Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

  1. Tan JC, Chuah CH, Cheng SF
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Apr;97(6):1784-1789.
    PMID: 27470073 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7975
    BACKGROUND: Conventional palm oil milling involves multiple stages after fruit collection; in particular, oil clarification introduces water into the pressed oil, which results in a large quantity of wastewater.

    RESULTS: A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (<1.0%) and an acceptable anisidine value (<3.0 meq kg(-1) ). The oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres.

    CONCLUSION: Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Chen G, Putranto A, Udoenoh NR
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jan 30;101(2):398-413.
    PMID: 32627847 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10649
    BACKGROUND: Combined infrared (CIR) and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization, and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases, and solid matrix was developed for the CIR and hot-air drying (HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using Matlab with user-friendly graphical user interface for easy coupling and faster computational time.

    RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Aziz NS, Sofian-Seng NS, Mohd Razali NS, Lim SJ, Mustapha WA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Apr;99(6):2665-2676.
    PMID: 30426501 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9481
    White pepper is the dried seeds obtained from pepper berries (Piper nigrum L.) after the removal of the pericarp. It has been widely used as seasoning and condiments in food preparation. Globally, white pepper fetches a higher price compared to black pepper due to its lighter colour, preferable milder flavour and pungency. Increasing global demand of the spice outpaced the supply as the conventional production method used is laborious, lengthy and also not very hygienic. The most common conventional method is water retting but can also include pit soil, chemical, boiling, steaming and mechanical methods. The introduction of a biotechnological approach has gained a lot of interest, as it is a more rapid, convenient and hygienic method of producing white pepper. This technique involves the application of microorganisms and/or enzymes. This review highlights both conventional and latest biotechnological processes of white pepper production. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
  4. Karupaiah T, Aik CK, Heen TC, Subramaniam S, Bhuiyan AR, Fasahat P, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Aug 30;91(11):1951-6.
    PMID: 21480266 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4395
    BACKGROUND: We evaluated glycaemic response of a brown rice variant (BR) developed by cross-breeding. Subjects (n = 9) consumed 50 g carbohydrate equivalents of BR, white rice (WR) and the polished brown rice (PR) in comparison to 50 g glucose reference (GLU) in a cross-over design. Plasma glucose and insulin at 0, 15, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min were measured and incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and indices for glucose (GI) and insulin (II) calculated.
    RESULTS: BR compared to PR or WR produced the lowest postprandial glycaemia (GI: 51 vs 79 vs 86) and insulinaemia (II: 39 vs 63 vs 68) irrespective of amylose content (19 vs 23 vs 26.5%). Only BR was significantly different from GLU for both plasma glucose (P = 0.012) and insulin (P = 0.013) as well as IAUC(glu) (P = 0.045) and IAUC(ins) (P = 0.031). Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses correlated positively (r = 0.550, P < 0.001). Linear trends for IAUC(glu) and IAUC(ins) indicated a greater secretion of insulin tied in with a greater glycaemic response for WR (r(2) = 0.848), moderate for PR (r(2) = 0.302) and weakest for BR (r(2) = 0.122).
    CONCLUSION: The brown rice variant had the lowest GI and II values but these advantages were lost with polishing.
  5. Ho CW, Lazim A, Fazry S, Hussain Zaki UKH, Massa S, Lim SJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Feb;100(3):1012-1021.
    PMID: 31646636 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10103
    BACKGROUND: Wines are produced via the alcoholic fermentation of suitable substrates, usually sugar (sugar cane, grapes) and carbohydrates (wheat, grain). However, conventional alcoholic fermentation is limited by the inhibition of yeast by ethanol produced, usually at approximately 13-14%. Aside from that, soursop fruit is a very nutritious fruit, although it is highly perishable, and thus produces a lot of wastage. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce fermented soursop juice (soursop wine), using combination of two starter cultures, namely mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as well as to determine the effects of fermentation on the physicochemical and antioxidant activities of fermented soursop juice. Optimisation of four factors (pH, temperature, time and culture ratio) using response surface methodology were performed to maximise ethanol production.

