Massive waste rock wool was generated globally and it caused substantial environmental issues such as landfill and leaching. However, reviews on the recyclability of waste rock wool are scarce. Therefore, this study presents an in-depth review of the characterization and potential usability of waste rock wool. Waste rock wool can be characterized based on its physical properties, chemical composition, and types of contaminants. The review showed that waste rock wool from the manufacturing process is more workable to be recycled for further application than the post-consumer due to its high purity. It also revealed that the pre-treatment method-comminution is vital for achieving mixture homogeneity and enhancing the properties of recycled products. The potential application of waste rock wool is reviewed with key results emphasized to demonstrate the practicality and commercial viability of each option. With a high content of chemically inert compounds such as silicon dioxide (SiO2), calcium oxide (CaO), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) that improve fire resistance properties, waste rock wool is mainly repurposed as fillers in composite material for construction and building materials. Furthermore, waste rock wool is potentially utilized as an oil, water pollutant, and gas absorbent. To sum up, waste rock wool could be feasibly recycled as a composite material enhancer and utilized as an absorbent for a greener environment.
At the 90-nm node, the rate of transistor miniaturization slows down due to challenges in overcoming the increased leakage current (Ioff). The invention of high-k/metal gate technology at the 45-nm technology node was an enormous step forward in extending Moore's Law. The need to satisfy performance requirements and to overcome the limitations of planar bulk transistor to scales below 22 nm led to the development of fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) and fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) technologies. The 28-nm wafer planar process is the most cost-effective, and scaling towards the sub-10 nm technology node involves the complex integration of new materials (Ge, III-V, graphene) and new device architectures. To date, planar transistors still command >50% of the transistor market and applications. This work aims to downscale a planar PMOS to a 14-nm gate length using La2O3 as the high-k dielectric material. The device was virtually fabricated and electrically characterized using SILVACO. Taguchi L9 and L27 were employed to study the process parameters' variability and interaction effects to optimize the process parameters to achieve the required output. The results obtained from simulation using the SILVACO tool show good agreement with the nominal values of PMOS threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.289 V ± 12.7% and Ioff of less than 10-7 A/µm, as projected by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Careful control of SiO2 formation at the Si interface and rapid annealing processing are required to achieve La2O3 thermal stability at the target equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). The effects of process variations on Vth, Ion and Ioff were investigated. The improved voltage scaling resulting from the lower Vth value is associated with the increased Ioff due to the improved drain-induced barrier lowering as the gate length decreases. The performance of the 14-nm planar bulk PMOS is comparable to the performance of the FDSOI and FinFET technologies at the same gate length. The comparisons made with ITRS, the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS), and the simulated and experimental data show good agreement and thus prove the validity of the developed model for PMOSs. Based on the results demonstrated, planar PMOSs could be a feasible alternative to FDSOI and FinFET in balancing the trade-off between performance and cost in the 14-nm process.
SiNW (silicon nanowire) arrays consisting of 5- and 10-wires were fabricated by using an atomic force microscope-the local anodic oxidation (AFM-LAO) technique followed by wet chemical etching. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at various concentrations were used to etch SiNWs. The SiNWs produced were differed in dimension and surface roughness. The SiNWs were functionalized and used for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) dengue (DEN-1). SiNW-based biosensors show sensitive detection of dengue DNA due to certain factors. The physical properties of SiNWs, such as the number of wires, the dimensions of wires, and surface roughness, were found to influence the sensitivity of the biosensor device. The SiNW biosensor device with 10 wires, a larger surface-to-volume ratio, and a rough surface is the most sensitive device, with a 1.93 fM limit of detection (LOD).
