Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

  1. Chong SG, Ismail IS, Ahmad Azam A, Tan SJ, Shaari K, Tan JK
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Apr;103(6):3146-3156.
    PMID: 36426592 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12355
    BACKGROUND: Soybeans (Glycine max) are high in proteins and isoflavones, which offer many health benefits. It has been suggested that the fermentation process enhances the nutrients in the soybeans. Organic foods are perceived as better than non-organic foods in terms of health benefits, yet little is known about the difference in the phytochemical content that distinguishes the quality of organic soybeans from non-organic soybeans. This study investigated the chemical profiles of non-organic (G, T, U, UB) and organic (C, COF, A, R, B, Z) soybeans (G. max [L.] Merr.) and their metabolite changes after fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus.

    RESULTS: A clear separation was only observed between non-organic G and organic Z, which were then selected for further investigation in the fermentation of soybeans (GF and ZF). All four groups (G, Z, GF, ZF) were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy along with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this way a total of 41 and 47 metabolites were identified respectively, with 12 in common. A clear variation (|log1.5 FC| > 2 and P 

  2. Han C, Zheng Y, Wang L, Zhou C, Wang J, He J, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Feb 14.
    PMID: 36786016 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12499
    BACKGROUND: Extracted proteins of alternative animal origin tend to present strong off-flavor perception due to physicochemical interactions of coextracted off-flavor compounds with proteins. To investigate the relationship between absorption behaviors of volatile aromas and the processes-induced variations in protein microstructures and molecular conformations, duck liver protein isolate (DLp) was subjected to heating (65/100 °C, 15 min) and ultra-high pressure (UHP, 100-500 MPa/10 min, 28 °C) treatments to obtain differential unfolded protein states.

    RESULTS: Heat and UHP treatments induced the unfolding of DLp to varied degrees, as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption, circular dichroism spectra and surface hydrophobicity measurements. Two types of heating-denatured states with varied unfolding degrees were obtained, while UHP at both levels of 100/500 MPa caused partial unfolding of DLp and the presence of a molten-globule state, which significantly enhanced the binding affinity between DLp and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal. In particular, significantly modified secondary structures of DLp were observed in heating-denatured samples. Excessive denaturing and unfolding degrees resulted in no significant changes in the absorption behavior of the volatile ligand, as characterized by observations of fluorescence quenching and analysis of headspace concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: Defining process-induced conformational transition behavior of matrix proteins could be a promising strategy to regulate food flavor attributes and, particularly, to produce DLp coextracted with limited off-flavor components by modifying their interaction during extraction processes. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Liu Q, Wu TY, Tu W, Pu L
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Jan 30;103(2):908-916.
    PMID: 36067269 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12202
    BACKGROUND: Relieving serious non-point source pollution of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) is an urgent task in China. It is necessary to explore the changing characteristics of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency to provide references. A new method of 'relative productivity proportion weight', which was simpler than data envelope analysis, was proposed to construct models of fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) and chemical fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE) by considering NPK multi-inputs and the grain output scale, respectively.

    RESULTS: During 1980-2014, the FIs of NPK chemical fertilizers in China showed a significant growing trend. After reaching the highest value of 339 kg ha-1 in 2014, FIs were reduced to 303 kg ha-1 in 2019, higher than the 225 kg ha-1 maximum safe usage internationally recognized. Meanwhile, the pattern of change of FAE was one of 'decreasing to increasing', with values of 1 in 1980, 0.66 in 2003, and 0.80 in 2019. FIE basically showed an increasing trend, which could be divided into three stages: the first stage of low efficiency during 1980-2009, the second stage of medium efficiency after 2010, and the third stage of high efficiency after 2018.

