Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H2PO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sintered at 1000°C for 2h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.
This study reports the influence of ZrO2/β-TCP hybridization on the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of polyamide 12 composites to be suited for bone replacement. Amount of 15 wt% of nano-ZrO2 along with 5,10,15,20 and 25 wt% of micro-β-TCP was compounded with polyamide 12 via a twin-screw extruder. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled polyamide 12 exhibited higher thermal, mechanical and physical properties in comparison to unfilled polyamide 12 at certain filler loading; which is attributed to the homogenous dispersion of ZrO2/β-TCP fillers particle in polyamide 12 matrix. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 demonstrated an increment of tensile strength by up to 1%, tensile modulus of 38%, flexural strength of 15%, flexural modulus of 45%, and surface roughness value of 93%, as compared to unfilled PA 12. With enhanced thermal, mechanical and physical properties, the newly developed hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 could be potentially utilized for bone replacement.
Poly (citric acid)-grafted-MWCNT (PCA-g-MWCNT) was incorporated as nanofiller in polyethersulfone (PES) to produce hemodialysis mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Citric acid monohydrate was polymerized onto the surface of MWCNTs by polycondensation. Neat PES membrane and PES/MWCNTs MMMs were fabricated by dry-wet spinning technique. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, pure water flux (PWF) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein rejection. The grafting yield of PCA onto MWCNTs was calculated as 149.2%. The decrease of contact angle from 77.56° to 56.06° for PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs membrane indicated the increase in surface hydrophilicity, which rendered positive impacts on the PWF and BSA rejection of the membrane. The PWF increased from 15.8Lm(-2)h(-1) to 95.36Lm(-2)h(-1) upon the incorporation of PCA-g-MWCNTs due to the attachment of abundant hydrophilic groups that present on the MWCNTs, which have improved the affinity of membrane towards the water molecules. For protein rejection, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs MMM rejected 95.2% of BSA whereas neat PES membrane demonstrated protein rejection of 90.2%. Compared to commercial PES hemodialysis membrane, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs MMMs showed less flux decline behavior and better PWF recovery ratio, suggesting that the membrane antifouling performance was improved. The incorporation of PCA-g-MWCNTs enhanced the separation features and antifouling capabilities of the PES membrane for hemodialysis application.
A novel approach in the design of a safe, high performance hemodialysis membrane is of great demand. Despite many advantages, the employment of prodigious nanomaterials in hemodialysis membrane is often restricted by their potential threat to health. Hence, this work focusses on designing a biocompatible polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis membrane embedded with poly (citric acid)-grafted-multi walled carbon nanotubes (PCA-g-MWCNTs). Two important elements which could assure the safety of the nanocomposite membrane, i.e. (i) dispersion stability and (ii) leaching of MWCNTs were observed. The results showed the improved dispersion stability of MWCNTs in water and organic solvent due to the enriched ratio of oxygen-rich groups which subsequently enhanced membrane separation features. It was revealed that only 0.17% of MWCNTs was leached out during the membrane fabrication process (phase inversion) while no leaching was detected during permeation. In terms of biocompatibility, PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane exhibited lesser C3 and C5 activation (189.13 and 5.29ng/mL) and proteins adsorption (bovine serum albumin=4.5μg/cm2, fibrinogen=15.95μg/cm2) as compared to the neat PES membrane, while keeping a normal blood coagulation time. Hence, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane is proven to have the prospect of becoming a safe and high performance hemodialysis membrane.
Inadequate self-repair and regenerative efficiency of the cartilage tissues has motivated the researchers to devise advanced and effective strategies to resolve this issue. Introduction of bioprinting to tissue engineering has paved the way for fabricating complex biomimetic engineered constructs. In this context, the current review gears off with the discussion of standard and advanced 3D/4D printing technologies and their implications for the repair of different cartilage tissues, namely, articular, meniscal, nasoseptal, auricular, costal, and tracheal cartilage. The review is then directed towards highlighting the current stem cell opportunities. On a concluding note, associated critical issues and prospects for future developments, particularly in this sphere of personalized medicines have been discussed.
Magnetic nanofibers are composed of good dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles along an organic material. Magnetic nanofibers are potentially useful for composite reinforcement, bio-medical and tissue engineering. Nanofibers with the thinner diameter have to result in higher rigidity and tensile strength due to better alignments of lamellae along the fiber axis. In this study, the performance of electrospinning process was explained using response surface methodology (RSM) during fabrication of magnetic nanofibers using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a shelter for (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles where the parameters investigated were flow rate, applied voltage, distance between needle and collector and collector rotating speed. The response variable was diameter distribution. The two parameters flow rate and applied voltage in primary evaluation were distinguished as significant factors. Central composite design was applied to optimize the variable of diameter distribution. Quadratic estimated model developed for diameter distribution indicated the optimum conditions to be flow rate of 0.25 ml/h at voltage of 45 kV while the distance and rotating speed are at 8 cm and 1500 rps respectively. The obtained model was verified successfully by the confirmation experiments.