Laser metal deposition (LMD) is one of the manufacturing processes in the industries, which is used to enhance the properties of components besides producing and repairing important engineering components. In this study, Stellite 6 was deposited on precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel (17-4 PH) by using the LMD process, which employed a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. To realize a favor deposited sample, the effects of three LMD parameters (focal length, scanning speed, and frequency) were investigated, as well as microstructure studies and the results of a microhardness test. Some cracks were observed in the deposited layers with a low scanning speed, which were eliminated by an augment of the scanning speed. Furthermore, some defects were found in the deposited layers with a high scanning speed and a low frequency, which can be related to the insufficient laser energy density and a low overlapping factor. Moreover, various morphologies were observed within the microstructure of the samples, which can be attributed to the differences in the stability criterion and cooling rate across the layer. In the long run, a defect-free sample (S-120-5.5-25) possessing suitable geometrical attributes (wetting angle of 57° and dilution of 25.1%) and a better microhardness property at the surface (≈335 Hv) has been introduced as a desirable LMDed sample.
The application of multiphysics models and soft computing techniques is gaining enormous attention in the construction sector due to the development of various types of concrete. In this research, an improved form of supervised machine learning, i.e., multigene expression programming (MEP), has been used to propose models for the compressive strength (fc'), splitting tensile strength (fSTS), and flexural strength (fFS) of sustainable bagasse ash concrete (BAC). The training and testing of the proposed models have been accomplished by developing a reliable and comprehensive database from published literature. Concrete specimens with varying proportions of sugarcane bagasse ash (BA), as a partial replacement of cement, were prepared, and the developed models were validated by utilizing the results obtained from the tested BAC. Different statistical tests evaluated the accurateness of the models, and the results were cross-validated employing a k-fold algorithm. The modeling results achieve correlation coefficient (R) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) above 0.8 each with relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) and objective function (OF) less than 10 and 0.2, respectively. The MEP model leads in providing reliable mathematical expression for the estimation of fc', fSTS and fFS of BA concrete, which can reduce the experimental workload in assessing the strength properties. The study's findings indicated that MEP-based modeling integrated with experimental testing of BA concrete and further cross-validation is effective in predicting the strength parameters of BA concrete.
The demand for composite materials in high-voltage electrical insulation is escalating over the last decades. In the power system, the composite glass-fiber-reinforced polymer has been used as an alternative to wood and steel crossarm structures due to its superior properties. As a composite, the material is susceptible to multi-aging factors, one of which is the electrical stress caused by continuous and temporary overvoltage. In order to achieve a better insulation performance and higher life expectancy, the distribution of the stresses should firstly be studied and understood. This paper focuses on the simulation work to better understand the stress distribution of the polyurethane foam-filled glass-fiber-reinforced polymer crossarm due to the lightning transient injection. A finite-element-based simulation was carried out to investigate the behavior of the electric field and voltage distribution across the sample using an Ansys Maxwell 3D. Electrical stresses at both outer and inner surfaces of the crossarm during the peak of lightning were analyzed. Analyses on the electric field and potential distribution were performed at different parts of the crossarm and correlated to the physical characteristics and common discharge location observed during the experiment. The results of the electric field on the crossarm indicate that both the outer and internal parts of the crossarm were prone to high field stress.
This study aims to develop a controlled release oil palm empty fruit bunch hemicellulose (EFB-H) inhibitor tablet for mild steel in 1 M HCl. As plant extracts tend to deteriorate at longer immersion time, limiting its industrial applicability, we attempted to lengthen the inhibition time by forming a controlled release inhibitor tablet. Electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) were employed to investigate the efficiency and mechanism of the inhibition. An optimum dosage and immersion time was determined via Response Surface Methodology (RSM). EFB-H tablet was formulated using D-optimal mixture design, and its anticorrosion action at extended immersion time was compared with EFB-H powder. PDP measurement revealed that EFB-H is a mixed type inhibitor. RSM optimization unveiled that the optimum point for a maximum inhibition efficiency (87.11%) was at 0.33 g of EFB-H and 120 h of immersion time. Tablet T3 with EFB-H to gum Arabic to hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio of 66:0:34 portrayed the best tensile strength (0.243 MPa), disintegration time (152 min) and dissolution behavior. EFB-H tablet exhibited a longer-lasting inhibition effect than powder, which was 360 h as compared to 120 h for powder. Overall, EFB-H tablet has been successfully developed, and its enhanced effective inhibition time has been experimentally proven.
