Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 449 in total

  1. Sumitha S, Vasanthi S, Shalini S, Chinni SV, Gopinath SCB, Anbu P, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 13;23(12).
    PMID: 30551671 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123311
    In the present study, we have developed a green approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (DSAgNPs) using aqueous extract of Durio zibethinus seed and determined its antibacterial, photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed the formation of DSAgNPs with a maximum absorbance (λmax) of 420 nm. SEM and TEM images revealed DSAgNPs were spherical and rod shaped, with a size range of 20 nm and 75 nm. The zeta potential was found to be -15.41 mV. XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the nature and presence of Ag and AgCl. DSAgNPs showed considerable antibacterial activity, exhibited better cytotoxicity against brine shrimp, and shown better photocatalytic activity against methylene blue. Based on the present research work, it can be concluded that DSAgNPs could be used in the field of water treatment, pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, biosensor and nanotechnology in near future.
  2. Ibrahim MD, Kntayya SB, Mohd Ain N, Iori R, Ioannides C, Abdull Razis AF
    Molecules, 2018 Nov 27;23(12).
    PMID: 30486382 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123092
    Glucoraphasatin (GRH), a glucosinolate present abundantly in the plants of the Brassicaceae family, is hydrolyzed by myrosinase to raphasatin, which is considered responsible for its cancer chemopreventive activity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been investigated, particularly in human cell lines. The aims of this study are to determine the cytotoxicity of raphasatin, and to evaluate its potential to cause apoptosis and modulate cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxicity was determined following incubation of the cells with glucoraphasatin or raphasatin (0⁻100 µM), for 24, 48, and 72 h. GRH displayed no cytotoxicity as exemplified by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. When myrosinase was added to the incubation system to convert GRH to raphasatin, cytotoxicity was evident. Exposure of the cells to raphasatin stimulated apoptosis, as was exemplified by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, using Annexin V-FITC assay, raphasatin induced apoptosis, as witnessed by changes in cellular distribution of cells, at different stages of apoptosis; in addition, raphasatin caused the arrest of the MCF-7 cells at the G₂ + M phase. In conclusion, raphasatin demonstrated cancer chemopreventive potential against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells, through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
  3. Zakaria N, Mahdzir MA, Yusoff M, Mohd Arshad N, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 23;23(11).
    PMID: 30360475 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23112733
    BACKGROUND: Pinnatane A from the bark of Walsura pinnata was investigated for its anti-cancer properties by analyzing the cytotoxic activities and cell cycle arrest mechanism induced in two different liver cancer cell lines.

    METHODS: A 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze the pinnatane A selectivity in inducing cell death in cancer and normal cells. Various biological assays were carried out to analyze the anti-cancer properties of pinnatane A, such as a live/dead assay for cell death microscopic visualization, cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) to identify the cell cycle arrest phase, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (annexin V-FITC)/PI flow cytometry assay to measure percentage of cell populations at different stages of apoptosis and necrosis, and DNA fragmentation assay to verify the late stage of apoptosis.

    RESULTS: The MTT assay identified pinnatane A prominent dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity effects in Hep3B and HepG2 cells, with minimal effect on normal cells. The live/dead assay showed significant cell death, while cell cycle analysis showed arrest at the G₀/G₁ phase in both cell lines. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays identified apoptotic cell death in Hep3B and necrotic cell death in HepG2 cell lines.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pinnatane A has the potential for further development as a chemotherapeutic agent prominently against human liver cells.

  4. Eliaser EM, Ho JH, Hashim NM, Rukayadi Y, Ee GCL, Razis AFA
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 20;23(10).
