhibitory activity against human KB, PC-3, LNCaP, HCT 116, HT-29, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cancer cells.
Several transformations of the seco Aspidosperma alkaloid leuconolam were carried out. The based-induced reaction resulted in cyclization to yield two epimers, the major product corresponding to the optical antipode of a (+)-meloscine derivative. The structures and relative configuration of the products were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Reaction of leuconolam and epi-leuconolam with various acids, molecular bromine, and hydrogen gave results that indicated that the structure of the alkaloid, previously assigned as epi-leuconolam, was incorrect. This was confirmed by an X-ray diffraction analysis, which revealed that epi-leuconolam is in fact 6,7-dehydroleuconoxine. Short partial syntheses of the diazaspiro indole alkaloid leuconoxine and the new leuconoxine-type alkaloids leuconodines A and F were carried out.
Natural products remain an important source of drug leads covering unique chemical space and providing significant therapeutic value for the control of cancer and infectious diseases resistant to current drugs. Here, we determined the antiproliferative activity of a natural product manzamine A (1) from an Indo-Pacific sponge following various in vitro cellular assays targeting cervical cancer (C33A, HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki). Our data demonstrated the antiproliferative effects of 1 at relatively low and non-cytotoxic concentrations (up to 4 μM). Mechanistic investigations confirmed that 1 blocked cell cycle progression in SiHa and CaSki cells at G1/S phase and regulated cell cycle-related genes, including restoration of p21 and p53 expression. In apoptotic assays, HeLa cells showed the highest sensitivity to 1 as compared to other cell types (C33A, SiHa, and CaSki). Interestingly, 1 decreased the levels of the oncoprotein SIX1, which is associated with oncogenesis in cervical cancer. To further investigate the structure-activity relationship among manzamine A (1) class with potential antiproliferative activity, molecular networking facilitated the efficient identification, dereplication, and assignment of structures from the manzamine class and revealed the significant potential in the design of optimized molecules for the treatment of cervical cancer. These data suggest that this sponge-derived natural product class warrants further attention regarding the design and development of novel manzamine analogues, which may be efficacious for preventive and therapeutic treatment of cancer. Additionally, this study reveals the significance of protecting fragile marine ecosystems from climate change-induced loss of species diversity.
A new linearly fused macroline-sarpagine bisindole, angustilongine M (1), was isolated from the methanolic extract of Alstonia penangiana. The structure of the alkaloid was elucidated based on analysis of the spectroscopic data, and its biological activity was evaluated together with another previously reported macroline-akuammiline bisindole from the same plant, angustilongine A (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed pronounced in vitro growth inhibitory activity against a wide panel of human cancer cell lines. In particular, the two compounds showed potent and selective antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells, as well as strong growth inhibitory effects against HT-29 spheroids. Cell death mechanistic studies revealed that the compounds induced mitochondrial apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner, while in vitro tubulin polymerization assays and molecular docking analysis showed that the compounds are microtubule-stabilizing agents, which are predicted to bind at the β-tubulin subunit at the Taxol-binding site.
The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable.
Six new sulfur-containing bis-iridoid glucosides, saprosmosides A-F (1-6), were isolated from the leaves of Saprosma scortechinii. From the stems of this same plant, two new iridoid glucosides, 3,4-dihydro-3-methoxypaederoside (8) and 10-O-benzoyldeacetylasperulosidic acid (12), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by means of chemical, NMR, and mass spectroscopic methods. Additionally, 11 known iridoid glucosides were isolated and characterized as deacetylasperuloside, asperuloside, paederoside (7), deacetylasperulosidic acid (9), scandoside, asperulosidic acid, 10-acetylscandoside, paederosidic acid (10), 6-epi-paederosidic acid (11), methylpaederosidate, and monotropein. The structures of the new bis-iridoid glucosides were formed by intermolecular esterification between the glucose and carboxyl groups of three monomeric iridoid glucosides (7, 9, and 10).
A total of 25 alkaloids were isolated from the leaf and stem-bark extracts of Alstonia spatulata, of which five are new alkaloids of the strychnan type (alstolucines A-E, 1-5) and the other, a new alkaloid of the secoangustilobine A type (alstolobine A, 6). The structures of these alkaloids were established using NMR and MS analysis and, in the case of alstolucine B (2), also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A reinvestigation of the stereochemical assignment of scholaricine (13) by NMR and X-ray analyses indicated that the configuration at C-20 required revision. Alkaloids 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 13 reversed multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Lansium domesticum showed antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5 H-pyrido[4,3- b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- bI]pyridine (PhIP) using the Ames assay. Nine new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids I-IX (1-9), and nine known compounds (10-16) were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined via their electronic circular dichroism spectra. Several isolated onoceranoid-type triterpeneoids showed antimutagenic effects in an in vitro Ames assay. Moreover, oral intake of a major constituent, lansionic acid (10), showed antimutagenic effects against PhIP in an in vivo micronucleus test.
Microtubule disassembly inhibitory properties have been established for the known polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol (1a) and guttiferone E (1b). The compounds were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia pyrifera collected in Malaysia. A structure-activity relationship study, including natural and semisynthetic derivatives, delineated some structural features necessary for the interaction with tubulin within this compound class.