    RESULTS: The optimised values for alcoholic fermentation were pH 4.99, 28.29 °C, 131 h and a 0.42 culture ratio (42:58, P. pulmonarius mycelia:S. cerevisiae) with a predicted ethanol concentration of 22.25%. Through a verification test, soursop wine with 22.29 ± 0.52% ethanol was produced. The antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power) showed a significant (P 

  6. Andrew J, Ismail NW, Djama M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):12-17.
    PMID: 28898466 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8666
    The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, have been rapidly increasing in production for the last 20 years. Despite their known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also to the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks. This paper provides an overview of GM crop technology from international and national context and explores the governance and issues surrounding this technology application in Malaysia. Basically, GM research activities in Malaysia are still at an early stage of research and development and most of the GM crops approved for release are limited for food, feed and processing purposes. Even though Malaysia has not planted any GM crops commercially, actions toward such a direction seem promising. Several issues concerning GM crops as discussed in this paper will become more complex as the number of GM crops and varieties commercialised globally increase and Malaysia starts to plant GM crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
  7. Liu Q, Wu TY, Tu W, Pu L
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Jan 30;103(2):908-916.
    PMID: 36067269 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12202
    BACKGROUND: Relieving serious non-point source pollution of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) is an urgent task in China. It is necessary to explore the changing characteristics of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency to provide references. A new method of 'relative productivity proportion weight', which was simpler than data envelope analysis, was proposed to construct models of fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) and chemical fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE) by considering NPK multi-inputs and the grain output scale, respectively.

    RESULTS: During 1980-2014, the FIs of NPK chemical fertilizers in China showed a significant growing trend. After reaching the highest value of 339 kg ha-1 in 2014, FIs were reduced to 303 kg ha-1 in 2019, higher than the 225 kg ha-1 maximum safe usage internationally recognized. Meanwhile, the pattern of change of FAE was one of 'decreasing to increasing', with values of 1 in 1980, 0.66 in 2003, and 0.80 in 2019. FIE basically showed an increasing trend, which could be divided into three stages: the first stage of low efficiency during 1980-2009, the second stage of medium efficiency after 2010, and the third stage of high efficiency after 2018.

    CONCLUSION: From 1980 until 2019, a reduction of FAE from 1 to 0.80 with an average of 0.75 was observed in China. FIE was found between 0.65 and 0.85 and had the potential of upgrading by 15-35%. Therefore, China needs to improve the fertilizer use efficiency in order to strive for negative growth of chemical fertilizer intensity and ecological agriculture construction. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Ariffin F, Heong Chew S, Bhupinder K, Karim AA, Huda N
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Dec;91(15):2731-9.
    PMID: 21987075 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4454
    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions.
  9. Jafarzadeh S, Rhim JW, Alias AK, Ariffin F, Mahmud S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Apr;99(6):2716-2725.
    PMID: 30350410 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9439
    BACKGROUND: Active food packaging films with improved properties and strong antimicrobial activity were prepared by blending mixed nanomaterials with different ratio [1:4 (40 mg:160 mg), 3:2 (120 mg: 80 mg), 0:5 (0 mg: 200 mg) and 5:0 (200 mg:0 mg)] of ZnO and kaolin with semolina using a solvent casting method and used for the packaging of low moisture mozzarella cheese to test the effect of packaging on the quality change of the cheese for long-term (up to 72 days) refrigerated storage.

    RESULTS: Compared with the neat semolina film, mechanical strength (TS) of the nanocomposite films increased significantly (increase in 21-65%) and water vapor barrier (WVP) and O2 gas barrier (OP) properties decreased significantly (decrease in 43-50% and 60-65%, respectively) depending on the blending ratio of ZnO and kaolin nanoclay. The nanocomposite films also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria (E. coli and S. aureus), yeast (C. albicans), and mold (A. niger). The nanocomposite packaging films were effectively prevented the growth of microorganisms (coliforms, total microbial, and fungi) of the cheese during storage at low-temperature and showed microbial growth of less than 2.5 log CFU/g after 72 days of storage compared to the control group, and the quality of the packaged cheese was still acceptable.

