In this study, the use of nano-silica (nano-SiO2) and bentonite as mortar additives for combating reinforcement corrosion is reported. More specifically, these materials were used as additives in ordinary Portland cement (OPC)/fly ash blended mortars in different amounts. The effects of nano-silica and bentonite addition on compressive strength of mortars at different ages was tested. Accelerated corrosion testing was used to assess the corrosion resistance of reinforced mortar specimens containing different amounts of nano-silica and bentonite. It was found that the specimens containing nano-SiO2 not only had higher compressive strength, but also showed lower steel mass loss due to corrosion compared to reference specimens. However, this was accompanied by a small reduction in workability (for a constant water to binder ratio). Mortar mixtures with 4% of nano-silica were found to have optimal performance in terms of compressive strength and corrosion resistance. Control specimens (OPC/fly ash mortars without any additives) showed low early age strength and low corrosion resistance compared to specimens containing nano-SiO2 and bentonite. In addition, samples from selected mixtures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Finally, the influence of Ca/Si ratio of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) in different specimens on the compressive strength is discussed. In general, the study showed that the addition of nano-silica (and to a lesser extent bentonite) can result in higher strength and corrosion resistance compared to control specimens. Furthermore, the addition of nano-SiO2 can be used to offset the negative effect of fly ash on early age strength development.
This study evaluates the mechanical, durability, and residual compressive strength (after being exposed to 20, 120, 250, 400 and 600 °C) of mortar that uses recycled iron powder (RIP) as a fine aggregate. Within this context, mechanical strength, shrinkage, durability, and residual strength tests were performed on mortar made with seven different percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50%) of replacement of natural sand (NS) by RIP. It was found that the mechanical strength of mortar increased when replaced with up to 30% NS by RIP. In addition, the increase was 30% for compressive, 18% for tensile, and 47% for flexural strength at 28 days, respectively, compared to the reference mortar (mortar made with 100% NS). Shrinkage was observed for the mortar made with 100% NS, while both shrinkage and expansion occurred in the mortar made with RIP, especially for RIP higher than 5%. Furthermore, significantly lower porosity and capillary water absorption were observed for mortar made with up to 30% RIP, compared to that made with 100% NS, which decreased by 36% for porosity and 48% for water absorption. As the temperature increased, the strength decreased for all mixes, and the drop was more pronounced for the temperatures above 250 °C and 50% RIP. This study demonstrates that up to 30% RIP can be utilized as a fine aggregate in mortar due to its better mechanical and durability performances.
In this study the effect of irradiated and non-irradiated waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as replacement of cement and fly-ash in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and geopolymeric cement (GPC) based cementitious grouts on flexural strength of semi-flexible pavement specimens were evaluated. The porous asphalt gradation was selected based on Malaysian specifications for semi-flexible pavements with a target of 30% air voids. The cement content in the OPC grouts and the fly-ash content in the GPC based grouts were partially replaced with 1.25% PET (using both irradiated and non-irradiated PET). Beam specimens were prepared and tested for flexural strength properties using center point loading configuration. The grouts modified with recycled waste plastic (PET) showed approximately the same results as obtained from the control specimens. Although the replacement amount was low (1.25% by weight of cement), nonetheless, significant impact on reducing CO2 emissions is expected when preparing grouts for mass construction of semi-flexible pavement surfaces. Similarly, effective recycling of waste plastics in road construction and replacing OPC with plastic and geopolymers will have a positive effect on the environment and will furthermore contribute to sustainable pavement construction.