Svalbardines A and B (1 and 2) and annularin K (3) were isolated from cultures of Poaceicola sp. E1PB, an endophyte isolated from the petals of Papaver dahlianum from Svalbard, Norway. Svalbardine A (1) is a pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-4-one, a new analogue of citromycetin. Svalbardine B (2) displays an unprecedented carbon skeleton based on a 5'-benzyl-spiro[chroman-3,7'-isochromene]-4,8'-dione core. Annularin K (3) is a hydroxylated derivative of annularin D. The structure of these new polyketides, along with those of known compounds 4-6, was established by spectrometric analysis, including extensive ESI-CID-MS n processing in the case of svalbardine B (2).
A polysaccharide, Ali-1, was isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia, a popular traditional medicinal herb in Malaysia. The structure of Ali-1 was characterized by monosaccharide, methylation, and NMR data analyses. The average molecular weight of Ali-1 is 14.3 ku, and it is composed of arabinose (14.31%), xylose (57.69%), galacturonic acid (13.03%), and glucuronic acid (14.86%). The main chain comprises (1→4)-linked xylose residues. It has branch points in the main chain; (1→2,4)-linked xylose residues, 1,2-linked glucuronic acid residues, and 1,2-linked arabinose residues form the branches, and the branches are terminated with T-linked galacturonic acid residues and T-linked arabinose residues. Ali-1 significantly improves the pinocytic and phagocytic abilities of RAW264.7 cells and facilitates cytokine secretion according to an immunostimulation assay. These results demonstrate that Ali-1 has potential as a functional supplement for people with compromised immune systems.
The stem of Stephanotis floribunda afforded a new cyclic pentapeptide stephanotic acid (1), possessing a novel 6-(leucin-3'-yl) tryptophan skeleton. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of extensive NMR experiments and a chemical reaction and shown to be closely related to the bicyclic octapeptide moroidin (3), a toxin from Laportea moroides.
Schwarzinicines A-G (1-7), representing the first examples of 1,4-diarylbutanoid-phenethylamine conjugates, were isolated from the leaves of Ficus schwarzii. The structures of these compounds were determined by detailed analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited pronounced vasorelaxant effects in the rat isolated aorta (Emax 106-120%; EC50 0.96-2.10 μM). However, compounds 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxic effects against A549, MCF-7, and HCT 116 human cancer cells (IC50 > 10 μM).
Eight new indole alkaloids (1-8) belonging to the rhazinilam-leuconolam-leuconoxine group, in addition to 52 other alkaloids, were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Leuconotis griffithii, viz., nor-rhazinicine (1), 5,21-dihydrorhazinilam-N-oxide (2), 3,14-dehydroleuconolam (3), and leuconodines A-E (4-8). The structures of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analyses and in some instances confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. Alkaloids 1, 5, and 7 showed only moderate to weak cytotoxicity toward KB cells (IC50 12-18 μg/mL), while 8 showed moderate activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
Five new stilbenoids, vatalbinosides A-E (1-5), and 13 known compounds (6-18) were isolated from the stem of Vatica albiramis. The effects of these new compounds on interleukin-1β-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human dermal fibroblasts were examined. Three resveratrol tetramers, (-)-hopeaphenol (6), vaticanol C (13), and stenophyllol C (14), were identified as strong inhibitors of MMP-1 production.
Oligostilbenoids (e.g., ampelopsin F, viniferin, pallidol) result from homogeneous or heterogeneous coupling of monomeric stilbenoid units, leading to various chemical structures. Oligostilbenoid synthesis is regio- and stereocontrolled. To tackle this regio- and stereocontrol, a supramolecular chemistry approach is required that can be achieved by quantum chemistry. The stability of noncovalent π-stacks, formed between two stilbenoid units prior to oxidation, is accurately evaluated with density functional theory (DFT) including dispersive effects (within the DFT-D formalism). These noncovalent arrangements drive the regiocontrol. The rest of the chemical pathway is a succession of dearomatization and rearomatization stages. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes are calculated with classical hybrid functionals. This study allows discrimination between the two main possible chemical pathways, namely, radical-neutral and radical-radical reactions. The former appears more likely, thermodynamics and kinetics being in perfect agreement with the experimental 1:2 ratio obtained for ampelopsin F:pallidol analogues, respectively.
In our search for inhibitors of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, investigation of Xylopia caudata afforded a new diterpenoid, ent-trachyloban-4beta-ol (2), and five known ent-trachylobane or ent-atisane compounds. Only ent-trachyloban-18-oic acid (1) exhibited weak binding activity to Bcl-xL. These compounds exhibited cytotoxicity against KB and HCT-116 cell lines with IC(50) values between 10 and 30 microM. Bioconversion of compound 1 by Rhizopus arrhizus afforded new hydroxylated metabolites (3-7) of the ent-trachylobane and ent-kaurene type and compound 8, with a rearranged pentacyclic carbon framework that was named rhizopene. Compounds 3-8 were noncytotoxic to the two cancer cell lines, and compounds 3 and 5 exhibited only weak binding affinity for Bcl-xL.