    CONCLUSION: From 1980 until 2019, a reduction of FAE from 1 to 0.80 with an average of 0.75 was observed in China. FIE was found between 0.65 and 0.85 and had the potential of upgrading by 15-35%. Therefore, China needs to improve the fertilizer use efficiency in order to strive for negative growth of chemical fertilizer intensity and ecological agriculture construction. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Adiiba SH, Chan ES, Lee YY, Amelia, Chang MY, Song CP
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Dec;102(15):6921-6929.
    PMID: 35662022 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12053
    BACKGROUND: Crude palm oil (CPO) is rich with phytonutrients such as carotenoids and tocols which possesses many health benefits. The aim of this research was to develop a methanol-free process to produce palm phytonutrients via enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, triacylglycerol was hydrolyzed into free fatty acids (FFAs) using three different types of liquid lipases derived from Aspergillus oryzae (ET 2.0), Aspergillus niger (Habio) and Candida antartica (CALB).

    RESULTS: ET 2.0 was found to be the best enzyme for hydrolysis. Under the optimum condition, the FFA content achievable was 790 g kg-1 after 24 h of reaction with 1:1 water-to-oil mass ratio at 50 °C and stirring speed of 9 × g. Furthermore, with the addition of 2 g kg-1 ascorbic acid, it was found that 98% of carotenoids and 96% of tocols could be retained after hydrolysis.

    CONCLUSION: This work shows that enzymatic hydrolysis, which is inherently safer, cleaner and sustainable is feasible to replace the conventional methanolysis for the production of palm phytonutrients. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Tee YK, Bariah K, Hisyam Zainudin B, Samuel Yap KC, Ong NG
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Mar 15;102(4):1576-1585.
    PMID: 34405409 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11494
    BACKGROUND: Cacao beans are rich sources of polyphenols with an abundance of flavonoids and methylxanthines that have positive influences on human health. The main factors affecting the formation of flavor as well as the chemical and bioactive composition of cacao beans are cacao pod maturity and post-harvest fermentation. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of pod harvest maturity (mature and ripe) and post-fermentation period (1, 3, and 5 days in a controlled temperature environment) measured by pre-harvest maturity indices, post-harvest quality tests, chemical measurements, and organoleptic evaluation.

    RESULTS: As pods developed, flavonol accumulated while nitrogen content degraded. Mature pods produced beans with a higher flavonol, catechin, and total phenolic content (TPC). As fermentation progressed, the beans' fat, TPC, antioxidant activity, and catechin content increased, regardless of pod maturity at harvest. Free fatty acid (FFA) levels were highest in 5 day fermented beans. The 3 day fermented beans contained significantly higher epicatechin, with lower FFA content. Chocolate made from mature beans with 3 day fermentation was more pleasant as it scored the highest in flavor intensity and complexity and the lowest in acidity and astringency.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that cacao pods harvested at the mature stage with further fermentation for 3 days under controlled temperatures produce specialty beans with potential health benefits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Hau EH, Teh SS, Yeo SK, Mah SH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Jan 15;102(1):233-240.
    PMID: 34081335 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11350
    BACKGROUND: The oil palm tree produces 90% of wastes and the limited usage of these wastes causes a major disposal problem in the mills. Nevertheless, these by-products have a large amount of nutritional components. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of protein hydrolysates (PH) from oil palm leaves (OPL) extracted using different concentrations of Alcalase (0-10%) at 2 h of hydrolysis time.

    RESULTS: Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis altered functional groups of OPL where a secondary amine was present in the PH. Changes were also observed in the thermal stability where the enthalpy heat obtained for PH (933.93-1142.57 J g-1 ) was much lower than OPL (7854.11 J g-1 ). The results showed that the PH extracted by 8% Alcalase exhibited absolute zeta potential, as well as a high emulsifying activity index (70.64 m2  g-1 of protein) and emulsion stability index (60.58 min). Furthermore, this PH showed higher solubility (96.32%) and emulsifying properties compared to other PHs. It is also comparable with commercial plant proteins, indicating that 8% Alcalase is an optimum concentration for hydrolysis.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, the physicochemical and functional properties of PH extracted from OPL showed good functional properties, suggesting that it can be used as an alternative plant protein in food industries. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Rengasamy N, Othman RY, Che HS, Harikrishna JA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Jan 15;102(1):299-311.
    PMID: 34091912 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11359
    BACKGROUND: Stevia rebaudiana is a high value crop due to the strong commercial demand for its metabolites (steviol glycosides) but has limited geographical cultivation range. In non-native environments with different daylength and light quality, Stevia has low germination rates and early flowering resulting in lower biomass and poor yield of the desired metabolites. In this study, artificial lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to determine if different light quality within and outside of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range can be used to improve germination rates and yields for production of steviol glycosides for the herbal supplement and food industry.