In the present research work, an effort has been made to explore the potential of using the adhesive tapes while drilling CFRPs. The input parameters, such as drill bit diameter, point angle, Scotch tape layers, spindle speed, and feed rate have been studied in response to thrust force, torque, circularity, diameter error, surface roughness, and delamination occurring during drilling. It has been found that the increase in point angle increased the delamination, while increase in Scotch tape layers reduced delamination. The surface roughness decreased with the increase in drill diameter and point angle, while it increased with the speed, feed rate, and tape layer. The best low roughness was obtained at 6 mm diameter, 130° point angle, 0.11 mm/rev feed rate, and 2250 rpm speed at three layers of Scotch tape. The circularity error initially increased with drill bit diameter and point angle, but then decreased sharply with further increase in the drill bit diameter. Further, the circularity error has non-linear behavior with the speed, feed rate, and tape layer. Low circularity error has been obtained at 4 mm diameter, 118° point angle, 0.1 mm/rev feed rate, and 2500 RPM speed at three layers of Scotch tape. The low diameter error has been obtained at 6 mm diameter, 130° point angle, 0.12 mm/rev feed rate, and 2500 rpm speed at three layer Scotch tape. From the optical micro-graphs of drilled holes, it has been found that the point angle is one of the most effective process parameters that significantly affects the delamination mechanism, followed by Scotch tape layers as compared to other parameters such as drill bit diameter, spindle speed, and feed rate.
e effects of biological pretreatment on the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), was evaluated after cultivation of white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Trametes versicolor, and a mixed culture of C. subvermispora and T. versicolor. The analysis of chemical compositions indicated that C. subvermispora had greater selectivity for lignin degradation with the highest lignin and hemicellulose loss at 45.06% and 42.08%, respectively, and lowest cellulose loss (9.50%) after 90 days among the tested samples. X-ray analysis showed that pretreated samples had a higher crystallinity than untreated samples. The sample pretreated by C. subvermispora presented the highest crystallinity of all the samples which might be caused by the selective degradation of amorphous components. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased during the biological pretreatment process. A study on hydrolysis of rubberwood treated with C. subvermispora, T. versicolor, and mixed culture for 90 days resulted in an increased sugar yield of about 27.67%, 16.23%, and 14.20%, respectively, as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%). The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood is a potential raw material for industrial applications and white rot fungus C. subevermispora provides an effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of rubberwood.
The objective of this study is to investigate Napa soil's potential as an alternative additive in producing Portland composite cement. The Napa soil of Tanah Datar district, West Sumatra, Indonesia is a natural material which contains SiO2 and Al2O3 as its major components. The parameters used were the fineness of the cement particles, the amount left on a 45 μm sieve, the setting time, normal consistency, loss on ignition, insoluble parts, compressive strength and chemical composition. The composition of Napa soils (% w/w) used as variables include 4, 8, 12 and 16%. Furthermore, 8% pozzolan was used as a control in this research. The results showed that the compressive strength of Napa soil cement which contained 4% Napa soil was much better compared to that of the control on the 7th and 20th day. Furthermore, all the analyzed Napa soil cements met the standard of cement as stipulated in Indonesian National Standard, SNI 7064, 2016.
The demand for composite materials in high-voltage electrical insulation is escalating over the last decades. In the power system, the composite glass-fiber-reinforced polymer has been used as an alternative to wood and steel crossarm structures due to its superior properties. As a composite, the material is susceptible to multi-aging factors, one of which is the electrical stress caused by continuous and temporary overvoltage. In order to achieve a better insulation performance and higher life expectancy, the distribution of the stresses should firstly be studied and understood. This paper focuses on the simulation work to better understand the stress distribution of the polyurethane foam-filled glass-fiber-reinforced polymer crossarm due to the lightning transient injection. A finite-element-based simulation was carried out to investigate the behavior of the electric field and voltage distribution across the sample using an Ansys Maxwell 3D. Electrical stresses at both outer and inner surfaces of the crossarm during the peak of lightning were analyzed. Analyses on the electric field and potential distribution were performed at different parts of the crossarm and correlated to the physical characteristics and common discharge location observed during the experiment. The results of the electric field on the crossarm indicate that both the outer and internal parts of the crossarm were prone to high field stress.