The airframe structures of most fighter aircraft in the Royal Malaysian Airforce have been in service for 10 to 20 years. The effect of fatigue loading, operating conditions, and environmental degradation has led to the structural integrity of the airframe being assessed for its airworthiness. Various NDT methods were used to determine the current condition of the aircraft structure after operation of beyond 10 years, and their outcomes are summarized. In addition, although there are six critical locations, the wing root was chosen since it has the highest possibility of fatigue failure. It was further analyzed using simulation analysis for fatigue life. This contributes to the development of the maintenance task card and ultimately assists in extending the service life of the fighter aircraft. Using the concept of either safe life or damage tolerance as its fatigue design philosophy, the RMAF has adopted the Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) to monitor the structural integrity of its fighter aircraft. With the current budget constraints and structural life extension requirements, the RMAF has embarked on the non-destructive testing method and engineering analysis. The research outcome will enhance the ASIP for other aircraft platforms in the RMAF fleet for its structure life assessment or service life extension program.
In a number of circumstances, the Kachanov-Rabotnov isotropic creep damage constitutive model has been utilized to assess the creep deformation of high-temperature components. Secondary creep behavior is usually studied using analytical methods, whereas tertiary creep damage constants are determined by the combination of experiments and numerical optimization. To obtain the tertiary creep damage constants, these methods necessitate extensive computational effort and time to determine the tertiary creep damage constants. In this study, a curve-fitting technique was proposed for applying the Kachanov-Rabotnov model into the built-in Norton-Bailey model in Abaqus. It extrapolates the creep behaviour by fitting the Kachanov-Rabotnov model to the limited creep data obtained from the Omega-Norton-Bailey regression model and then simulates beyond the available data points. Through the Omega creep model, several creep strain rates for SS-316 were calculated using API-579/ASME FFS-1 standards. These are dependent on the type of the material, the flow stress, and the temperature. In the present work, FEA creep assessment was carried out on the SS-316 dog bone specimen, which was used as a material coupon to forecast time-dependent permanent plastic deformation as well as creep behavior at elevated temperatures and under uniform stress. The model was validated with the help of published experimental creep test data, and data optimization for sensitivity study was conducted by applying response surface methodology (RSM) and ANOVA techniques. The results showed that the specimen underwent secondary creep deformation for most of the analysis period. Hence, the method is useful in predicting the complete creep behavior of the material and in generating a creep curve.
Crumb rubber (CR) from scrap tires is used as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in cement paste. This promotes the sustainable development of the environment, economy, and society, as waste tires are non-biodegradable and flammable. They occupy large landfill areas and are breeding grounds for mosquitoes and rodents. Inclusion of CR in mortar leads to several improvements on the mixture properties such as ductility, toughness, and impact resistance. However, it exhibits lower strengths and Modulus of Elasticity (ME). Therefore, to promote the use of mortar containing CR, it is vital to improve its mechanical strength. Past studies proved that nano-silica (NS) improves the strength of concrete due to the physico-chemical effects of NS. This study aims to examine the mechanical properties of crumb rubber mortar containing nano-silica (NS-CRM) and to develop models to predict these properties using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Two variables were considered, CR as partial replacement to sand by volume (0%, 7.5%, 15%), and NS as partial replacement to cement by weight (0%, 2.5%, 5%). The results demonstrated a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of CRM when incorporating NS, and the models developed using RSM were acceptable with a 2% to 3% variation.