    RESULTS: Plants treated with red and blue light at an intensity of 130 μmol m-2  s-1 supplemented with 5% of UV-A light under a 16-h photoperiod produced the most desirable overall results with a high rate of germination, low percentage of early flowering, and high yields of dry leaf, stevioside and rebaudioside A, 175 days after planting.

    CONCLUSION: While red and blue light combinations are effective for plant growth, the use of supplemental non-PAR irradiation of UV-A wavelength significantly and desirably delayed flowering, enhanced germination, biomass, rebaudioside A and stevioside yields, while supplemental green light improved yield of biomass and rebaudioside A, but not stevioside. Overall, the combination of red, blue and UV-A light resulted in the best overall productivity for Stevia rebaudiana. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Habibiasr M, Noriznan Mokhtar M, Nordin Ibrahim M, Md Yunos KF, Amri Ibrahim N
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Jan 08.
    PMID: 34997572 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11753
    BACKGROUND: Palm kernel is the edible seed of the oil palm fruit obtained during the palm oil milling process. For efficient processing and storage, the moisture content of palm kernel must be reduced to an optimal level by drying. This study aimed to see how drying influenced the physical structure and physicochemical properties of palm kernel and oil. Before and after drying, the free fatty acid (FFA), colors, fatty acid composition, FTIR, thermal property, and structure of palm kernel were investigated.

    RESULTS: Results show that drying significantly (p

  9. Zulkifli N, Hashim N, Harith HH, Mohamad Shukery MF, Onwude DI
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov 20.
    PMID: 34802158 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11669
    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the quality properties of papaya becomes essential due to the acceleration of the fruit shelf-life senescence and the deterioration factor of the expected postharvest operations. In this study, the colour features in RGB, normalised RGB, HSV and L*a*b* channels were extracted and correlated with mechanical properties, moisture content (MC), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH for the prediction of quality properties at five ripening stages of papaya (R1- R5).

    RESULTS: The mean values of colour features in RGB R m , G m , B m , normalised RGB R nm , G nm , B nm HSV H m , S m , V m , and L*a*b* L m , a m , b m were the best estimator for predicting TSS with R2 ≥ 0.90. All colour channels also showed satisfactory accuracies of R2 ≥ 0.80 in predicting the bioyield force, apparent modulus and mean force. The highest average classification accuracy was obtained using LDA with an average accuracy of more than 82%. The study showed that LDA, LSVM, QDA and QSVM obtained the correct classification of up to 100% for R5, whereas R1, R2, R3 and R4 gave classification accuracies in the range between 83.75-91.85%, 85.6-90.25%, 85.75-90.85% and 77.35-87.15% respectively. This indicates R5 colour information was obviously different from R1-R4. The mean values of the HSV channel indicated the best performance to predict the ripening stages of papaya, compared to RGB, normalised RGB and L*a*b*channels, with an average classification accuracy of more than 80%.

    CONCLUSION: The study has shown the versatility of a machine vision system in predicting the quality changes in papaya. The results showed that the machine vision system can be used to predict the ripening stages as well as classifying the fruits into different ripening stages of papayas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Li X, Nian BB, Tan CP, Liu YF, Xu YJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov 17.
    PMID: 34786719 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11659
    BACKGROUND: Deep-frying oil has been found to cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the molecular mechanism of the effect of deep-frying palm oil on IBD still remains undetermined.

