Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

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  1. Barrett JP, Behrens RH
    J Travel Med, 1996 Mar 01;3(1):60-61.
    PMID: 9815425
    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax was originally reported in Papua, New Guinea by Reickman in 1989.1 In the same year, in Colombia, South America, Arias and Corredor2 reported relapses of 11 patients suffering from vivax malaria, following a chloroquine-primaquine regimen. Garavelli and Corti3 suggested chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax may be present in Brazil following these therapeutic relapses. Further therapeutic failures in returned travelers from South America were reported by Moore et al (1994).4 We report vivax malaria in a group of expeditioners visiting Guyana who, whereas compliant with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, developed clinical malaria, adding evidence to the presence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax in South America. Raleigh International is a youth development charity that undertakes environmental and community projects around the world. These are usually in remote locations. Nine expeditions in countries such as Chile, Belize, Zimbabwe, Uganda, and Malaysia are organized annually. A project manager and a medical officer are placed at each site, along with approximately 10 venturers (age 17-25.) Participants are of all nationalities, but, at present, they are predominantly British.
  2. Chang L, Lim BCW, Flaherty GT, Torresi J
    J Travel Med, 2019 Sep 02;26(6).
    PMID: 31066446 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taz034
    BACKGROUND: With the advent of highly active antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) it has become possible for people with HIV to travel to destinations that may place them at risk of a number of infectious diseases. Prevention of infections by vaccination is therefore of paramount importance for these travellers. However, vaccine responsiveness in HIV-positive individuals is not infrequently reduced compared to HIV-negative individuals. An understanding of the expected immune responses to vaccines in HIV-positive travellers is therefore important in planning the best approach to a pretravel consultation.

    METHODS: A PubMed search was performed on HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome together with a search for specific vaccines. Review of the literature was performed to develop recommendations on vaccinations for HIV-positive travellers to high-risk destinations.

    RESULTS: The immune responses to several vaccines are reduced in HIV-positive people. In the case of vaccines for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcus, meningococcus and yellow fever there is a good body of data in the literature showing reduced immune responsiveness and also to help guide appropriate vaccination strategies. For other vaccines like Japanese encephalitis, rabies, typhoid fever, polio and cholera the data are not as robust; however, it is still possible to gain some understanding of the reduced responses seen with these vaccines.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a summary of the immunological responses to commonly used vaccines for the HIV-positive travellers. This information will help guide travel medicine practitioners in making decisions about vaccination and boosting of travellers with HIV.

  3. Connolly R, Prendiville R, Cusack D, Flaherty G
    J Travel Med, 2017 Mar 01;24(2).
    PMID: 28395093 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taw082
    Background: Death during international travel and the repatriation of human remains to one's home country is a distressing and expensive process. Much organization is required involving close liaison between various agencies.

    Methods: A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database. Search terms included: 'repatriation of remains', 'death', 'abroad', 'tourism', 'travel', 'travellers', 'travelling' and 'repatriation'. Additional articles were obtained from grey literature sources and reference lists.

    Results: The local national embassy, travel insurance broker and tour operator are important sources of information to facilitate the repatriation of the deceased traveller. Formal identification of the deceased's remains is required and a funeral director must be appointed. Following this, the coroner in the country or jurisdiction receiving the repatriated remains will require a number of documents prior to providing clearance for burial. Costs involved in repatriating remains must be borne by the family of the deceased although travel insurance may help defray some of the costs. If the death is secondary to an infectious disease, cremation at the site of death is preferred. No standardized procedure is in place to deal with the remains of a migrant's body at present and these remains are often not repatriated to their country of origin.

    Conclusions: Repatriation of human remains is a difficult task which is emotionally challenging for the bereaving family and friends. As a travel medicine practitioner, it is prudent to discuss all eventualities, including the risk of death, during the pre-travel consultation. Awareness of the procedures involved in this process may ease the burden on the grieving family at a difficult time.