    PMID: 30347850 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102708
    Natural products, either pure compounds or standardized plant extracts, have provided opportunities for the discovery of new drugs. Nowadays, most of the world's population still relies on traditional medicines for healthcare purposes. Plants, in particular, are always used as traditional medicine, as they contain a diverse number of phytochemicals that can be used for the treatment of diseases. The multicomponent feature in the plants is considered a positive phytotherapeutic hallmark. Hence, ethnopharmacognosy has been the focus for finding alternative treatments for diseases. Melicopelunu-ankenda, also known as Euodialunu-ankenda, is widely distributed in tropical regions of Asia. Different parts of M.lunu-ankenda have been used for treatment of hypertension, menstrual disorder, diabetes, and fever, and as an emmenagogue and tonic. It has also been consumed as salad and as a condiment for food flavorings. The justification of use of M.lunu-ankenda in folk medicines is supported by its reported biological activities, including its cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review summarizes the phytochemical compounds isolated from various parts of M.lunu-ankenda, such as root and leaves, and also its biological activities, which could make the species a new therapeutic agent for some diseases, including diabetes, in the future.
  5. Abdullah NH, Ismail S
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 19;23(10).
    PMID: 30347696 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102696
    The co-use of conventional drug and herbal medicines may lead to herb-drug interaction via modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) by herbal constituents. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyzing glucuronidation are the major metabolic enzymes of Phase II DMEs. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several herbal constituents on one of the most important UGT isoforms, UGT2B7, in human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM) was investigated. Zidovudine (ZDV) was used as the probe substrate to determine UGT2B7 activity. The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of ZDV in HLM is 1.65 µL/mg/min which is ten times greater than in RLM, which is 0.16 µL/mg/min. Andrographolide, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, mitragynine and zerumbone inhibited ZDV glucuronidation in HLM with IC50 values of 6.18 ± 1.27, 18.56 ± 8.62, 8.11 ± 4.48 and 4.57 ± 0.23 µM, respectively, hence, herb-drug interactions are possible if andrographolide, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, mitragynine and zerumbone are taken together with drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT2B7. Meanwhile, only mitragynine and zerumbone inhibited ZDV glucuronidation in RLM with IC50 values of 51.20 ± 5.95 μM and 8.14 ± 2.12 µM, respectively, indicating a difference between the human and rat microsomal model so caution must be exercised when extrapolating inhibitory metabolic data from rats to humans.
  6. Abu Tawila ZM, Ismail S, Dadrasnia A, Usman MM
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 18;23(10).
    PMID: 30340415 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102689
    The production, optimization, and characterization of the bioflocculant QZ-7 synthesized by a novel Bacillus salmalaya strain 139SI isolated from a private farm soil in Selangor, Malaysia, are reported. The flocculating activity of bioflocculant QZ-7 present in the selected strain was found to be 83.3%. The optimal culture for flocculant production was achieved after cultivation at 35.5 °C for 72 h at pH 7 ± 0.2, with an inoculum size of 5% (v/v) and sucrose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources. The maximum flocculating activity was found to be 92.6%. Chemical analysis revealed that the pure bioflocculant consisted of 79.08% carbohydrates and 15.4% proteins. The average molecular weight of the bioflocculant was calculated to be 5.13 × 10⁵ Da. Infrared spectrometric analysis showed the presence of carboxyl (COO-), hydroxyl (-OH), and amino (-NH₂) groups, polysaccharides and proteins. The bioflocculant QZ-7 exhibited a wide pH stability range from 4 to 7, with a flocculation activity of 85% at pH 7 ± 0.2. In addition, QZ-7 was thermally stable and retained more than 80% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. SEM analysis revealed that QZ-7 exhibited a clear crystalline brick-shaped structure. After treating wastewater, the bioflocculant QZ-7 showed significant flocculation performance with a COD removal efficiency of 93%, whereas a BOD removal efficiency of 92.4% was observed in the B. salmalaya strain 139SI. These values indicate the promising applications of the bioflocculant QZ-7 in wastewater treatment.
  7. Yap WY, Hwang JS
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 04;23(10).