    RESULTS: In the present study, bioinformatics and cell biology were used to investigate the functions and signal pathway enrichments of differentially expressed genes. The bioinformatics analysis of three original microarray datasets (GSE73661, GSE75214 and GSE126124) in the NCBI-Gene Expression Omnibus database showed 17 down-regulated genes (logFC  0) existed in the enteritis tissue. Meanwhile, pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analysis suggested that IBD is relevant to cytotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Caco-2 cells were treated with the main oxidation products of deep-frying oil-total polar compounds (TPC) and its components (polymerized triglyceride, oxidized triglycerides and triglyceride degradation products) isolated from deep-frying oil. The flow cytometry experiment revealed that TPC and its components could induce apoptosis, especially for oxidized triglyceride. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that TPC and its component could induce Caco-2 cell apoptosis through AQP8/CXCL1/TNIP3/IL-1.

    CONCLUSION: The present study provides fundamental knowledge for understanding the effects of deep-frying oils on the cytotoxic and inflammatory of Caco-2 cells, in addition to clarifying the molecular function mechanism of deep-frying oil in IBD. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Tan PY, Tan TB, Chang HW, Mwangi WW, Tey BT, Chan ES, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Nov;101(14):5963-5971.
    PMID: 33840091 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11249
    BACKGROUND: Throughout the past decade, Pickering emulsion has been increasingly utilized for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds due to its high stability and biocompatibility. In the present work, palm tocotrienols were initially encapsulated in a calcium carbonate Pickering emulsion, which was then subjected to alginate gelation and subsequent chitosan coating. The effects of wall material (alginate and chitosan) concentrations, gelation pH and time, and chitosan coating time on the encapsulation efficiency of palm tocotrienols were explored.

    RESULTS: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.

    CONCLUSION: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Liu Q, Wu TY, Pu L, Sun J
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Oct 09.
    PMID: 34626124 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11579
    BACKGROUND: Study of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency can provide basal data for the decision-making of food production and environmental impact assessment of fertilization. This research aimed to compare trends of the FI and efficiency during 1961-2018 in developed and developing countries with a simple method.

    RESULTS: The FI in China increased rapidly from about 5 kg ha-1 in 1961 to the highest value of 282 kg ha-1 in 2014, then decreased to about 231 kg ha-1 in 2018. Although the fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) showed a slight downward trend, slight upward trend was observed for the fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE). FIs in India, Iran and Turkey continuously rose from5 kg ha-1 in 1961to 116, 49(148 in 2006),120kg ha-1 in 2018, respectively, while FAEs showed a significant fluctuation around horizontal direction or downward trends and their FIEs showed a slight fluctuation downward. FIs of Britain, Germany and France except USA, increased rapidly from about 200-400 kg ha-1 in 1960s to peaks of 430-530 kg ha-1 in 1980s, then dropped to 150-340 kg ha-1 around 2010, and then up to current level of 200-350 kg ha-1 , while FAEs and FIEs increased rapidly.

    CONCLUSION: France and Germany were found to have moderate chemical fertilizer input and the highest FIE. Thus, their experiences of ecological agricultures in both countries could provide good examples for the developing countries to follow. In short, models of FAE and FIE were easier way to reflect the fertilizer efficiencies in developed and developing countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mustapa MAC, Batcha MFN, Amin L, Arham AF, Mahadi Z, Yusoff NAM, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Oct;101(13):5457-5468.
    PMID: 33709409 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11194
    BACKGROUND: Genetically modified (GM) crops have become a controversial global issue since their commercialization in 1996. However, despite technological advancements, only a few studies have investigated farmers' attitudes towards GM crops in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to analyse such attitudes and their determining factors. A validated questionnaire was distributed to farmers in the Cameron Highlands, Pahang (n = 176). SPSS software was used to analyse the descriptive statistics of the farmers' attitudes to GM crops, while SmartPLS software was used to determine the predictors.

    RESULTS: Descriptive analysis shows that the farmers claimed to have a high level of self-efficacy, and perceived GM crops as possessing high benefits which translate into a highly positive attitude towards GM crops. However, at the same time, they rated GM crops as involving moderate risks and would incur moderate costs to farm, as well as acknowledging a low level of support from the government. The structural equation model (SEM) analysis demonstrates that five factors have been identified as direct predictors of attitude to GM crops: government support (ß = 0.364, P 

  14. Abdul Manan SF, Li J, Hsieh CF, Faubion J, Shi YC
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Sep 08.
    PMID: 34498279 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11523
    BACKGROUND: Lipids account for 2.0-2.5% of wheat flour by dry weight and affect properties and quality of cereal foods. A new method was developed to extract non-starch lipids from wheat flour. Wheat flour was first hydrolyzed with a protease and followed by extraction of non-starch lipids by water-saturated butanol (WSB).