This study examines the feasibility of catalytically pretreated biochar derived from the dried exocarp or fruit peel of mangostene with Group I alkali metal hydroxide (KOH). The pretreated char was activated in the presence of carbon dioxide gas flow at high temperature to upgrade its physiochemical properties for the removal of copper, Cu(II) cations in single solute system. The effect of three independent variables, including temperature, agitation time and concentration, on sorption performance were carried out. Reaction kinetics parameters were determined by using linear regression analysis of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. The regression co-efficient, R² values were best for the pseudo second order kinetic model for all the concentration ranges under investigation. This implied that Cu(II) cations were adsorbed mainly by chemical interactions with the surface active sites of the activated biochar. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to interpret the equilibrium data at different temperature. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The surface area of the activated sample was 367.10 m²/g, whereas before base activation, it was only 1.22 m²/g. The results elucidated that the base pretreatment was efficient enough to yield porous carbon with an enlarged surface area, which can successfully eliminate Cu(II) cations from waste water.
The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been deemed a significant contributor to the climate crisis and has an impact on environmental systems. Adsorption is widely used among other technologies for carbon capture because of its many benefits. As a starting material for the production of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation using malic acid due to its biodegradable and non-toxic properties, rubber seed shell (RSS) was used as agricultural waste from rubber farming. Sample A6, which was carbonized for 120 min at a temperature of 600 °C and impregnated at a ratio of 1:2, was identified to achieve the highest surface area of 938.61 m2/g with micropore diameter of 1.368 nm, respectively. Using the fixed volumetric approach measured at 25, 50, and 100 °C, the maximum CO2 adsorption capability reported is 59.73 cm3/g of adsorbent. Using the pseudo-first order of Lagergren, the pseudo-second order and the Elovich model, experimental data is modeled. It appears that, based on the correlation coefficient, the pseudo-first order model is aligned with the experimental findings. Furthermore, the activation energy of under 40 kJ/mol indicated a physical adsorption occurs, indicating that the RSS chemically activated with malic acid is a fascinating source of CO2 removal requirements.
Melting aluminium waste to produce a secondary bulk material is such an energy-intensive recycling technique that it also indirectly threatens the environment. Hot press forging is introduced as an alternative. Mixing the waste with another substance is a proven practice that enhances the material integrity. To cope with the technology revolution, a finite element is utilised to predict the behaviour without a practical trial. Utilising commercial software, DEFORM 3D, the conjectures were demonstrated scientifically. The flow stress of the material was modified to suit the material used in the actual experiment. It is acknowledged that the stress⁻strain had gradually increased in each step. Due to the confined forming space, the temperature decreased by ~0.5% because the heat could not simply vacate the area. A reduction of ~10% of the flesh observed in the simulation is roughly the same as in the actual experiment. Above all, the simulation abides by the standards and follows what has been done previously. Through the finite element utilisation, this study forecasted the performance of the recycled composite. The results presented may facilitate improvement of the recycling issue and conserve the environment for a better future.
Solid-state recycling, which involves the direct recycling of scrap metal into bulk material using severe plastic deformation, has emerged as a potential alternative to the conventional remelting and recycling techniques. Hot press forging has been identified as a sustainable direct recycling technique that has fewer steps and maintains excellent material performance. An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the hardness and density of a recycled aluminum-based metal matrix composite by varying operating temperature and holding time. A mixture of recycled aluminum, AA6061, and aluminum oxide were simultaneously heated to 430, 480, and 530 °C and forged for 60, 90, and 120 min. We found a positive increase in microhardness and density for all composites. The hardness increased approximately 33.85%, while density improved by about 15.25% whenever the temperature or the holding time were increased. Based on qualitative analysis, the composite endures substantial plastic deformation due to the presence of hardness properties due to the aluminum oxide embedded in the aluminum matrix. These increases were significantly affected by the operating temperature; the holding time also had a subordinate role in enhancing the metal matrix composite properties. Furthermore, in an effort to curb the shortage of primary resources, this study reviewed the promising performance of secondary resources produced by using recycled aluminum and aluminum oxide as the base matrix and reinforcement constituent, respectively. This study is an outline for machining practitioners and the manufacturing industry to help increase industry sustainability with the aim of preserving the Earth for our community in the future.