We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution.
We formulated a pH-sensitive chlorhexidine-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) modified with poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA) and incorporated into experimental resin-based dentin adhesives at 5 and 10 wt%. Nanocarriers were characterized in terms of morphology, physicochemical features, spectral analyses, drug-release kinetics at varying pH and its effect on dentin-bound proteases was investigated. The modified dentin adhesives were characterized for cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, degree of conversion (DC) along with CHX release, micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) and nano-leakage expression were studied at different pH values and storage time. CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA nanocarriers exhibited a significant pH-dependent drug release behavior than CHX-loaded/MSN nanocarriers without PLGA modification. The highest percentage of CHX release was seen with 10 wt% CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA doped adhesive at a pH of 5.0. CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA modified adhesives exhibited more profound antibiofilm characteristics against S. mutans and more sustained CHX-release which was pH dependent. After 6 months in artificial saliva at varying pH, the 5 wt% CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA doped adhesive showed excellent bonding under SEM/TEM, higher μTBS, and least nano-leakage expression. The pH-sensitive CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA could be of crucial advantage for resin-dentin bonding applications especially in reduced pH microenvironment resulting from biofilm formation; and the activation of dentin-bound proteases as a consequence of acid etching and acidic content of bonding resin monomers.
Recently, a modified form of a three-dimension (3D) porous poly(caprolactone-trifumarate) (PCLTF) scaffold has been produced using a fabrication technique that involves gelatin microparticles porogen leaching. This poly(caprolactone trifumarate-gelatin microparticles) (PCLTF-GMPs) scaffold has been shown to be biocompatible, more flowable clinically, and has a shorter degradation time as compared to its existing predecessors. In this report, a detailed characterization of this new scaffold was performed by testing its cytocompatibility, analyzing the surface topography, and understanding its thermal, physical and mechanical properties. The result showed that the PCLTF-GMPs has no critical cytotoxic effect. To confirm improvement, the surface properties were compared against the older version of PCLTF fabricated using salt porogen leaching. This PCLTF-GMPs scaffold showed no significant difference (unpaired t-test; p>0.05) in mechanical properties before and after gelatin leaching. However, it is mechanically weaker when compared to its predecessors. It has a high biodegradability rate of 16weeks. The pore size produced ranges from 40 to 300μm, and the RMS roughness is 613.7±236.9nm. These characteristics are condusive for osteoblast in-growth, as observed by the extension of filopodia across the macropores. Overall, this newly produced material has good thermal, physical and mechanical properties that complements its biocompatibility and ease of use.
Surgical site infection associated with surgical instruments has always been a factor in delaying post-operative recovery of patients. The evolution in surface modification of surgical instruments can be a potential choice to overcome the nosocomial infection mainly caused by bacterial populations such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. A study was, therefore, conducted characterising the morphology, hydrophobicity, adhesion strength, phase, Nano-hardness, surface chemistry, antimicrobial and biocompatibility of SS 316L steel deposited with a Nano-composite layer of Silver (Ag) and Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) using physical vapour deposition magnetron sputtering. The adhesion strength of Ag/AgTa2O5 coating on SS 316L and treated at 250-850 °C of thermal treatment was evaluated using micro-scratch. The Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-400 °C was shown a 154% improvement in adhesion strength on SS 316L when compared with as-sputtered layer or Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-250, 550, 700 and 850 °C. The FESEM, XPS, and XRD indicated the segregation of Ag on the surface of SS 316L after the crystallization. Wettability and Nano-indentation tests demonstrated an increase in hydrophobicity (77.3 ± 0.3°) and Nano-hardness (1.12 ± 0.43 GPa) when compared with as-sputtered layer, after the 400 °C of thermal treatment. The antibacterial performance on Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-400 °C indicated a significant zone of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus (A-axis: 16.33 ± 0.58 mm; B-axis: 25.67 ± 0.58 mm, p
The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property.
Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266.
Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.