    RESULT: Protein hydrolysis by protease followed by extraction of non-starch lipids with WSB increased yield to 1.9 ± 0.3% from 1.0 ± 0.1% with no protease treatment. The lipid profile showed a significant increase in phospholipid compounds extracted with protease hydrolysis (5.9 ± 0.8 nmol·g-1 ) versus without enzymatic treatment (2.4 ± 1.3 nmol g-1 ).

    CONCLUSION: Improved lipid extraction yield and phospholipid compounds following protease-assisted extraction method provided additional insight towards the understanding of protein-lipid interaction in wheat flour. The new protease-assisted extraction method may be applied to analyzing non-starch lipids in other types of wheat flours and other cereal flours. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Soo YT, Ng SW, Tang TK, Ab Karim NA, Phuah ET, Lee YY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Aug 15;101(10):4161-4172.
    PMID: 33428211 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11054
    BACKGROUND: Palm pressed fibre (PPF) is a cellulose-rich biomass residue produced during palm oil extraction. Its high cellulose content allows the isolation of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC has attracted scientific interest due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility and low cost. The present study isolated CNC from PPF using a cation exchange resin, which is an environmentally friendly and less harsh hydrolysis method than conventional mineral acid hydrolysis. Isolated CNC was used to stabilise an oil-in-water emulsion and the emulsion stability was evaluated in terms of droplet size, morphology and physical stability.

    RESULTS: PPF was subjected to alkali and bleach treatment prior to hydrolysis, which successfully removed 54% and 75% of non-cellulosic components (hemicellulose and lignin, respectively). Hydrolysis conditions of 5 h, 15:1 (w/w) resin-to-pulp ratio and 50 °C produced CNC particles of 50-100 nm in length. CNC had a crystallinity index of 42% and appeared rod-like morphologically. CNC-stabilised emulsion had better stability when used in combination with soy lecithin (SL), a well-established, commonly used food stabiliser. Emulsion stabilised by the binary mixture of CNC and SL had droplet size, morphology and physical stability comparable to those of emulsion stabilised using SL.

    CONCLUSIONS: CNC was successfully isolated from PPF through a cation exchange resin. This offers an alternative usage for the underutilised PPF to be converted into value-added products. Isolated CNC was also found to have promising potential in the stabilisation of Pickering emulsions. These results provide useful information indicating CNC as a natural and sustainable stabiliser for food, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Ojukwu M, Ofoedu C, Seow EK, Easa AM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jul;101(9):3732-3741.
    PMID: 33301191 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11004
    BACKGROUND: Rice flour does not contain gluten and lacks cohesion and extensibility, which is responsible for the poor texture of rice noodles. Different technologies have been used to mitigate this challenge, including hydrothermal treatments of rice flour, direct addition of protein in noodles, use of additives such as hydrocolloids and alginates, and microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Recently, the inclusion of soy protein isolate (SPI), MTG, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) in the rice noodles system yielded rice noodles with improved texture and more compact microstructure, hence the need to optimize the addition of SPI, MTG, and GDL to make quality rice noodles.

    RESULTS: Numerical optimization showed that rice noodles prepared with SPI, 68.32 (g kg-1 of rice flour), MTG, 5.06 (g kg-1 of rice flour) and GDL, 5.0 (g kg-1 of rice flour) gave the best response variables; hardness (53.19 N), springiness (0.76), chewiness (20.28 J), tensile strength (60.35 kPa), and cooking time (5.15 min). The pH, sensory, and microstructure results showed that the optimized rice noodles had a more compact microstructure with fewer hollows, optimum pH for MTG action, and overall sensory panelists also showed the highest preference for the optimized formulation, compared to other samples selected from the numerical optimization and desirability tests.

