Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 121 in total

  1. Jamuna-Thevi K, Saarani NN, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2014 Oct;43:253-63.
    PMID: 25175212 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.07.028
    This paper discusses the successful fabrication of a novel triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based composite membrane using only a single step that combines the techniques of solvent casting and thermally induced phase separation/solvent leaching. The resulting graded membrane consists of a small pore size layer-1 containing 10 wt% non-stoichiometric nanoapatite (NAp)+1-3 wt% lauric acid (LA) for fibroblastic cell and bacterial inhibition, an intermediate layer-2 with 20-50 wt% NAp+1 wt% LA, and a large pore size layer-3 containing 30-100 wt% NAp without LA to allow bone cell growth. The synergic effects of 10-30 wt% NAp and 1 wt% LA in the membrane demonstrated higher tensile strength (0.61 MPa) and a more elastic behavior (16.1% elongation at break) in 3 wt% LA added membrane compared with the pure PLGA (0.49 MPa, 9.1%). The addition of LA resulted in a remarkable plasticizing effect on PLGA at 3 wt% due to weak intermolecular interactions in PLGA. The pure and composite PLGA membranes had good cell viability toward human skin fibroblast, regardless of LA and NAp contents.
  2. Rashid JI, Yusof NA, Abdullah J, Hashim U, Hajian R
    PMID: 25491829 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.09.010
    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.
  3. Mansouri N, SamiraBagheri
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Apr 1;61:906-21.
    PMID: 26838922 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.12.094
    The actual in vivo tissue scaffold offers a three-dimensional (3D) structural support along with a nano-textured surfaces consist of a fibrous network in order to deliver cell adhesion and signaling. A scaffold is required, until the tissue is entirely regenerated or restored, to act as a temporary ingrowth template for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This review depicts some of the most significant three dimensional structure materials used as scaffolds in various tissue engineering application fields currently being employed to mimic in vivo features. Accordingly, some of the researchers' attempts have envisioned utilizing graphene for the fabrication of porous and flexible 3D scaffolds. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate the topographical and topological optimization of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in order to improve scaffolds' mechanical performances.
  4. Goh YF, Akram M, Alshemary AZ, Hussain R
    PMID: 26042687 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.04.013
    Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment.
  5. Venil CK, Sathishkumar P, Malathi M, Usha R, Jayakumar R, Yusoff ARM, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:228-234.
    PMID: 26652368 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.019
    In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
  6. Mahmoudian MR, Basirun WJ, Woi PM, Sookhakian M, Yousefi R, Ghadimi H, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:500-508.
    PMID: 26652401 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.055
    The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose.
  7. Mansur S, Othman MHD, Ismail AF, Kadir SHSA, Goh PS, Hasbullah H, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jun;99:491-504.
    PMID: 30889724 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.092
    Polyurethane (PU) with three different functional groups: carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulphonyl group on its molecular structure were synthesised in this work. The synthesised material suppresses blood clotting and exhibits anticoagulant characteristics due to the presence of the important anionic groups. The synthesised PU was blended with polyethersulphone (PES) and fabricated into flat-sheet membrane to study the physico-chemical and biocompatibility properties of the PES membrane for blood purification application. PES-PU flat-sheet membranes were fabricated via the dry-wet phase separation technique. Different loading of PU (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) blended with PES was studied and compared. Based on the in-vitro biocompatibility analysis of the membrane, it can be suggested that the membrane incorporated with PU has better anticoagulant properties compared to the pristine PES membrane. PU incorporation prolonged the clotting time, decreased the formation of thrombin, decreased soluble complement component 3a (C3a) generation and suppressed platelet adhesion and aggregation. The anionic groups on the membrane surface might bind to coagulation factors (antithrombin) and the calcium ions, Ca2+ and thus improve anticoagulant ability. Based on both physico-chemical and in-vitro studied, 4% loading of PU is the optimum loading for incorporation with PES membrane. These results suggested that the blended PES-PU membranes with good haemocompatibility allowed practical application in the field of blood purification.
  8. Bakhori SKM, Mahmud S, Mohamad D, Masudi SM, Seeni A
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jul;100:645-654.