The practice of bone implants is the standard procedure for the treatment of skeletal fissures, or to substitute and re-establish lost bone. A perfect scaffold ought to be made of biomaterials that duplicate the structure and properties of natural bone. However, the production of living tissue constructs that are architecturally, functionally and mechanically comparable to natural bone is the major challenge in the treatment and regeneration of bone tissue in orthopaedics and in dentistry. In this work, we have employed a polymeric replication method to fabricate hydroxyapatite (HAP) scaffolds using gum tragacanth (GT) as a natural binder. GT is a natural gum collected from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, possessing antibacterial and wound healing properties. The synthesized porous HAP scaffolds were analyzed structurally and characterized for their phase purity and mechanical properties. The biocompatibility of the porous HAP scaffold was confirmed by seeding the scaffold with Vero cells, and its bioactivity assessed by immersing the scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). Our characterization data showed that the biocompatible porous HAP scaffolds were composed of highly interconnecting pores with compressive strength ranging from 0.036 MPa to 2.954 MPa, comparable to that of spongy bone. These can be prepared in a controlled manner by using an appropriate binder concentration and sintering temperature. These HAP scaffolds have properties consistent with normal bone and should be further developed for potential application in bone implants.
Polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan (CS)/graphene oxide (GO) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully developed via electrospinning process for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The SEM analysis of nanofibrous scaffolds with different contents of GO (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7wt.%) indicated that the minimum diameter of nanofibers was found to be 85nm for PEO/CS/GO 0.5% nanofibers. The π-π stacking interaction between DOX and GO with fine pores of nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited higher drug loading (98%) and controlled release of the DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO nanofibers. The results of DOX release from nanofibrous scaffolds at pH5.3 and 7.4 indicated strong pH dependence. The hydrogen bonding interaction between GO and DOX could be unstable under acidic conditions which resulted in faster drug release rate in pH5.3. The cell viability results indicated that DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO/DOX nanofibrous scaffold could be used as an alternative source of DOX compared with free DOX to avoid the side effects of free DOX. Thus, the prepared nanofibrous scaffold offers as a novel formulation for treatment of lung cancer.
Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating temperature changes in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to temperature change and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite.
Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2-10 vol% WO3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10-40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO3-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10-25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30-40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO3-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25-49 kV) were in the range of 15-25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40-60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25-40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70-100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness.
Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cements are generally made up of 80%-90% ZnO powder while the remaining content consists of eugenol bonding resin. ZnO structure plays a major role in the morphology and mechanical properties of ZOE. In this study, we investigated the effects of different particle sizes/shapes of ZnO particles on the surface and mechanical properties of ZOE. Three samples were prepared namely ZnO-Ax, ZnO-B and ZnO-K. The crystallite sizes calculated from XRD were 37.76 nm (ZnO-Ax), 39.46 nm (ZnO-B) and 42.20 nm (ZnO-K) while the average particle sizes obtained by DLS were 21.11nm (ZnO-Ax), 56.73 nm (ZnO-B) and 2012 nm (ZnO-K). Results revealed that the compressive strengths of ZOE-Ax and ZOE-B were improved by 87.92% and 57.16%, respectively, relative to that of commercial ZOE-K. Vickers hardness test demonstrated that the hardness of ZOE-Ax and ZOE-B also increased by 74.9% and 31.1%, respectively. The ZnO-Ax nanostructure possessed a small average particle size (21.11 nm), a homogeneous size distribution (DLS) and an oxygen-rich surface (from EDS and elemental mapping). Meanwhile, ZnO-B exhibited a slightly larger average particle size of 56.73 nm compared with that of other samples. Sample ZnO-Ax demonstrated the highest compressive strength which was attributed to its large particle surface area (21.11 nm particle size) that provided a large contact area and greater interfacial (or interlock) bonding capability if compared to that of ZnO-K sample (2012 nm particle size).
The present study addressed the synthesis of a bi-layered nanostructured fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on Mg-2Zn-3Ce alloy via a combination of electrodeposition (ED) and dip-coating methods. The nFHA/PCL composite coating is composed of a thick (70-80 μm) and porous layer of PCL that uniformly covered the thin nFHA film (8-10 μm) with nanoneedle-like microstructure and crystallite size of around 70-90 nm. Electrochemical measurements showed that the nFHA/PCL composite coating presented a high corrosion resistance (R(p)=2.9×10(3) kΩ cm(2)) and provided sufficient protection for a Mg substrate against galvanic corrosion. The mechanical integrity of the nFHA/PCL composite coatings immersed in SBF for 10 days showed higher compressive strength (34% higher) compared with the uncoated samples, indicating that composite coatings can delay the loss of compressive strength of the Mg alloy. The nFHA/PCL coating indicted better bonding strength (6.9 MPa) compared to PCL coating (2.2 MPa). Immersion tests showed that nFHA/PCL composite-coated alloy experienced much milder corrosion attack and more nucleation sites for apatite compared with the PCL coated and uncoated samples. The bi-layered nFHA/PCL coating can be a good alternative method for the control of corrosion degradation of biodegradable Mg alloy for implant applications.