    CONCLUSION: Optimization of the levels of SPI, MTG, and GDL yielded quality noodles with improved textural, mechanical, sensory, and microstructural properties. This was partly due to the favourable pH value of the optimized noodles that provided the most suitable conditions for MTG crosslinking and balanced electrostatic interaction of proteins. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Ahmad Loti NN, Mohd Noor MR, Chang SW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jul;101(9):3582-3594.
    PMID: 33275806 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10987
    BACKGROUND: Chili is one of the most important and high-value vegetable crops worldwide. However, pest and disease infections are among the main limiting factors in chili cultivation. These diseases cannot be eradicated but can be handled and monitored to mitigate the damage. Hence, the use of an automated identification system based on images will promote quick identification of chili disease. The features extracted from the images are of utmost importance to develop such an accurate identification system.

    RESULTS: In this research, chili pest and disease features extracted using the traditional approach were compared with features extracted using a deep-learning-based approach. A total of 974 chili leaf images were collected, which consisted of five types of diseases, two types of pest infestations, and a healthy type. Six traditional feature-based approaches and six deep-learning feature-based approaches were used to extract significant pests and disease features from the chili leaf images. The extracted features were fed into three machine learning classifiers, namely a support vector machine (SVM), a random forest (RF), and an artificial neural network (ANN) for the identification task. The results showed that deep learning feature-based approaches performed better than the traditional feature-based approaches. The best accuracy of 92.10% was obtained with the SVM classifier.

    CONCLUSION: A deep-learning feature-based approach could capture the details and characteristics between different types of chili pests and diseases even though they possessed similar visual patterns and symptoms. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Soo YN, Tan CP, Tan PY, Khalid N, Tan TB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Apr;101(6):2455-2462.
    PMID: 33034060 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10871
    BACKGROUND: The popularity of coffee, the second most consumed beverage in the world, contributes to the high demand for liquid non-dairy creamer (LNDC). In this study, palm olein emulsions (as LNDCs) were investigated as alternatives to the more common soybean oil-based LNDCs. LNDCs were prepared via different homogenization pressures (100-300 bar) using different types of oil (palm olein and soybean oil) and concentrations of DATEM emulsifier (5-20 g kg-1 ).

    RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P  0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.

    CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Nasaruddin N, Jinap S, Samsudin NI, Kamarulzaman NH, Sanny M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Mar 30;101(5):1812-1821.
    PMID: 32893877 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10795
    BACKGROUND: Corn, a main feed ingredient in the livestock industry, is one of the most susceptible crops to fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination. Livestock feeding on aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed have been shown to experience feed refusal, and decreased growth rate, milk production, and feed efficiency. In poultry, AF poisoning causes weight loss, poor feed efficiency, and reduced egg production and egg weight. The present work therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of mycotoxigenic fungi and the occurrence of AF contamination along the integrated corn-based poultry feed supply chain in Malaysia. A total of 51 samples were collected from different points along the feed supply chain from integrated poultry feed companies. The samples were subjected to mycological analyses (fungal isolation, enumeration, identification), and AFs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD).

    RESULTS: Samples collected from sampling point 1 (company A) and sampling point 9 (company B) yielded the highest total fungal load (>log 4 CFU g-1 ). The prevalent fungal genera isolated were Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 8.3% of corn samples, and 7.4% of corn-based poultry feed samples along the feed supply chain, whereas AFs B2 , G1 , and G2 were not detected.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of mycotoxigenic fungi along the integrated poultry feed supply chain warrant continuous monitoring of mycotoxin contamination to reduce the exposure risk of mycotoxin intake in poultry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Chen G, Putranto A, Udoenoh NR
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jan 30;101(2):398-413.
    PMID: 32627847 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10649
    BACKGROUND: Combined infrared (CIR) and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization, and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases, and solid matrix was developed for the CIR and hot-air drying (HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using Matlab with user-friendly graphical user interface for easy coupling and faster computational time.

    RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

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