    PMID: 30287801 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102537
    A group of stable, water-soluble and membrane-bound proteins constitute the pore forming toxins (PFTs) in cnidarians. They interact with membranes to physically alter the membrane structure and permeability, resulting in the formation of pores. These lesions on the plasma membrane causes an imbalance of cellular ionic gradients, resulting in swelling of the cell and eventually its rupture. Of all cnidarian PFTs, actinoporins are by far the best studied subgroup with established knowledge of their molecular structure and their mode of pore-forming action. However, the current view of necrotic action by actinoporins may not be the only mechanism that induces cell death since there is increasing evidence showing that pore-forming toxins can induce either necrosis or apoptosis in a cell-type, receptor and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we focus on the response of the cellular immune system to the cnidarian pore-forming toxins and the signaling pathways that might be involved in these cellular responses. Since PFTs represent potential candidates for targeted toxin therapy for the treatment of numerous cancers, we also address the challenge to overcoming the immunogenicity of these toxins when used as therapeutics.
  8. Ng CH, Rullah K, Abas F, Lam KW, Ismail IS, Jamaludin F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 30;23(10).
    PMID: 30274341 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102509
    A new series of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. Prenylated analogues 4a⁻g (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 35 μ M to 95 μ M) did not exhibit better inhibitory activity than tHGA (3a) (IC50 value: 23.6 μ M) due to the reduction in hydrophobic interaction when the alkyl chain length was reduced. One geranylated analogue, 3d, with an IC50 value of 15.3 μ M, exhibited better LOX inhibitory activity when compared to tHGA (3a), which was in agreement with our previous findings. Kinetics study showed that the most active analogue (3e) and tHGA (3a) acted as competitive inhibitors. The combination of in silico approaches of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation revealed that the lipophilic nature of these analogues further enhanced the LOX inhibitory activity. Based on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) and toxicity prediction by komputer assisted technology (TOPKAT) analyses, all geranylated analogues (3a⁻g) showed no hepatotoxicity effect and were biodegradable, which indicated that they could be potentially safe drugs for treating inflammation.
  9. Abdi MM, Md Tahir P, Liyana R, Javahershenas R
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 26;23(10).
    PMID: 30261640 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102470
    In this study a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as a soft template for in situ chemical polymerization of aniline on the surface of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The morphology of the wire-like and porous nanostructure of the resulting composite was highly dependent on the MCC and CTAB concentrations. The effect of the MCC and CTAB concentrations on the electrochemical and morphological properties of the polyaniline (PAni) nanocomposite was studied. Cyclic voltammograms of modified PAni/MCC/CTAB electrode displayed a high current response and the effect of scan rate on the current response confirmed a diffusion controlled process on the surface of the electrode that makes it suitable for sensor applications. The overlapping characteristic peaks of pure PAni and MCC caused peak broadening at 3263 cm-1 in the IR spectra of PAni/MCC/CTAB nanocomposite that revealed the interaction between NH of PAni and OH group of MCC via electrostatic interactions. The addition of MCC to PAni through chemical polymerization decreased the thermal stability of composite compared to pure PAni. Lower crystallinity was observed in the XRD diffractogram, with 2 theta values of 22.8, 16.5, and 34.6 for PAni/MCC, confirming the formation of PAni on the MCC surface.
  10. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Nik Yusoff NI, Uzir BF, Perumal V, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 19;23(9).
    PMID: 30235889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092402
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

    METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

  11. Zakaria SR, Saim N, Osman R, Abdul Haiyee Z, Juahir H
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 16;23(9).
    PMID: 30223605 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092365
    This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of three mango varieties (Harumanis, Tong Dam and Susu) for the discrimination of authentic Harumanis from other mangoes. The VOCs of these mangoes were extracted and analysed nondestructively using Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Prior to the analytical method, two simple sensory analyses were carried out to assess the ability of the consumers to differentiate between the Harumanis and Tong Dam mangoes as well as their preferences towards these mangoes. On the other hand, chemometrics techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and discriminant analysis (DA), were used to visualise grouping tendencies of the volatile compounds detected. These techniques were successful in identifying the grouping tendencies of the mango samples according to the presence of their respective volatile compounds, thus enabling the identification of the groups of substances responsible for the discrimination between the authentic and unauthentic Harumanis mangoes. In addition, three ocimene compounds, namely beta-ocimene, trans beta-ocimene, and allo-ocimene, can be considered as chemical markers of the Harumanis mango, as these compounds exist in all Harumanis mango, regardless the different sources of the mangoes obtained.
