Focal eventration involving the posterior segment of the
hemidiaphragm is a rare congenital anomaly. We report of a 10-
day-old infant who presented with significant respiratory
insufficiency and failure to show any responses to standard
treatment. The diagnosis of focal eventration of the diaphragm
was not anticipated until ultrasonographic examination revealed
the defect. Diaphragmatic plication resulted in complete
resolution of symptoms. A high level clinical awareness is
crucial as a relatively simple surgical procedure could avert long
term life-threatening complications.
Background: Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS) by Yardley et al. (1992) is one of the disease specific
questionnaires used widely in clinical settings. It is conducted in English and had been translated into six languages including Dutch, French, German, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish. It has been acknowledged as a good subjective tool to determine the severity of balance disorders. Objective: To develop a valid Malay version of VSS (MVVSS) using appropriate translation methods and validation technique. Method: Forward and backward translation was performed by four professionals from different fields. The translated questionnaire was then assessed for its test reliability based on an experiment on 30 normal subjects. Further, to determine the cultural adaptation issues, the face validity of MVVSS was assessed from 32 normal subjects. They were asked to fill in the MVVSS questionnaire accordingly and give opinions regarding its language, understanding and overall format of questionnaire. Results: Final results of the translation process showed sufficient concurrence among the professionals involved. The reliability test among the normal subjects also showed a high Cronbach’s alpha value (0.90). The face validity method on 32 subjects (mean age of 29.9 ± 9.2 years) showed good feedbacks in terms of language, understanding and overall format of the MVVSS. Conclusion: The translation process was successful and the further validation showed an adequate face validity response. This suggests that our MVVSS has been culturally adapted and can be used in all Malay conversing patients.
Peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD) is serious and common. Clinically, giving an accurate diagnosis of PVD can be challenging. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is an objective test to evaluate the integrity of vestibular organs, particularly saccule and/or inferior vestibular nerve. This study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of VEMP using different stimuli. Fourty normal and 65 PVD subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited. While sitting comfortably, VEMP waveforms were recorded with active electrode on sternocleidomastoid muscle and negative electrode on upper forehead. Tone bursts (500, 750 and 1000 Hz) were delivered via headphones at 90 dBnHL and 5/s presentation rate. VEMP parameters for each stimulus (amplitude and latency of P1 and N1 peak) were analyzed accordingly. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of VEMP at different test frequencies. N1 amplitude of 750 Hz stimulus produced the most ideal sensitivity (65% on right and 63% on left) and specificity (83% on right and 78% on left). The importance of using a few tone bursts in VEMP test in order to minimize the false negative in cases might be encountered in clinics as the certain tone burst had inadequate sensitivity in detecting PVD cases. The 750 Hz stimulus produced the most ideal VEMP with adequate values of sensitivity and specificity, at least in this study.
Introduction: Tissue-engineered oral mucosa (TEOM) is increasingly being used to model oral mucosal diseases and to assess drug toxicity. Current TEOM models are constructed using normal oral fibroblasts (NOF) contained within a hydrogel matrix with normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) cultured on top. NOK are not commercially available and suffer from donor-to-donor variability. Therefore, oral mucosal models based on immortalised keratinocytes may offer advantages over NOK-based models. The objective of this study was to construct and characterise the TEOM developed using TERT2-immortalised oral keratinocyte (FNB6) cells and validate its similarity to normal oral muco-sal tissue. Methods: TEOM were constructed by culturing FNB6 cells on top of a NOF-populated collagen type-1 hydrogel in tissue culture transwell inserts cultured at an air-to-liquid interface and collected at 14 day. TEOM were subjected to morphological (H&E and PAS), ultrastructural (TEM) and immunohistological (Ki-67, cytokeratin 14 and E-cadherin) analysis. Results: Histologically TEOM mimicked native oral mucosa displaying a stratified epithelium, fibroblast-containing connective tissue and basement membrane. Furthermore, TEM confirmed the presence of des-mosomes and hemi-desmosomes in the epithelium. IHC revealed expression of differentiation markers (cytokeratin 14), proliferation (Ki-67), cell adhesion (E-cadherin). Conclusion: FNB6 mucosal models able to mimic native oral mucosa structure. It has potential for drug delivery and toxicity evaluation, and replacing models based on NOK where access to primary cells is limited.