Palm oil clinker (POC) aggregates is a viable alternative to the naturally occurring sand and gravel in the manufacturing of concrete. The usage of POC aggregates assists in the reduction of solid waste and preserves the consumption of natural resources. Although researchers investigated the mechanical response of POC-containing concrete, limited research is available for its torsional behavior. In general, the torsional strength depends on the tensile strength of concrete. This research investigates the compressive, tensile, and torsional response of concrete with various ratios of POC-aggregates. Five batches of concrete were casted with POC-aggregate replacing granite at ratios of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 100%. The selection for the mixture proportions for the various batches was based on the design of experiments (DOE) methodology. The hard density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of concrete with a 100% replacement of granite with POC-aggregates reduced by 8.80, 37.25, 30.94, and 14.31%, respectively. Furthermore, a reduction in initial and ultimate torque was observed. While cracks increased with the increase in POC-aggregates. Finally, the cracking of concrete subjected to torsional loads was monitored and characterized by acoustic emissions (AE). The results illustrate a sudden rise in AE activities during the initiation of cracks and as the ultimate cracks were developed. This was accompanied by a sudden drop in the torque/twist curve.
Date palm fiber (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a natural biopolymer rich in lignocellulosic components. Its high cellulose content lends them to the extraction of tiny particles like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). These cellulose-derived small size particles can be used as an alternative biomaterial in wide fields of application due to their renewability and sustainability. In the present work, NCC (A) and NCC (B) were isolated from date palm MCC at 60 min and 90 min hydrolysis times, respectively. The isolated NCC product was subjected to characterization to study their properties differences. With the hydrolysis treatment, the yields of produced NCC could be attained at between 22% and 25%. The infrared-ray functional analysis also revealed the isolated NCC possessed a highly exposed cellulose compartment with minimized lignoresidues of lignin and hemicellulose. From morphology evaluation, the nanoparticles' size was decreased gradually from NCC (A) (7.51 nm width, 139.91 nm length) to NCC (B) (4.34 nm width, 111.51 nm length) as a result of fragmentation into cellulose fibrils. The crystallinity index was found increasing from NCC (A) to NCC (B). With 90 min hydrolysis time, NCC (B) showed the highest crystallinity index of 71% due to its great cellulose rigidity. For thermal analysis, NCC (B) also exhibited stable heat resistance, in associating with its highly crystalline cellulose structure. In conclusion, the NCC isolated from date palm MCC would be a promising biomaterial for various applications such as biomedical and food packaging applications.
Activated zero-valent iron (Ac-ZVI) coupled with Fe3+ was employed to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS) for acid orange 7 (AO7) removal. Fe3+ was used to promote Fe2+ liberation from Ac-ZVI as an active species for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The factors affecting AO7 degradation, namely, the Ac-ZVI:Fe3+ ratio, PMS/PDS dosage, and pH, were compared. In both PMS and PDS systems, the AO7 degradation rate increased gradually with increasing Fe3+ concentration at fixed Ac-ZVI loading due to the Fe3+-promoted liberation of Fe2+ from Ac-ZVI. The AO7 degradation rate increased with increasing PMS/PDS dosage due to the greater amount of ROS generated. The degradation rate in the PDS system decreased while the degradation rate in the PMS system increased with increasing pH due to the difference in the PDS and PMS activation mechanisms. On the basis of the radical scavenging study, sulfate radical was identified as the dominant ROS in both systems. The physicochemical properties of pristine and used Ac-ZVI were characterized, indicating that the used Ac-ZVI had an increased BET specific surface area due to the formation of Fe2O3 nanoparticles during PMS/PDS activation. Nevertheless, both systems displayed good reusability and stability for at least three cycles, indicating that the systems are promising for pollutant removal.
The effect of reinforcements and thermal exposure on the tensile properties of aluminium AA 5083-silicon carbide (SiC)-fly ash composites were studied in the present work. The specimens were fabricated with varying wt.% of fly ash and silicon carbide and subjected to T6 thermal cycle conditions to enhance the properties through "precipitation hardening". The analyses of the microstructure and the elemental distribution were carried out using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The composite specimens thus subjected to thermal treatment exhibit uniform distribution of the reinforcements, and the energy dispersive spectrum exhibit the presence of Al, Si, Mg, O elements, along with the traces of few other elements. The effects of reinforcements and heat treatment on the tensile properties were investigated through a set of scientifically designed experimental trials. From the investigations, it is observed that the tensile and yield strength increases up to 160 °C, beyond which there is a slight reduction in the tensile and yield strength with an increase in temperature (i.e., 200 °C). Additionally, the % elongation of the composites decreases substantially with the inclusion of the reinforcements and thermal exposure, leading to an increase in stiffness and elastic modulus of the specimens. The improvement in the strength and elastic modulus of the composites is attributed to a number of factors, i.e., the diffusion mechanism, composition of the reinforcements, heat treatment temperatures, and grain refinement. Further, the optimisation studies and ANN modelling validated the experimental outcomes and provided the training models for the test data with the correlation coefficients for interpolating the results for different sets of parameters, thereby facilitating the fabrication of hybrid composite components for various automotive and aerospace applications.