The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG) and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.
The reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has become a moderately common practice in most countries; Hence, rejuvenating materials with RAP have earned publicity in the asphalt manufacturers, mainly due to the increasing raw material costs. In this study, the crumb rubber (CR) and waste frying oil (WFO) utilized as waste materials to restore the properties and enhance the rutting resistance of the RAP. Several physical, rheological, chemical properties of bituminous binders were tested. The result showed that the RAP bituminous binders incorporating WFO and CR decreased softening points and the increased penetration value; these translate to an increase in penetration index. Moreover, the viscosity of the WFO/CR combination reclaimed asphalt pavement binder showed better workability and stiffness, as well as a low storage stability temperature (less than 2.2 °C) with an acceptable loss upon heating. Without chemical reaction was observed between the waste-frying oil with the rubberized binder and the reclaimed asphalt pavement binder. Additionally, the WFO/CR rheological properties combined with the reclaimed asphalt pavement binder were comparable to the control sample. The incorporation of CR with WFO as a hybrid rejuvenator enhanced the rutting resistance. Therefore, the presence of WFO/CR has a considerable influence on the RAP binder properties while preserving a better environment and reducing pollution by reusing waste materials.
Carbon in its single entity and various forms has been used in technology and human life for many centuries. Since prehistoric times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal and carbon black have been used as writing and drawing materials. In the past two and a half decades or so, conjugated carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, activated carbon and graphite have been used as energy materials due to their exclusive properties. Due to their outstanding chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures have recently found application in many diverse areas; including drug delivery, electronics, composite materials, sensors, field emission devices, energy storage and conversion, etc. Following the global energy outlook, it is forecasted that the world energy demand will double by 2050. This calls for a new and efficient means to double the energy supply in order to meet the challenges that forge ahead. Carbon nanomaterials are believed to be appropriate and promising (when used as energy materials) to cushion the threat. Consequently, the amazing properties of these materials and greatest potentials towards greener and environment friendly synthesis methods and industrial scale production of carbon nanostructured materials is undoubtedly necessary and can therefore be glimpsed as the focal point of many researchers in science and technology in the 21st century. This is based on the incredible future that lies ahead with these smart carbon-based materials. This review is determined to give a synopsis of new advances towards their synthesis, properties, and some applications as reported in the existing literatures.
The use of highly viscous grease as a medium in magnetorheological grease (MRG) provides the benefit of avoiding sedimentation from occurring. However, it limits the expansion of yield stress in the on-state condition, thus reducing the application performance during operation. Therefore, in this study, the improvement in the rheological properties of MRG was investigated through the introduction of graphite as an additive. MRG with 10 wt % graphite (GMRG) was fabricated, and its properties were compared to a reference MRG sample. The microstructure of GMRG was characterized using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The rheological properties of both samples, including apparent viscosity, yield stress, and viscoelasticity, were examined using a shear rheometer in rotational and oscillatory modes. The results demonstrated a slight increase in the apparent viscosity in GMRG and a significant improvement in yield stress by 38.8% at 3 A with growth about 32.7% higher compared to MRG from 0 to 3 A. An expansion of the linear viscoelastic region (LVE) from 0.01% to 0.1% was observed for the GMRG, credited to the domination of the elastic properties on the sample. These obtained results were confirmed based on ESEM, which described the contribution of graphite to constructing a more stable chain structure in the GMRG. In conclusion, the findings highlight the influence of the addition of graphite on improving the rheological properties of MRG. Hence, the addition of graphite in MRG shows the potential to be applied in many applications in the near future.