Introduction: Currently, organoid technology provides a useful tool for modelling human organ development and pathologies in vitro. Salivary gland (SG) organoids developed from mice SG cells display self-organizing properties closely mimic the native organ. Thus, this study would like to investigate the potential of this organoid system to de-velop a human salivary gland in vitro. Methods: Organoids were developed from biopsy samples of normal human sublingual gland tissue. Cells were isolated and cultured in Matrigel at an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) for up to 14 days in an enriched media supplementing with Wnt-3A, R-spondin1, EGF, and FGF2. Specific differentiation factors like TGFβ, BMP, and LIMK inhibitors were added to enriched media for further differentiation studies. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the cultures were used to visualise growth. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoflu-orescence were used to determine the differential expression of cell-specific markers. Results: Human SG organoids developed when the cells were grown in Matrigel at ALI in a defined culture system. The addition of TGFβ inhibitor and all the inhibitors (TGFβ, BMP and LIMK) to the culture media affected SG organoids development by displaying distinct characteristics that closely resemble native glands and expressed specific cell-type markers; BPIFA2, AQP5, CK5 and E-cadherin. The inhibition of BMP signalling demonstrated SG organoids growth more into ductal-like struc-tures and expressed ductal cell marker, CK7. While LIM kinase inhibition signalling showed significantly higher of amylase activity assay. Conclusion: This study certainly offers valuable insight into determining the optimal culture conditions for developing human SG organoids.
Introduction: Vector surveillance in high-rise buildings is important to predict and monitor the presence of vectors regarding their abundance and distribution. In this study, the infestation profile of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopic- tus species in different environmental settings were investigated. Methods: Four high-rise apartments in four differ- ent localities were selected for ovitrap surveillance. Fifty ovitraps were placed in semi indoor and outdoor settings. Results: A total of 507 (42.8%) from ovitraps showed the presence of the Aedes species larvae. Out of these, 170 (33.5%) of the positive ovitraps were those placed in semi indoor and 337 (66.5%) in outdoor. Of the total 16,613 Aedes larvae found, 4,130 (24.9%) were from semi indoor, and 12,483 (75.1%) from outdoor. In terms of distri- bution, Ae. albopictus was predominantly found in outdoor environments (POI=87.5%; MLT=36.45 larvae). Ae. aegypti was also found in outdoor environments (POI=14.89%; MLT=8.26 larvae). There was a significant difference in POI for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the two different environments but no significant difference was observed in MLT, indicating that the density of the Aedes species in both environments was well distributed. Con- clusion: In this study, the patterns of Aedes habitat in high-rise apartments were observed. This study has shown an invasion and adaptation of Aedes mosquitoes into the ecosystems of high-rise buildings. It can be concluded that housing designs and the condition of the surrounding environment affects the infestation profile and the distribution of Aedes mosquitoes.
Vector surveillance in high-rise buildings is important to predict and monitor the presence of vectors regarding their abundance and distribution. In this study, the infestation profile of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species in different environmental settings were investigated. Methods: Four high-rise apartments in four different localities were selected for ovitrap surveillance. Fifty ovitraps were placed in semi indoor and outdoor settings. Results: A total of 507 (42.8%) from ovitraps showed the presence of the Aedes species larvae. Out of these, 170 (33.5%) of the positive ovitraps were those placed in semi indoor and 337 (66.5%) in outdoor. Of the total 16,613 Aedes larvae found, 4,130 (24.9%) were from semi indoor, and 12,483 (75.1%) from outdoor. In terms of distribution, Ae. albopictus was predominantly found in outdoor environments (POI=87.5%; MLT=36.45 larvae). Ae. aegypti was also found in outdoor environments (POI=14.89%; MLT=8.26 larvae). There was a significant difference in POI for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the two different environments but no significant difference was observed in MLT, indicating that the density of the Aedes species in both environments was well distributed. Conclusion: In this study, the patterns of Aedes habitat in high-rise apartments were observed. This study has shown an invasion and adaptation of Aedes mosquitoes into the ecosystems of high-rise buildings. It can be concluded that housing designs and the condition of the surrounding environment affects the infestation profile and the distribution of Aedes mosquitoes.