This present study evaluates the effect of silica modulus (Ms) and curing temperature on strengths and the microstructures of binary blended alkali-activated volcanic ash and limestone powder mortar. Mortar samples were prepared using mass ratio of combined Na2SiO3(aq)/10 M NaOH(aq) of 0.5 to 1.5 at an interval of 0.25, corresponding to Ms of 0.52, 0.72, 0.89, 1.05 and 1.18, respectively, and sole 10 M NaOH(aq). Samples were then subjected to ambient room temperature, and the oven-cured temperature was maintained from 45 to 90 °C at an interval of 15 °C for 24 h. The maximum achievable 28-day strength was 27 MPa at Ms value of 0.89 cured at 75 °C. Samples synthesised with the sole 10 M NaOH(aq) activator resulted in a binder with a low 28-day compressive strength (15 MPa) compared to combined usage of Na2SiO3(aq)/10 M NaOH(aq) activators. Results further revealed that curing at low temperatures (25 °C to 45 °C) does not favour strength development, whereas higher curing temperature positively enhanced strength development. More than 70% of the 28-day compressive strength could be achieved within 12 h of curing with the usage of combined Na2SiO3(aq)/10 M NaOH(aq). XRD, FTIR and SEM + EDX characterisations revealed that activation with combined Na2SiO3(aq)/10 M NaOH(aq) leads to the formation of anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8), gehlenite (CaO.Al2O3.SiO2) and albite (NaAlSi3O8) that improve the amorphosity, homogeneity and microstructural density of the binder compared to that of samples synthesised with sole 10 M NaOH(aq).
Gypseous soil is one type of expansive soil that contains a sufficient amount of sulphate. Cement and lime are the most common methods of stabilizing expansive soil, but the problem is that lime-treated gypseous soil normally fails in terms of durability due to the formation of ettringite, a highly deleterious compound. Moisture ingress causes a significant swelling of ettringite crystals, thereby causing considerable damage to structures and pavements. This study investigated the suitability of various materials (nano-Mg oxide (M), metakaolin (MK), and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS)) for the stabilization of gypseous soil. The results showed soil samples treated with 20% M-MK, M-GGBS, and M-GGBS-MK to exhibit lower swelling rates (<0.01% change in volume) compared to those treated with 10% and 20% of lime after 90 days of curing. However, soil samples stabilized with 10% and 20% binder of [(M-MK), (M-GGBS), and (M-GGBS-MK)] exhibited higher strengths after 90 days of soaking (ranging from 0.96-12.8 MPa) compared to those stabilized with 10% and 20% lime. From the morphology studies, the SEM and EDX analysis evidenced no formation of ettringite in the samples stabilized with M-MK-, M-GGBS-, and M-GGBS-MK. These results demonstrate the suitability of M-MK, M-GGBS, and M-GGBS-MK as effective agents for the stabilization of gypseous soil.