  12. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
  13. Khoo LW, Foong Kow AS, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 29;23(9).
    PMID: 30158427 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092172
    The present study aims for the first time to provide the in vivo acute toxicological profile of the highest dose of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract according to the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 guidelines through conventional toxicity and advanced proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) serum and urinary metabolomics evaluation methods. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water extract was administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Conventional toxicity evaluation methods (physical observation, body and organ weight, food and water consumption, hematology, biochemical testing and histopathological analysis) suggested no abnormal toxicity signs. Serum ¹H-NMR metabolome revealed no significant metabolic difference between untreated and treated groups. Urinary ¹H-NMR analysis, on the other hand, revealed alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism in extract-treated rats after 2 h of extract administration, but the metabolic expression collected after 24 h and at Day 5, Day 10 and Day 15 indicated that the extract-treated rats did not accumulate any toxicity biomarkers. Importantly, the outcomes further suggest that single oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water leaf extract is safe for consumption.
  14. Razali MTA, Zainal ZA, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Zamri Z, Mohd Idrus MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
    PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160
    The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
  15. Kamarudin N, Hisamuddin N, Ong HM, Ahmad Azmi AF, Leong SW, Abas F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 21;23(9).
    PMID: 30134576 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092099
    Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
  16. Md Razali NAA, Ibrahim MF, Kamal Bahrin E, Abd-Aziz S
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 03;23(8).
    PMID: 30081514 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23081944
    This study was conducted in order to optimise simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for biobutanol production from a pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Temperature, initial pH, cellulase loading and substrate concentration were screened using one factor at a time (OFAT) and further statistically optimised by central composite design (CCD) using the response surface methodology (RSM) approach. Approximately 2.47 g/L of biobutanol concentration and 0.10 g/g of biobutanol yield were obtained after being screened through OFAT with 29.55% increment (1.42 fold). The optimised conditions for SSF after CCD were: temperature of 35 °C, initial pH of 5.5, cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g-substrate and substrate concentration of 5% (w/v). This optimisation study resulted in 55.95% increment (2.14 fold) of biobutanol concentration equivalent to 3.97 g/L and biobutanol yield of 0.16 g/g. The model and optimisation design obtained from this study are important for further improvement of biobutanol production, especially in consolidated bioprocessing technology.
  17. Ghasemzadeh A, Baghdadi A, Z E Jaafar H, Swamy MK, Megat Wahab PE
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 26;23(8).
    PMID: 30049990 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23081863
    Recently, the quality-by-design concept has been widely implemented in the optimization of pharmaceutical processes to improve batch-to-batch consistency. As flavonoid compounds in pigmented rice bran may provide natural antioxidants, extraction of flavonoid components from red and brown rice bran was optimized using central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Among the solvents tested, ethanol was most efficient for extracting flavonoids from rice bran. The examined parameters were temperature, solvent percentage, extraction time, and solvent-to-solid ratio. The highest total flavonoid content (TFC) in red rice bran was predicted as 958.14 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry matter (DM) at 58.5 °C, 71.5% (v/v), 36.2 min, and 7.94 mL/g, respectively, whereas the highest TFC in brown rice bran was predicted as 782.52 mg QE/100 g DM at 56.7 °C, 74.4% (v/v), 36.9 min, and 7.18 mL/g, respectively. Verification experiment results under these optimized conditions showed that the TFC values for red and brown rice bran were 962.38 and 788.21 mg QE/100 g DM, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and experimental TFC values, indicating that the developed models are accurate. Analysis of the extracts showed that apigenin and p-coumaric acid are abundant in red and brown rice bran. Further, red rice bran with its higher flavonoid content exhibited higher nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities (EC50 values of 41.3 and 33.6 μg/mL, respectively) than brown rice bran. In this study, an extraction process for flavonoid compounds from red and brown rice bran was successfully optimized. The accuracy of the developed models indicated that the approach is applicable to larger-scale extraction processes.
  18. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Baghdadi A, Tayebi-Meigooni A
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 25;23(8).