    CONCLUSION: The semolina-based nanocomposite films, especially Sem/Z3 K2 film, were effective for packaging of low moisture mozzarella cheese to maintain the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture, and fat content) and quality (color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability) of the cheese as well as preventing microbial growth (coliforms, total microbial, and fungi). © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Amin ZA, Abdulla MA, Ali HM, Alshawsh MA, Qadir SW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Jul;92(9):1874-7.
    PMID: 22231455 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5554
    Recently much attention has been paid to biologically active plants because of their low production cost and fewer adverse effects compared with chemical drugs. In the present investigation the bioactivity of Phyllanthus niruri ethanol and aqueous extracts was evaluated in vitro.
  11. Rengasamy N, Othman RY, Che HS, Harikrishna JA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Jan 15;102(1):299-311.
    PMID: 34091912 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11359
    BACKGROUND: Stevia rebaudiana is a high value crop due to the strong commercial demand for its metabolites (steviol glycosides) but has limited geographical cultivation range. In non-native environments with different daylength and light quality, Stevia has low germination rates and early flowering resulting in lower biomass and poor yield of the desired metabolites. In this study, artificial lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to determine if different light quality within and outside of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range can be used to improve germination rates and yields for production of steviol glycosides for the herbal supplement and food industry.

    RESULTS: Plants treated with red and blue light at an intensity of 130 μmol m-2  s-1 supplemented with 5% of UV-A light under a 16-h photoperiod produced the most desirable overall results with a high rate of germination, low percentage of early flowering, and high yields of dry leaf, stevioside and rebaudioside A, 175 days after planting.

    CONCLUSION: While red and blue light combinations are effective for plant growth, the use of supplemental non-PAR irradiation of UV-A wavelength significantly and desirably delayed flowering, enhanced germination, biomass, rebaudioside A and stevioside yields, while supplemental green light improved yield of biomass and rebaudioside A, but not stevioside. Overall, the combination of red, blue and UV-A light resulted in the best overall productivity for Stevia rebaudiana. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Wong MC, Karuthan C, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Jan 15;90(1):65-9.
    PMID: 20355013 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3780
    Bile salt deconjugation by Lactobacillus strains is often closely linked to bile tolerance and survival of the strains in the gut and lowering of cholesterol in the host. The present study investigated the deconjugation of bile salts and removal of cholesterol by 12 Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The 12 strains were previously isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.
  13. Zamzuri NA, Abd-Aziz S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Feb;93(3):429-38.
    PMID: 23208984 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5962
    This review provides an overview of biovanillin production from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour. Biovanillin is one of the widely used flavour compounds in the foods, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. An alternative production approach for biovanillin as a food flavour is hoped for due to the high and variable cost of natural vanillin as well as the limited availability of vanilla pods in the market. Natural vanillin refers to the main organic compound that is extracted from the vanilla bean, as compared to biovanillin, which is produced biologically by microorganisms from a natural precursor such as ferulic acid. Biovanillin is also reviewed as a potential bioflavour produced by microbial fermentation in an economically feasible way in the near future. In fact, we briefly discuss natural, synthetic and biovanillin and the types of agro wastes that are useful as sources for bioconversion of ferulic acid into biovanillin. The subsequent part of the review emphasizes the current application of vanillin as well as the utilization of biovanillin as an alternative food flavour. The final part summarizes biovanillin production from agro wastes that could be of benefit as a food flavour derived from potential natural precursors.
  14. Azman Halimi R, Barkla BJ, Andrés-Hernandéz L, Mayes S, King GJ
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1495-1504.
    PMID: 31756768 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10157
    BACKGROUND: Food security is recognized as a major global challenge, yet human food-chain systems are inherently not geared towards nutrition, with decisions on crop and cultivar choice not informed by dietary composition. Currently, food compositional tables and databases (FCT/FCDB) are the primary information sources for decisions relating to dietary intake. However, these only present single mean values representing major components. Establishment of a systematic controlled vocabulary to fill this gap requires representation of a more complex set of semantic relationships between terms used to describe nutritional composition and dietary function.