50 years ago, Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta were awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery of the catalytic polymerization of ethylene and propylene using titanium compounds and aluminum-alkyls as co-catalysts. Polyolefins have grown to become one of the biggest of all produced polymers. New metallocene/methylaluminoxane (MAO) catalysts open the possibility to synthesize polymers with highly defined microstructure, tacticity, and steroregularity, as well as long-chain branched, or blocky copolymers with excellent properties. This improvement in polymerization is possible due to the single active sites available on the metallocene catalysts in contrast to their traditional counterparts. Moreover, these catalysts, half titanocenes/MAO, zirconocenes, and other single site catalysts can control various important parameters, such as co-monomer distribution, molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, molecular architecture, stereo-specificity, degree of linearity, and branching of the polymer. However, in most cases research in this area has reduced academia as olefin polymerization has seen significant advancements in the industries. Therefore, this paper aims to further motivate interest in polyolefin research in academia by highlighting promising and open areas for the future.
This paper remarks the general correlations of the shape and crystallinity of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) support on gold deposition and carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. It was found that due to the larger rutile TiO₂ particles and thus the pore volume, the deposited gold particles tended to agglomerate, resulting in smaller catalyst surface area and limited gold loading, whilst anatase TiO₂ enabled better gold deposition. Those properties directly related to gold particle size and thus the number of low coordinated atoms play dominant roles in enhancing CO oxidation activity. Gold deposited on anatase spheroidal TiO₂ at photo-deposition wavelength of 410 nm for 5 min resulted in the highest CO oxidation activity of 0.0617 mmol CO/s.gAu (89.5% conversion) due to the comparatively highest catalyst surface area (114.4 m²/g), smallest gold particle size (2.8 nm), highest gold loading (7.2%), and highest Au⁰ content (68 mg/g catalyst). CO oxidation activity was also found to be directly proportional to the Au⁰ content. Based on diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we postulate that anatase TiO₂-supported Au undergoes rapid direct oxidation whilst CO oxidation on rutile TiO₂-supported Au could be inhibited by co-adsorption of oxygen.
This paper presents the experimental results on the behavior of fly ash geopolymer concrete incorporating bamboo ash on the desired temperature (200 °C to 800 °C). Different amounts of bamboo ash were investigated and fly ash geopolymer concrete was considered as the control sample. The geopolymer was synthesized with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions. Ultrasonic pulse velocity, weight loss, and residual compressive strength were determined, and all samples were tested with two different cooling approaches i.e., an air-cooling (AC) and water-cooling (WC) regime. Results from these tests show that with the addition of 5% bamboo ash in fly ash, geopolymer exhibited a 5 MPa (53%) and 5.65 MPa (66%) improvement in residual strength, as well as 940 m/s (76%) and 727 m/s (53%) greater ultrasonic pulse velocity in AC and WC, respectively, at 800 °C when compared with control samples. Thus, bamboo ash can be one of the alternatives to geopolymer concrete when it faces exposure to high temperatures.
This research investigated the effect of adding different wt.% (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) of GNP (graphene nanoplatelets) to improve the mechanical and moisture resistant properties of Kevlar (K)/cocos nucifera sheath (CS)/epoxy hybrid composites. The laminates were fabricated with different K/CS weight ratios such as 100/0 (S1), 75/25 (S2), 50/50 (S3), 25/75 (S4), and 0/100 (S5). The results revealed that the addition of GNP improved the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of laminated composites. However, the optimal wt.% of GNP varies with different laminates. A moisture diffusion analysis showed that the laminates with a 0.25 wt.% of GNP content efficiently hindered water uptake by closing all the unoccupied pores inside the laminate. Morphological investigations (SEM and FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope)) proved that the addition of GNP improved the interfacial adhesion and dispersion. Structural (XRD and FTIR) analyses reveals that at 0.25 wt.% of GNP, all the hybrid composites showed a better crystallinity index and the functional groups presents in the GNP can form strong interactions with the fibers and matrix. A statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA, and it corroborates that the mechanical properties of different laminates showed a statistically significant difference. Hence, these GNP-modified epoxy hybrid composites can be efficiently utilized in load-bearing structures.