Neurodegeneration resulting from pathogen invasion or tissue damage has been associated with
activation of microglia, and exacerbated by the release of neurotoxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines,
chemokines and reactive oxygen species. Activation of microglia stimulated by lipopolysaccharide is mediated in
part by GSK-3 signaling molecule. Induced IL-10 expression via GSK-3 inhibition is noteworthy since IL-10 has been
remarkably shown to suppress inflammation. Objectives: We aimed to inactivate microglia through inhibition of
GSK-3 signaling and to determine its effects on the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Methods:
LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were treated with a GSK-3 inhibitor (LiCl, NP12, SB216763 or CHIR99021). Inhibition
of GSK-3 was determined by the phosphorylation status of GSK-3β. The effects of GSK-3 inhibition on microglial
inflammatory response were investigated by examining various mediators and CD200R marker. Production of nitric
oxide (NO), glutamate and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured using flow cytometry, Griess assay,
glutamate assay and Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) respectively. Results: GSK-3β signaling in LPS-stimulated microglia
was blocked by GSK-3 inhibitor through increased phosphorylation at Serine 9 residue. GSK-3 inhibitors had also
led to reducing in microglia activity via increased expression of CD200R. Inhibition of GSK-3 also diminished
inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and
chemokine, MCP-1. Reduction of pro-inflammatory mediators by GSK-3 inhibitor was coincided with increased
IL-10 production. Conclusions: Suppression of microglia-mediated inflammatory response was facilitated by GSK-3
inhibition with associated increased in IL-10 production.
Cancer pain is a complex experience and is one of the most common and distressing symptom of breast cancer which affects patients’ functioning in daily activities, their quality of life (QOL), and mood. Yet, there is a great lack of data on breast cancer and pain in Malaysia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study using the Breast Cancer Patient Version of Quality of Life (QOL) Instrument (translated into Malay) and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were conducted on 87 female breast cancer patients to investigate the impact of pain interference level on their quality of life and depressive level.
Results: The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their rating of how pain and aches have been a problem to them (i.e not a problem [n=18 (20.7%)], mild[n=29 (33.3%)], moderate [n=18 (20.7%)] and severe [n=22(25.3%). Pain and aches ware reported to be the most severe interference problems in QOL physical domain by patients (mean=5.8, SD=2.8), followed by fatigue (mean=6.0, SD=3.1) and sleep changes (mean=6.2, SD=3.5). Patients who reported that pain and aches had severely affected them showed significantly lower score on many aspects of quality of life (Fs > 5, p < 0.005; p < 0.0001) and patients reported pain was not a problem at all demonstrated highest score on all aspects of QOL. Patients with most severe pain interference level showed highest depressive score [F (3, 84) =3, p < 0.05].
Conclusion: The study underscores the impact of pain interference on patients’ quality of life and depressive level. The pain assessment deserves significant attention and therefore a comprehensive biopsychosocial assessment of pain to rule out any related underlying issues is warranted in the management of breast cancer to ensure appropriate intervention given to the patients.
Carpanenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged as a threat to hospitalized patients. Phenotypic test such as Modified hodge test was less sensitive and specific especially to detect blaNDM-1 which is the most predominant genotype in this region. Nucleic acid amplification technology offers improved specificity and sensitivity. Failed amplification due to the presence of inhibitors is a limitation. In this study, we tried to use previous method described by Villumseen et al with some modification using another DNA extraction kit. Methods: Ten mls of sterile whole blood taken from nearly expired blood bag from blood bank was spiked with 200 μl of 0.5mcFarland bacterial suspension from thirty-six confirmed isolates of blaNDM-1 carbapenamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in an aerobic Bactec Plus and incubated until the growth was detected. The blood specimen was subjected to DNA extraction method using Macherey-Nachel, Nucleospin® Blood QuickPure followed with multiplex PCR. Results: Out of the 36 isolates, 12 isolates revealed blaNDM-1 , 9 isolates revealed blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-48, 7 isolates revealed blaNDM-1, blaVIM and blaKPC genotypes that were amplified at cycle threshold of less than 30. Another 8 isolates could not pick up any genotypes possibly due to pipetting error as all the internal control were amplified. Eight true negative gram negative isolates underwent same procedure and none amplified at a cycle threshold less than 30. Conclusion: This modified method was proved to give a high yield of CPE genotypes with the cycle threshold was set at less than or equal to 30 and able to overcome the presence of PCR inhibitors.
