This is the first study to identify and determine the phylogenetics of neritids found in Malaysia. In total, twelve species from the family Neritidae were recorded. Ten species were from the genus Nerita and two species were from the genus Neritina. DNA barcodes were successfully assigned to each species. Although some of these species were previously reported in the region, three are only presently reported in this study. The dendrogram showed Nerita and Neritina strongly supported in their respective monophyletic clades. Phylogenetic positions of some species appeared unstable in the trees. This could be due to the differences in a small number of nucleotides, thus minimizing genetic variation between each specimen and species.
We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp).
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs.
The Mictyris longicarpus (soldier crab) complete mitochondrial genome sequence is reported making it the first for the family Mictyridae and the second for the superfamily Ocypodoidea. The mitogenome is 15,548 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The soldier crab mitogenome gene order is characteristic of brachyuran crabs with a base composition of 36.58% for T, 19.15% for C, 32.43% for A and 11.83% for G, with an AT bias of 69.01%.
The mitogenome of the Australian freshwater blackfish, Gadopsis marmoratus was recovered coverage by genome skimming using the MiSeq sequencer (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024436). The blackfish mitogenome has 16,407 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 819 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the 5th mitogenome sequence to be reported for the family Percichthyidae.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian tadpole shrimp, Triops australiensis is presented (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024439) and compared with other Triops species. Triops australiensis has a mitochondrial genome of 15,125 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The T. australiensis mitogenome is composed of 36.4% A, 16.1% C, 12.3% G and 35.1% T. The mitogenome gene order conforms to the primitive arrangement for Branchiopod crustaceans, which is also conserved within the Pancrustacean.
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the longfang moray, Enchelynassa canina (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The length of the assembled mitogenome is 16,592 bp, which includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of longfang moray is 28.4% for A, 28.0% for C, 18.4% for G, 25.1% for T, and show 82% identities to Kidako moray, Gymnothorax kidako. The complete mitogenome of the longfang moray provides an essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for moray eel phylogeny.
The complete mitochondrial genomes of two jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) were sequenced. DNA was extracted from tissue samples obtained from shed feathers collected in the field in Sri Lanka and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Personal Sequencer. Jungle crow mitogenomes have a structural organization typical of the genus Corvus and are 16,927 bp and 17,066 bp in length, both comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, and a non-coding control region. In addition, we complement already available house crow (Corvus spelendens) mitogenome resources by sequencing an individual from Singapore. A phylogenetic tree constructed from Corvidae family mitogenome sequences available on GenBank is presented. We confirm the monophyly of the genus Corvus and propose to use complete mitogenome resources for further intra- and interspecies genetic studies.
Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae), which was determined using next-generation sequencing. The mitochondrial genome is 16,344 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. It shows the typical pattern of bovine mitochondrial arrangement. Phylogenetic tree analysis of complete mtDNA sequences showed that Bornean banteng is more closely related to gaur than to other banteng subspecies. Divergence dating indicated that Bornean banteng and gaur diverged from their common ancestor approximately 5.03 million years ago. These results suggest that Bornean banteng might be a distinct species in need of conservation.
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of two moray eels of Gymnothorax formosus and Scuticaria tigrina (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome, with the length of 16,558 bp for G. formosus and 16,521 bp for S. tigrina, shows 78% identity to each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. The length of D-loop is 927 bp (G. formosus) and 850 bp (S. tigrina), which is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 45.5% for G. formosus and 47.9% for S. tigrina. Complete mitogenomes of G. formosus and S. tigrina provide essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for moray eel.
Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships.
The mitogenome of Paranephrops planifrons, was obtained by next generation sequencing. This crayfish has a mitochondrial genome of 16,174 base pairs with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and a non-coding AT-rich region of 771 bp. The P. planifrons nucleotide composition is: 33.63% for T, 21.92% for C, 34.46% for A, and 9.98% for G and has a 68.09% AT bias. While the mitogenome gene order for this species is consistent with aspects of the highly distinctive parastacid crayfish mitogenome gene arrangement, it has a novel gene order involving the rearrangements of a protein coding and several tRNA genes.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the commercially and ecologically important and internationally vulnerable giant clam Tridacna squamosa was recovered by genome skimming using the MiSeq platform. The T. squamosa mitogenome has 20,930 base pairs (62.35% A+T content) and is made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 24 transfer RNAs, and a 2594 bp non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome has a relatively large insertion in the atp6 gene. This is the first mitogenome to be sequenced from the genus Tridacna, and the family Tridacnidae and represents a new gene order.
The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene.
The invasive freshwater crayfish Orconectes limosus mitogenome was recovered by genome skimming. The mitogenome is 16,223 base pairs in length consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The O. limosus mitogenome has an AT bias of 71.37% and base composition of 39.8% for T, 10.3% for C, 31.5% for A, and 18.4% for G. The mitogene order is identical to two other genera of northern hemisphere crayfish that have been sequenced for this organelle.
The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis, is presented, which is the fourth for genera of the superfamily Atyoidea and the first atyid from the southern hemisphere. The base composition of the P. australiensis, mitogenome is 33.55% for T, 18.24% for C, 35.16% for A, and 13.06% for G, with an AT bias of 71.58%. It has a mitogenome of 15,990 base pairs comprised of 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal subunit and 22 transfer RNAs genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome gene order for the species is typical for atyid shrimps, which conform to the primitive pan crustacean model.
The complete mitogenome of the ray Taeniura lymma was recovered from genome skimming using the HiSeq sequencing system. The T. lymma mitogenome has 17,652 base pairs (59.13% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a 1906 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome sequence is the second for a ray from Australian waters, the first for the genus Taeniura and the ninth for the family Dasyatidae.
The Austropotamobius pallipes complete mitogenome has been recovered using Next-Gen sequencing. Our sample of A. pallipes has a mitogenome of 15,679 base pairs (68.44% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 877 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequenced for a crayfish from the family Astacidae and the 4(th) for northern hemisphere genera.
Sandflies vary in their distributions and role in pathogen transmission. Attempts to record distributions of sandflies in Thailand have faced difficulties due to their high abundance and diversity. We aim to provide an insight into the diversity of sandflies in Thailand by (i) conducting a literature review, and (ii) DNA barcoding sandflies collected from Wihan Cave where eight morphologically characterized species were recorded. DNA barcodes generated for 193 sandflies fell into 13 distinct species clusters under four genera (Chinius, Idiophlebotomus, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia). Five of these species could be assigned Linnaean species names unambiguously and two others corresponded to characterized morphospecies. Two species represented a complex under the name Sergentomyia barraudi while the remaining four had not been recognized before in any form. The resulting species checklist and DNA barcode library contribute to a growing set of records for sandflies which is useful for monitoring and vector control.