Recently, there has been an increase in interest in agricultural waste in scientific, technological, environmental, economic, and social contexts. The processing of rice husk ash/rice straw ash into biocompatible products-also known as biomaterials-used in biomedical implants is a technique that can enhance the value of agricultural waste. This method has effectively converted unprocessed agricultural waste into high-value products. Rice husk and straw are considered to be unwanted agricultural waste and are largely discarded because they pollute the environment. Because of the related components present in bone and teeth, this waste can produce wollastonite. Wollastonite is an excellent material for bone healing and implants, as well as tissue regeneration. The use of rice husk ash or rice straw ash in wollastonite production reduces the impact of agricultural waste on pollution and prompts the ensuing conversion of waste into a highly beneficial invention. The use of this agricultural waste in the fabrication of wollastonite using rice husk ash or rice straw ash was investigated in this paper. Wollastonite made from rice husk ash and rice straw ash has a fair chance of lowering the cost of bone and tooth repair and replacement, while having no environmental effects.
This manuscript reports the isothermal annealing effect on the mechanical and microstructure characteristics of Sn-0.7Cu-1.5Bi solder joints. A detailed microstructure observation was carried out, including measuring the activation energy of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer of the solder joints. Additionally, the synchrotron µX-ray fluorescence (XRF) method was adopted to precisely explore the elemental distribution in the joints. Results indicated that the Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic layers thickness at the solder/Cu interface rises with annealing time at a rate of 0.042 µm/h for Sn-0.7Cu and 0.037 µm/h for Sn-0.7Cu-1.5Bi. The IMC growth's activation energy during annealing is 48.96 kJ mol-1 for Sn-0.7Cu, while adding Bi into Sn-0.7Cu solder increased the activation energy to 55.76 kJ mol-1. The µ-XRF shows a lower Cu concentration level in Sn-0.7Cu-1.5Bi, where the Bi element was well dispersed in the β-Sn area as a result of the solid solution mechanism. The shape of the IMC layer also reconstructs from a scallop shape to a planar shape after the annealing process. The Sn-0.7Cu hardness and shear strength increased significantly with 1.5 wt.% Bi addition in reflowed and after isothermal annealing conditions.
The use of highly viscous grease as a medium in magnetorheological grease (MRG) provides the benefit of avoiding sedimentation from occurring. However, it limits the expansion of yield stress in the on-state condition, thus reducing the application performance during operation. Therefore, in this study, the improvement in the rheological properties of MRG was investigated through the introduction of graphite as an additive. MRG with 10 wt % graphite (GMRG) was fabricated, and its properties were compared to a reference MRG sample. The microstructure of GMRG was characterized using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The rheological properties of both samples, including apparent viscosity, yield stress, and viscoelasticity, were examined using a shear rheometer in rotational and oscillatory modes. The results demonstrated a slight increase in the apparent viscosity in GMRG and a significant improvement in yield stress by 38.8% at 3 A with growth about 32.7% higher compared to MRG from 0 to 3 A. An expansion of the linear viscoelastic region (LVE) from 0.01% to 0.1% was observed for the GMRG, credited to the domination of the elastic properties on the sample. These obtained results were confirmed based on ESEM, which described the contribution of graphite to constructing a more stable chain structure in the GMRG. In conclusion, the findings highlight the influence of the addition of graphite on improving the rheological properties of MRG. Hence, the addition of graphite in MRG shows the potential to be applied in many applications in the near future.
In this work, silver (Ag) decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coated with ultrafine CuO nanosheets (Ag-rGO@CuO) was prepared by the combination of a microwave-assisted hydrothermal route and a chemical methodology. The prepared Ag-rGO@CuO was characterized for its morphological features by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy while the structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was undertaken to confirm the elemental composition. The electrochemical performance of prepared samples was studied by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge in a 2M KOH electrolyte solution. The CuO nanosheets provided excellent electrical conductivity and the rGO sheets provided a large surface area with good mesoporosity that increases electron and ion mobility during the redox process. Furthermore, the highly conductive Ag nanoparticles upon the rGO@CuO surface further enhanced electrochemical performance by providing extra channels for charge conduction. The ternary Ag-rGO@CuO nanocomposite shows a very high specific capacitance of 612.5 to 210 Fg-1 compared against rGO@CuO which has a specific capacitance of 375 to 87.5 Fg-1 and the CuO nanosheets with a specific capacitance of 113.75 to 87.5 Fg-1 at current densities 0.5 and 7 Ag-1, respectively.