Introduction: Good indoor air quality (IAQ) is important for workers’ well-being whilst simultaneously optimize work productivity and job performance of the workers in an office. This study aims to determine the association between the sick building syndrome (SBS) in relation to the personal factors, indoor office environment and indoor air pollutants at an academic institution in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 342 office workers; made up of 188 (55%) female and 154 male (45%), from 14 different office buildings; made up of administrative, faculties, centers, institutes and school, participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine symptoms related to SBS. Real time readings of IAQ parameters were conducted three times daily for 15 minutes /sampling point. Results: Results showed higher prevalence of the SBS symptoms generally among women; diagnosed asthma was positively associated with mucosal symptoms; current smoking was significantly associated with skin symptoms; and centralized air conditioning system, the use of photocopiers, printers or fax machines for more than 1 hour per day and installation of a new carpet in the office environment were significant risk factors of SBS. After adjusting for de- mographic characteristics, formaldehyde, ultrafine particle and total volatile organic compounds were significantly associated with mucosal symptoms. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics, indoor office environment and indoor air pollutants were significant risk factors of SBS among workers in this study. It is highly recommended to maintain good housekeeping and to isolate printers and photocopier machines from the main workplace since both were sources of particulates.
Introduction: Dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are Arboviruses that are transmitted by the same vector, Aedes aegypti. Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is common in more than 110 countries. In Malaysia, dengue is a major disease burden as total economic costs to the country as a result of dengue is close to RM1.05 billion in 2010 and estimated to rise to 1.3 billion by 2020. Apart from Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are the other important mosquito borne diseases in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time assay for simultaneous detection of DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV in clinical specimens. Methods: The published singleplex protocols were used with key modifications to implement a triplex assay. A one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously detect RNA of DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV with good performance for a routine diagnostic use. The assay was evaluated for inter- and intra-reproducibility by mean CT value. The diagnostic sensitivity was tested with 135 archived samples which had been defined positive or negative by routine singleplex assays. Whole blood, plasma and urines were used in this study. Results: Intra- and inter-reproducibility and sensitivity varied from 0.10% to 4.73% and from 0.45% to 5.98% for each virus respectively. The specificity of detection was 100%. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay showed concordance with test results performed by routine singleplex assays. No cross reaction was observed for any of the clinical samples. Conclusion: The development of a rapid, sensitive and specific molecular assay for DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV infections will produce a greater diagnostic capacity in our laboratory. This multiplex approach is cost effective and robust with the concurrent detection of 3 viruses of public health concern.
Introduction: Adherence towards childhood immunization (completeness and timeliness), with consideration of age-dependent-seroconversion, is the basis for children protection. Despite high global and national immunization coverage, vaccine preventable diseases’ are rising. This study aimed to determine adherence (completeness and timeliness) towards different vaccines of childhood immunization and associated factors among mothers of under five children. Methods: Cross-sectional study design was conducted at a health clinic in Seremban. Total of 320 mothers of under five children attending child health clinic selected via systematic random sampling. Data collection was via validated self-administered questionnaires and proforma, analysed using SPSS version 22. Associations between categorical variables determined by chi-square tests. Results: Consented respondents were 314; resulting in response rate of 98.1%. Adherence (completeness) was 98.09% but only 56.5% - 97.1% of respondents adhered in terms of timeliness. Types of transportation was significantly associated with adherence (completeness), p=0.041. Employment status was significantly associated with adherence (timeliness) towards BCG (p=0.008), Hepatitis B dose one (p=0.018) and dose two (p=0.040) vaccines. Education level was significantly associated with adherence (timeliness) towards DTaP/IPV/HiB dose four (p=0.019). Maternal age and usage of government clinic were significantly associated with adherence (timeliness) of MMR dose one, p=0.030 and p=0.017 respectively. Conclusion: Adherence (completeness) was high but varying adherence towards vaccine timeliness. Transportation types associated with completeness. Employment status associated with BCG, first and second doses of Hepatitis B vaccines’ timeliness. Education level associated with fourth dose of DTaP/IPV/HiB. Maternal age and usage of government clinic associated with timeliness of first dose MMR.