  4. Deris ZZ, Hasan H, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Naing NN, Othman NH
    J Travel Med, 2010 Mar-Apr;17(2):82-8.
    PMID: 20412173 DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8305.2009.00384.x
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory symptoms including cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever are the most common clinical manifestations faced by hajj pilgrims in Mecca. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Malaysian hajj pilgrims and the effect of a few protective measures taken by hajj pilgrims to reduce respiratory symptoms.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing survey forms to Malaysian hajj pilgrims at transit center before flying back to Malaysia. The recruitment of respondents to the survey was on a voluntary basis.
    RESULTS: A total of 387 survey forms were available for analysis. The mean age was 50.4 +/- 11.0 years. The common respiratory symptoms among Malaysian hajj pilgrims were: cough 91.5%, runny nose 79.3%, fever 59.2%, and sore throat 57.1%. The prevalence of hajj pilgrims with triad of cough, subjective fever, and sore throat were 40.1%. The symptoms lasted less than 2 weeks in the majority of cases. Only 3.6% did not suffer from any of these symptoms. Seventy-two percent of hajj pilgrims received influenza vaccination before departure and 72.9% wore facemasks. Influenza vaccination was not associated with any of respiratory symptoms but it was significantly associated with longer duration of sore throat. Wearing masks was significantly associated with sore throat and longer duration of sore throat and fever.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims and the current protective measures seemed inadequate to reduce it. Beside standardization of the term used in hajj studies, more collaborative effort should be taken to reduce respiratory symptoms. The hajj authority should prepare for the challenge of pandemic influenza by providing more healthcare facilities and implementation of more strict measures to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza strain among hajj pilgrims.
  5. Flaherty G, Md Nor MN
    J Travel Med, 2016 Jan;23(1).
    PMID: 26782127 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tav010
    Risk assessment relies on the accuracy of the information provided by the traveller. A questionnaire was administered to 83 consecutive travellers attending a travel medicine clinic. The majority of travellers was uncertain about destinations within countries, transportation or type of accommodation. Most travellers were uncertain if they would be visiting malaria regions. The degree of uncertainty about itinerary potentially impacts on the ability of the travel medicine specialist to perform an adequate risk assessment, select appropriate vaccinations and prescribe malaria prophylaxis. This study reveals high levels of traveller uncertainty about their itinerary which may potentially reduce the effectiveness of their pre-travel consultation.
  6. Flaherty G, Udoeyop I, Whooley P, Jones M
    J Travel Med, 2017 05 01;24(3).
    PMID: 28355618 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taw100
  7. Flaherty GT, Choi J
    J Travel Med, 2016 Feb;23(2):tav026.
    PMID: 26858274 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tav026
    Photography is an integral component of the international travel experience. Self-photography is becoming a mainstream behaviour in society and it has implications for the practice of travel medicine. Travellers who take selfies, including with the use of selfie sticks, may be subject to traumatic injuries associated with this activity. This review article is the first in the medical literature to address this emerging phenomenon.
  8. Flaherty GT, Walden LM, Townend M
    J Travel Med, 2016 May;23(5).
    PMID: 27279126 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taw036
    Few studies have examined emergency self treatment (EST) antimalarial prescribing patterns. 110 physician-members of the Travel Medicine Society of Ireland and British Global and Travel Health Association participated in this study. There was a trend towards the prescription of EST for travel to remote low-risk malaria areas; for long-term residents living in low-risk areas; and for frequent travellers to low-risk areas. This study provides insights into the use of EST in travellers' malaria.
  9. Flaherty GT, Caumes E
    J Travel Med, 2018 01 01;25(1).
    PMID: 29635642 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tay019
    Background: Traumatic deaths, and more particularly suicides, during international travel receive a disproportionately low level of attention in the travel medicine literature. We describe the demographic profile of international travellers whose death occurred at the Cliffs of Moher along the Atlantic seaboard in Ireland.

    Methods: Coroners' files for the 25 years between 1993 and 2017 were interrogated. All cases of death on or at the cliffs were examined, and demographic data were extracted, including date of death, gender, age, nationality, whether the victims were alone at the cliffs prior to their death, whether the fall was witnessed, prevailing weather conditions, post-mortem examinations, toxicology reports and inquest verdicts.

    Results: Overall, 66 deaths occurred on or at the base of the Cliffs of Moher during the period 1993 through August 2017. In total, 18 (27.3%) of the victims were international visitors to Ireland, including 11 males (61.1%). The mean age of travellers (n = 17) was 34.2 years. Victims were nationals of 12 different countries, with 13 being European nationals. Most deaths occurred in summer (n = 7) or spring (n = 6), with eight deaths (44%) reported at weekends. In total, 15 victims (83.3%) had walked along the cliff path alone. A jump or fall from the cliffs was witnessed in only two cases (11.1%). Post-mortem examinations revealed multiple traumatic injuries consistent with a fall from a height. Four cases had evidence of alcohol intoxication. Suicide or open verdicts were returned in 50% (n = 9) of the cases.

    Conclusions: Travelling alone to the site, purchasing one-way tickets, or depositing belongings on the clifftop support the possibility of suicidal intent, while being intoxicated could be a co-factor in suicidal jumps or support the possibility of an accidental fall. This knowledge could help to identify travellers at the greatest risk of death at cliffs.

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