    PMID: 30948101 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.03.034
    Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cements are generally made up of 80%-90% ZnO powder while the remaining content consists of eugenol bonding resin. ZnO structure plays a major role in the morphology and mechanical properties of ZOE. In this study, we investigated the effects of different particle sizes/shapes of ZnO particles on the surface and mechanical properties of ZOE. Three samples were prepared namely ZnO-Ax, ZnO-B and ZnO-K. The crystallite sizes calculated from XRD were 37.76 nm (ZnO-Ax), 39.46 nm (ZnO-B) and 42.20 nm (ZnO-K) while the average particle sizes obtained by DLS were 21.11nm (ZnO-Ax), 56.73 nm (ZnO-B) and 2012 nm (ZnO-K). Results revealed that the compressive strengths of ZOE-Ax and ZOE-B were improved by 87.92% and 57.16%, respectively, relative to that of commercial ZOE-K. Vickers hardness test demonstrated that the hardness of ZOE-Ax and ZOE-B also increased by 74.9% and 31.1%, respectively. The ZnO-Ax nanostructure possessed a small average particle size (21.11 nm), a homogeneous size distribution (DLS) and an oxygen-rich surface (from EDS and elemental mapping). Meanwhile, ZnO-B exhibited a slightly larger average particle size of 56.73 nm compared with that of other samples. Sample ZnO-Ax demonstrated the highest compressive strength which was attributed to its large particle surface area (21.11 nm particle size) that provided a large contact area and greater interfacial (or interlock) bonding capability if compared to that of ZnO-K sample (2012 nm particle size).
  9. Emadzadeh D, Ghanbari M, Lau WJ, Rahbari-Sisakht M, Rana D, Matsuura T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Jun 01;75:463-470.
    PMID: 28415486 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.02.079
    In this study, nanoporous titanate (NT) nanoparticle synthesized by the solvothermal method was used to modify polyamide layer of thin film composite membranes with the aim of improving membrane resistances against organic and inorganic fouling. Thin film nanocomposite membranes (NMs) were synthesized by adding mNTs (modified nanoparticles) into polyamide selective layer followed by characterization using different analytical instruments. The results of XPS and XRD confirmed the presence of mNTs in the polyamide layer of NMs, while FESEM, AFM, zeta potential and contact angle measurement further supported the changes in physical and chemical properties of the membrane surface upon mNTs incorporation. Results of fouling showed that NM1 (the membrane incorporated with 0.01w/v% mNTs) always demonstrated lower degree of flux decline compared to the control membrane when membranes were tested with organic, inorganic and multicomponent synthesized water, brackish water or seawater. Besides showing greater antifouling resistance, the NM also displayed significantly higher water flux compared to the control M membrane. The findings of this work confirmed the positive impact of mNTs in improving the properties of NM with respect to fouling mitigation and flux improvement.
  10. Rafieerad AR, Ashra MR, Mahmoodian R, Bushroa AR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Dec 1;57:397-413.
    PMID: 26354281 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.058
    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
  11. Siow KS, Abdul Rahman AS, Ng PY, Majlis BY
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Feb;107:110225.
    PMID: 31761201 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110225
    Role of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) groups in promoting cell adhesion or commonly known as biocompatibility, is well established, but their role in reducing bacterial attachment and growth is less explored or not well-understood. Natural sulfur-based compounds, i.e. sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfinic groups, have shown to inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Hence, we mimicked these surfaces by plasma polymerizing thiophene (ppT) and air-plasma treating this ppT to achieve coatings with S of similar oxidation states as natural compounds (ppT-air). In addition, the effects of these N and S groups from ppT-air were also compared with the biocompatible amine-amide from n-heptylamine plasma polymer. Crystal violet assay and live and dead fluorescence staining of E. coli and S. aureus showed that all the N and S coated surfaces generated, including ppHA, ppT and ppT-air, produced similarly potent, growth reduction of both bacteria by approximately 65% at 72 h compared to untreated glass control. The ability of osteogenic differentiation in Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) were also used to test the cell biocompatibility of these surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging of these WJ-MSCs growths indicated that ppHA, and ppT-air were cell-friendly surfaces, with ppHA showing the highest osteogenic activity. In summary, the N and S containing surfaces could reduce bacteria growth while promoting mammalian cell growth, thus serve as potential candidate surfaces to be explored further for biomaterial applications.