Introduction: The daily life problems of patients with schizophrenia as well as their symptoms are challenging sit- uations that may interfere with their psychological well-being. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the psychological well-being of patients with schizophrenia and factors affecting it. Methods: A cross sec- tional study was conducted to examine the socio-demographic factors, health level, social support and self-esteem of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 255 respondents consisting of patients on follow-up from specialist clinics at three Psychiatric Hospitals in this country were selected to answer the questionnaire. The questionnaires used were the Affect Balance Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale for the measurement of the psychological well-being, social support and self-esteem respectively. The data was analysed using Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A total of 62% of the respondents had positive psychological wellbeing. Socio demographic factors, namely occupation (p=0.007), overall social support (p=0.023), family support (p=0.040), significant others’ support (p=0.046), and self-esteem (p < 0.001), were associ- ated with positive psychological well-being. Conclusion: This study has proven that patients with schizophrenia who regularly received treatment can achieve positive psychological well-being when they have high self-esteem, strong support from their family members as well as people around them and are stable occupation.
Introduction: Plate wastage in hospital contributes to malnutrition-related complications including longer hospital- ization among cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between patients’ ex- periences of access to food hospital and plate wastage among hospitalized cancer patients. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-one cancer patients in the National Cancer Institute, Malaysia were recruited for this study. All eligible patients were undergoing cancer treatments and provided with informed consent. Data obtained included socio-de- mographic characteristics and patients’ experiences of access to food hospital which will contribute to plate wastage. Plate wastage was determined by weighing the unwanted food left on the plate. Results: Prevalence of plate wastage among cancer patients was high at approximately 54%. The appearance of food served was associated with higher plate wastage (p
We report a case of sciatic nerve entrapment resulting in a patient experiencing pain over the posterior aspect of the knee, simulating a Baker's cyst. Surgical exploration revealed a tight fibrous arch compressing the distal portion of the sciatic nerve, proximal to its bifurcation. Decompression of this entrapment led to complete relief of symptoms. This form of presentation is rare and should be considered as a differential diagnosis when a patient presents with complaints of pain in the back of the knee. Keywords: Sciatic nerve compression, pain in the back of the knee
Introduction: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. The increasing prevalence of obesity in all ages can cause chronic illnesses, such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Diseases. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is generally used to classify an adult population as underweight (BMI =25.0 kgm-2) or obese (BMI >=30.0 kgm-2). The normal BMI range lies between 18.5 and 24.99 kgm-2. Physical activity is an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of physical activity in reducing the obesity among the selected participants in Taman Impian Ehsan, Hulu Langat. Methods: This study was a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. The physical activity program took place three times a week for six months started from June to December 2018 which is a part of KOSPEN activity. Results: Thirty participants were recruited in the program. For pre- intervention study, 4 participants have normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.99), 12 participants were overweight (BMI 26.0 to 30.0kgm-2) and 14 participants were obese (BMI > =30.0 kgm-2). Twenty six of participants were retained in the program while the rest quitted. Post-intervention study shows that seven participants have normal BMI, 10 partici-pants were still overweight and nine participants still categorized as obese. Post-intervention study showed that 17 participants managed to lose weight with minimum of 1.2 kg and maximum of 22.6 kg. The average reduction of the body weight was 5%. Conclusion: Physical activity is one of most feasible approach that can assist communities in developing healthy behaviours that promote weight loss and maintain ideal body weight.