    RESULTS: We carried out a survey of 11 FCT/FCDB and 177 peer-reviewed papers describing variation in nutritional composition and dietary function for food crops to identify a comprehensive set of terms to construct a controlled vocabulary. We used this information to generate a Crop Dietary Nutrition Data Framework (CDN-DF), which incorporates controlled vocabularies systematically organized into major classes representing nutritional components and dietary functions. We demonstrate the value of the CDN-DF for comparison of equivalent components between crop species or cultivars, for identifying data gaps and potential for formal meta-analysis. The CDN-DF also enabled us to explore relationships between nutritional components and the functional attributes of food.

    CONCLUSION: We have generated a structured crop dietary nutrition data framework, which is generally applicable to the collation and comparison of data relevant to crop researchers, breeders, and other stakeholders, and will facilitate dialogue with nutritionists. It is currently guiding the establishment of a more robust formal ontology. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Ramli AN, Aznan TN, Illias RM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(5):1386-1395.
    PMID: 27790704 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8122
    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants. It can be found in several parts of the pineapple plant, including the stem, fruit, leaves and peel. High demand for bromelain has resulted in gradual increases in bromelain production. These increases have led to the need for a bromelain production strategy that yields more purified bromelain at a lower cost and with fewer production steps. Previously, bromelain was purified by conventional centrifugation, ultrafiltration and lyophilisation. Recently, the development of more modern purification techniques such as gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, aqueous two-phase extraction and reverse micelle chromatography has resulted in increased industrial bromelain production worldwide. In addition, recombinant DNA technology has emerged as an alternative strategy for producing large amounts of ultrapure bromelain. An up-to-date compilation of data regarding the commercialisation of bromelain in the clinical, pharmaceutical and industrial fields is provided in this review. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
  16. Hani NM, Torkamani AE, Azarian MH, Mahmood KW, Ngalim SH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Aug;97(10):3348-3358.
    PMID: 27981649 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8185
    BACKGROUND: Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since ancient times. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties, which could retard oxidative stress, and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique.

    RESULTS: The total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC50 ) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE g-1 sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE g-1 extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg mL-1 and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe(II) g-1 extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80% and 85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres, especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content, was significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method, where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Lau GL, Sieo CC, Tan WS, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Oct;92(13):2657-63.
    PMID: 22505020 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5683
    Colibacillosis is one of the main causes of economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Although antibiotics have been used to control this infection, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a threat to animal and human health. Phage therapy has been reported as one of the potential alternative methods to control bacterial infections. However, efficient phage therapy is highly dependent on the characteristics of the phage isolated. In the present study the characteristics of a lytic phage, ØEC1, which was found to be effective against the causative agent of colibacillosis in chickens in a previous in vivo study, are reported.
  18. Abdelwahab SI, Zaman FQ, Mariod AA, Yaacob M, Abdelmageed AH, Khamis S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Dec;90(15):2682-8.
    PMID: 20945508 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4140
    Plant essential oils are widely used as fragrances and flavours. Therefore, the essential oils from the leaves of Cinnamomum pubescens Kochummen (CP) and the whole plant of Etlingera elatior (EE) were investigated for their antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties.
  19. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Ismail S, Man CN
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Feb;92(3):593-7.
    PMID: 25520982
    In this study the chemical composition, antioxidant activities and cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) and Morinda citrifolia (mengkudu) were determined.
  20. Ado MA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Ghazali HM, Shaari K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Feb;95(3):635-42.
    PMID: 25048579 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6832
    The aim of the current study was (i) to evaluate the bioactive potential of the leaf methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora L., along with its respective hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH) and aqueous fractions, in inhibiting the enzymes α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase as well as evaluating their antioxidant activities. (ii) In addition, in view of the limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of C. cauliflora, we further characterized the profiles of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
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