  12. Kosiha A, Lo KM, Parthiban C, Elango KP
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jan 01;94:778-787.
    PMID: 30423764 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.021
    Three metal(II) complexes [CoLCl2], [CuLCl2] and [ZnL2Cl2] {L = 2‑chloro‑3‑((3‑dimethylamino)propylamino)naphthalene‑1,4‑dione} have been synthesized and characterized using analytical, thermal and spectral techniques (FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESR and ESI-MS). The structure of the L has been confirmed by single crystal XRD study. The complexes show good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) having relatively higher binding constant values (104 M-1) than the ligand. Fluorescence spectral studies indicate that [CoLCl2] binds relatively stronger with CT DNA through intercalative mode, exhibiting higher binding constant (2.22 × 105 M-1). Agarose gel electrophoresis run on plasmid DNA (pUC18) prove that all the complexes showed efficient DNA cleavage via hydroxyl radical mechanism. The complexes were identified as potent anticancer agents against two human cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) by comparing with cisplatin. Co(II) complex demonstrated greater cytotoxicity against MCF7 and A549 cells with IC50 values at 19 and 22 μM, respectively.
  13. Nordin JA, Prajitno DH, Saidin S, Nur H, Hermawan H
    PMID: 25842138 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.019
    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone-implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12h milling in the presence of HPO4(2-) ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis.
  14. Taha A, Akram M, Jawad Z, Alshemary AZ, Hussain R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Nov 01;80:93-101.
    PMID: 28866230 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.117
    Microwave assisted wet precipitation method was used to synthesize calcium deficient strontium doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Sr-βTCP) with a chemical formula of Ca2.96-xSrx(PO4)2. Sr-βTCP was reacted with monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, MCPM] in presence of water to furnish corresponding Sr containing brushite cement (Sr-Brc). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Strontium content in the prepared samples was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The effect of Sr2+ions on the structural, mechanical, setting properties and drug release of the cement is reported. Incorporation of Sr2+ions improved the injectability, setting time and mechanical properties of the Brc. The release profiles of antibiotics incorporated in Brc and Sr-Brc confirmed that the Sr incorporation into the Brc results in the efficient release of the antibiotics from the cement.
  15. Raviadaran R, Ng MH, Chandran D, Ooi KK, Manickam S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Feb;121:111808.
    PMID: 33579452 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111808
    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of encapsulated tocotrienols (TRF) and caffeic acid (CA) in water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple nanoemulsion with cisplatin towards cancer cells. This work is important considering the limited efficacy of cisplatin due to tumour resistance, as well as its severe side effects. A549 and HEP G2 cancer cell lines were utilised for evaluating the efficacy of the encapsulated W/O/W while HEK 293 normal cell line was used for evaluating the toxicity. TRF, CA and CIS synergistically improved apoptosis in the late apoptotic phase in A549 and HEP G2 by 23.1% and 24.9%, respectively. The generation of ROS was enhanced using TRF:CA:CIS by 16.9% and 30.2% for A549 and HEP G2, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an enhanced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase for both A549 and HEP G2. TRF, CA and CIS led to cell death in A549 and HEP G2. For HEK 293, ~33% cell viability was found when only CIS was used while >95% cell viability was observed when TRF, CA and CIS were used. This study demonstrates that the encapsulated TRF and CA in W/O/W with CIS synergistically improved therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells, as well as lowered the toxicity effects towards normal cells.
  16. Sharma C, Ansari S, Ansari MS, Satsangee SP, Srivastava MM
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Nov;116:111153.
    PMID: 32806256 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111153
    In present work, we demonstrate a single step environmentally benign approach to synthesize Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) using aqueous extract of Clove buds for the first time. Clove bud's (CB) extract has proficiency to act as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the formation of Au/Ag BMNPs. In presence of extract, AuIII and AgI are reduced competitively within same solution and produce Au/Ag alloy NPs. The kinetics besides the formation of NPs was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy and efficiency of the extract was monitored by varying contact time, temperature, pH and extract concentration. The electron microscopic studies revealed the presence of NPs with peculiar morphology at alkaline pH. Further, the existence of Au and Ag atoms was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that Eugenol in the extract is mainly responsible for the production of NPs which are also surrounded by various phytochemicals. Zeta potential of all the NPs is found to be negative which prevents their agglomeration due to inter-repulsion and the biosynthesized Au/Ag BMNPs revealed greater catalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). Significant enhancement induced by BMNPs compared to individual monometallic nanoparticles (MMNPs) was assigned to the synergistic effect of MMNPs and coating of phytochemicals present in the CB extract.