Mental health outcome among teachers has become an escalating problems in many countries. Mental health now- adays has becoming a public health issue. Teachers were not an exclusion from this issue. Several studies did point out teachers with poor mental health status has become an increasing problems in many countries. A total of 272 teachers from the urban, rural and industrial areas participated in this cross sectional study in the Klang Valley. The objective was to determine the risk factors associated with mental health among primary school teachers. The teachers’ mental and physical health status were measured using questionnaires. Respondents were given a set of questionnaire which consisted 5 parts, namely socio-demographic and background status, occupational information and medical history obtained from the first part of questionnaire. The other part consisted of the General Health Questionnaire, Teachers’ Stress Inventory, Modified Nordic Questionnaire and American Thoracic Society for Adult. There was no difference in the background of the groups of teachers except for the educational level (p
Heat stress is a serious problem among agricultural workers. Workers who are exposed to the extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. The physiological changes and heat related symptoms could occur due to heat stress. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the impact of heat on the health and productivity of cassava farm workers in Kratie province of Cambodia. The sampling method was a convenient sampling with some inclu- sive criteria. A total of 125 cassava farm workers were selected to participate in this study. The information was collected through a face to face interview using a questionnaire form. Questions were asked on heat exposure during work and heat related symptoms. The environmental heat was measured using heat stress monitor WBGT and data logger for 2 hours for each day. Automatic blood pressure monitor was used to measure blood pressure and heart rate, while ear thermometer measured the body temperature. All measurements of physiological changes were conducted during the rest and work time of the workers. Observations were conducted to determine the production hourly output of workers by using productivity forms. The productivity was determined by calculating the total of cassava roots harvested per hour, which started from
9.00 a.m. to 11.00 a.m. The results indicated that the highest average of heat stress index were 32.11°C and 32.36°C re- spectively whereby the daily exposure to heat during work, exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) of 27.5°C for heavy metabolic workload level with 75% work, 25% rest regimen. Meanwhile, the highest prevalence of heat related symptoms reported among workers were tiredness/weakness (84.4%), followed by heavy sweating (82.4%) and headache (61.6%). The blood pressure, heart rate and core body temperature were below the standard, indicated that the workers were fully acclimatized. There was no significant difference in the physiological changes between male and female during the resting and working period. Heavy sweating, heat, BMI and working time were the factors that were significantly related with productivity. In conclusion, the cassava farm workers in Kratie, Cambodia were exposed to high level of heat stress, which reduced their work productivity.
Introduction: A study on biological monitoring of lead on children was conducted when unleaded gasoline was widely used in 1998. The objectives were to monitor lead exposure using blood lead, urine d-aminolevulinic acid (d-ALA) and urine lead concentrations as biological indicators and to determine the relationship between these variables.
Methodology: Two hundred and sixty-nine school children, 169 from an urban school of Kuala Lumpur and 100 from an industrial school in southern Malaysia were selected for the study. These were Malay children in the age range of 61/2 to 81/2 years old. Blood and urine lead concentrations were analyzed using the Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Urine d-ALA was measured with Spectrophotometer UV/VIS.
Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of the urban children (3.56 mg/dl) and the industrial children (3.75 mg/dl) were not significantly different (p=0.451). The urine d-ALA (urban=9.606; industrial=6.965 mg/g creatinine) and urine lead (urban=2.625; industrial=4.548 mg/g creatinine) of the urban children were significantly higher than the industrial children (p=0.014: p 10 mg/dl. About 78% of the urban children and 76% of the industrial children have urine d-ALA in a normal range (<0.6 mg/100ml) while 22% of the urban children and 24% of the industrial children were in the acceptable range (0.6 - 2.0 mg/100ml). All the children had normal urine lead concentrations (<8 mg/100ml).
Conclusion: These children were not highly exposed to lead as indicated by their blood lead, urine d-ALA and urine lead concentrations which were below the allowable standard in both study areas . This may be due to the total ban on leaded gasoline in the country since 1998 and as a result, the environmental lead exposure in these areas was quite low.
Keywords: Children's lead exposure, blood lead, urine lead, urine d-ALA