    PMID: 30044450 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23081852
    Since α-mangostin in mangosteen fruits was reported to be the main compound able to provide natural antioxidants, the microwave-assisted extraction process to obtain high-quality α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The parameters examined included extraction time, microwave power, and solvent percentage. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of optimized and non-optimized extracts was evaluated. Ethyl acetate as a green solvent exhibited the highest concentration of α-mangostin, followed by dichloromethane, ethanol, and water. The highest α-mangostin concentration in mangosteen pericarp of 121.01 mg/g dry matter (DM) was predicted at 3.16 min, 189.20 W, and 72.40% (v/v). The verification of experimental results under these optimized conditions showed that the α-mangostin value for the mangosteen pericarp was 120.68 mg/g DM. The predicted models were successfully developed to extract α-mangostin from the mangosteen pericarp. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and the experimental α-mangostin values, indicating that the developed models are accurate. The analysis of the extracts for secondary metabolites showed that the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) increased significantly in the optimized extracts (OE) compared to the non-optimized extracts (NOE). Additionally, trans-ferulic acid and catechin were abundant among the compounds identified. In addition, the optimized extract of mangosteen pericarp with its higher α-mangostin and secondary metabolite concentrations exhibited higher antioxidant activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 20.64 µg/mL compared to those of the NOE (28.50 µg/mL). The OE exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the microwave-assisted extraction process of α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp was successfully optimized, indicating the accuracy of the models developed, which will be usable in a larger-scale extraction process.
  19. Eko Sukohidayat NH, Zarei M, Baharin BS, Manap MY
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 20;23(7).
    PMID: 30037038 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23071800
    Purification of lipase produced by L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 was conducted for the first time using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of Triton X-100 and maltitol. The partitioning of lipase was optimized according to several parameters including pH, temperature, and crude load. Results showed that lipase preferentially migrated to the Triton X-100 rich phase and optimum lipase partitioning was achieved in ATPS at TLL of 46.4% and crude load of 20% at 30 °C and pH 8, resulting in high lipase purification factor of 17.28 and yield of 94.7%. The purified lipase showed a prominent band on SDS-PAGE with an estimated molecular weight of 50 kDa. The lipase was stable at the temperature range of 30⁻60 °C and pH range of 6⁻11, however, it revealed its optimum activity at the temperature of 37 °C and pH 8. Moreover, lipase exhibited enhanced activity in the presence of non-ionic surfactants with increased activity up to 40%. Furthermore, results exhibited that metals ions such as Na⁺, Mg2+, K⁺ and Ca2+ stimulated lipase activity. This study demonstrated that this novel system could be potentially used as an alternative to traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of enzymes since the purified lipase still possesses good process characteristics after undergoing the purification process.
  20. Raja Mazlan RNA, Rukayadi Y, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 16;23(7).
    PMID: 30012946 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23071730
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different solvents for extraction, liquid⁻liquid partition, and concentrations of extracts and fractions of Piper cubeba L. on anticariogenic; antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity against oral bacteria. Furthermore, ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was applied to discriminate between the extracts and fractions and examine the metabolites that correlate to the bioactivities. All tested bacteria were susceptible to Piper cubeba L. extracts and fractions. Different solvents extraction, liquid⁻liquid partition and concentrations of extracts and fractions have partially influenced the antibacterial activity. MTT assay showed that P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells at selected concentrations. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluated by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells showed a reduction in NO production in cells treated with P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions, compared to those without treatment. Twelve putative metabolites have been identified, which are (1) cubebin, (2) yatein, (3) hinokinin, (4) dihydrocubebin, (5) dihydroclusin, (6) cubebinin, (7) magnosalin, (8) p-cymene, (9) piperidine, (10) cubebol, (11) d-germacrene and (12) ledol. Different extraction and liquid⁻liquid partition solvents caused separation in principal component analysis (PCA) models. The partial least squares (PLS) models showed that higher anticariogenic activity was related more to the polar solvents, despite some of the active metabolites also present in the non-polar solvents. Hence, P. cubeba L. extracts and fractions exhibited antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity and have potential to be developed as the anticariogenic agent.
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