  17. Vigneswari S, Murugaiyah V, Kaur G, Abdul Khalil HPS, Amirul AA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Sep 01;66:147-155.
    PMID: 27207048 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.102
    The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
  18. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Lim YQ, Low CY, Lee CT, Marilyn TCL, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Jul;112:110925.
    PMID: 32409075 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.110925
    Wounds associated with diabetes mellitus are the most severe co-morbidities, which could be progressed to cause cell necrosis leading to amputation. Statistics on the recent status of the diabetic wounds revealed that the disease affects 15% of diabetic patients, where 20% of them undergo amputation of their limb. Conventional therapies are found to be ineffective due to changes in the molecular architecture of the injured area, urging novel deliveries for effective treatment. Therefore, recent researches are on the development of new and effective wound care materials. Literature is evident in providing potential tools in topical drug delivery for wound healing under the umbrella of nanotechnology, where nano-scaffolds and nanofibers have shown promising results. The nano-sized particles are also known to promote healing of wounds by facilitating proper movement through the healing phases. To date, focuses have been made on the efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in treating the diabetic wound, where these nanoparticles are known to exploit potential biological properties in producing anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. AgNPs are also known to activate cellular mechanisms towards the healing of chronic wounds; however, associated toxicities of AgNPs are of great concern. This review is an attempt to illustrate the use of AgNPs in wound healing to facilitate this delivery system in bringing into clinical applications for a superior dressing and treatment over wounds and ulcers in diabetes patients.
  19. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Yin TH, Kaur T, Jia GW, Tan SQL, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Aug;101:596-613.
    PMID: 31029353 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.005
    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the key barriers in chemotherapy, leading to the generation of insensitive cancer cells towards administered therapy. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the cells are the consequences of MDR, resulted in drug resistivity, which reflects in impaired delivery of cytotoxic agents to the cancer site. Nanotechnology-based nanocarriers have shown immense shreds of evidence in overcoming these problems, where these promising tools handle desired dosage load of hydrophobic chemotherapeutics to facilitate designing of safe, controlled and effective delivery to specifically at tumor microenvironment. Therefore, encapsulating drugs within the nano-architecture have shown to enhance solubility, bioavailability, drug targeting, where co-administered P-gp inhibitors have additionally combat against developed MDR. Moreover, recent advancement in the stimuli-sensitive delivery of nanocarriers facilitates a tumor-targeted release of the chemotherapeutics to reduce the associated toxicities of chemotherapeutic agents in normal cells. The present article is focused on MDR development strategies in the cancer cell and different nanocarrier-based approaches in circumventing this hurdle to establish an effective therapy against deadliest cancer disease.
  20. Naureen B, Haseeb ASMA, Basirun WJ, Muhamad F
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Jan;118:111228.
    PMID: 33254956 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111228
    Organ repair, regeneration, and transplantation are constantly in demand due to various acute, chronic, congenital, and infectious diseases. Apart from traditional remedies, tissue engineering (TE) is among the most effective methods for the repair of damaged tissues via merging the cells, growth factors, and scaffolds. With regards to TE scaffold fabrication technology, polyurethane (PU), a high-performance medical grade synthetic polymer and bioactive material has gained significant attention. PU possesses exclusive biocompatibility, biodegradability, and modifiable chemical, mechanical and thermal properties, owing to its unique structure-properties relationship. During the past few decades, PU TE scaffold bioactive properties have been incorporated or enhanced with biodegradable, electroactive, surface-functionalised, ayurvedic products, ceramics, glass, growth factors, metals, and natural polymers, resulting in the formation of modified polyurethanes (MPUs). This review focuses on the recent advances of PU/MPU scaffolds, especially on the biomedical applications in soft and hard tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The scientific issues with regards to the PU/MPU scaffolds, such as biodegradation, electroactivity, surface functionalisation, and incorporation of active moieties are also highlighted along with some suggestions for future work.
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