Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 470 in total

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  1. Tran TV, Nguyen DTC, Le HTN, Bach LG, Vo DN, Lim KT, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 May 16;24(10).
    PMID: 31100932 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24101887
    In this study, a minimum-run resolution IV and central composite design have been developed to optimize tetracycline removal efficiency over mesoporous carbon derived from the metal-organic framework MIL-53 (Fe) as a self-sacrificial template. Firstly, minimum-run resolution IV, powered by the Design-Expert program, was used as an efficient and reliable screening study for investigating a set of seven factors, these were: tetracycline concentration (A: 5-15 mg/g), dose of mesoporous carbons (MPC) (B: 0.05-0.15 g/L), initial pH level (C: 2-10), contact time (D: 1-3 h), temperature (E: 20-40 °C), shaking speed (F: 150-250 rpm), and Na+ ionic strength (G: 10-90 mM) at both low (-1) and high (+1) levels, for investigation of the data ranges. The 20-trial model was analyzed and assessed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) data, and diagnostic plots (e.g., the Pareto chart, and half-normal and normal probability plots). Based on minimum-run resolution IV, three factors, including tetracycline concentration (A), dose of MPC (B), and initial pH (C), were selected to carry out the optimization study using a central composite design. The proposed quadratic model was found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level due to a low P-value (<0.05), high R2 (0.9078), and the AP ratio (11.4), along with an abundance of diagnostic plots (3D response surfaces, Cook's distance, Box-Cox, DFFITS, Leverage versus run, residuals versus runs, and actual versus predicted). Under response surface methodology-optimized conditions (e.g., tetracycline concentration of 1.9 mg/g, MPC dose of 0.15 g/L, and pH level of 3.9), the highest tetracycline removal efficiency via confirmation tests reached up to 98.0%-99.7%. Also, kinetic intraparticle diffusion and isotherm models were systematically studied to interpret how tetracycline molecules were absorbed on an MPC structure. In particular, the adsorption mechanisms including "electrostatic attraction" and "π-π interaction" were proposed.
  2. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME
    Molecules, 2019 May 09;24(9).
    PMID: 31075966 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24091801
    Despite an increase in life expectancy that indicates positive human development, a new challenge is arising. Aging is positively associated with biological and cognitive degeneration, for instance cognitive decline, psychological impairment, and physical frailty. The elderly population is prone to oxidative stress due to the inefficiency of their endogenous antioxidant systems. As many studies showed an inverse relationship between carotenoids and age-related diseases (ARD) by reducing oxidative stress through interrupting the propagation of free radicals, carotenoid has been foreseen as a potential intervention for age-associated pathologies. Therefore, the role of carotenoids that counteract oxidative stress and promote healthy aging is worthy of further discussion. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of carotenoids involved in the prevention of ARD. Collectively, understanding the role of carotenoids in ARD would provide insights into a potential intervention that may affect the aging process, and subsequently promote healthy longevity.
  3. Ikeda M, Ishima Y, Chuang VTG, Sakai M, Osafune H, Ando H, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 30;24(9).
    PMID: 31052207 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24091689
    Intracellular polysulfide could regulate the redox balance via its anti-oxidant activity. However, the existence of polysulfide in biological fluids still remains unknown. Recently, we developed a quantitative analytical method for polysulfide and discovered that polysulfide exists in plasma and responds to oxidative stress. In this study, we confirmed the presence of polysulfide in other biological fluids, such as semen and nasal discharge. The levels of polysulfide in these biological fluids from healthy volunteers (n = 9) with identical characteristics were compared. Additionally, the circadian rhythm of plasma polysulfide was also investigated. The polysulfide levels detected from nasal discharge and seminal fluid were approximately 400 and 600 μM, respectively. No correlation could be found between plasma polysulfide and the polysulfide levels of tear, saliva, and nasal discharge. On the other hand, seminal polysulfide was positively correlated with plasma polysulfide, and almost all polysulfide contained in semen was found in seminal fluid. Intriguingly, saliva and seminal polysulfide strongly correlated with salivary amylase and sperm activities, respectively. These results provide a foundation for scientific breakthroughs in various research areas like infertility and the digestive system process.
  4. Chua LYW, Chua BL, Figiel A, Chong CH, Wojdyło A, Szumny A, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 24;24(8).
    PMID: 31022967 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081625
    The preservation of active constituents in Cassia alata through the removal of moisture is crucial in producing a final product with high antioxidant activity. This study aims to determine the influences of various drying methods and drying conditions on the antioxidant activity, volatiles and phytosterols content of C. alata. The drying methods used were convective drying (CD) at 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C; freeze drying; vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 6, 9 and 12 W/g; and two-stage convective pre-drying followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (CPD-VMFD) at 50 °C and 9 W/g. The drying kinetics of C. alata are best described by the thin-layer model (modified Page model). The highest antioxidant activity, TPC and volatile concentration were achieved with CD at 40 °C. GC-MS analysis identified the presence of 51 volatiles, which were mostly present in all samples but with quantitative variation. The dominant volatiles in fresh C. alata are 2-hexenal (60.28 mg 100 g-1 db), 1-hexanol (18.70 mg 100 g-1 db) and salicylic acid (15.05 mg 100 g-1 db). The concentration of phytosterols in fresh sample was 3647.48 mg 100 g-1 db, and the major phytosterols present in fresh and dried samples were β-sitosterol (1162.24 mg 100 g-1 db). CPD-VMFD was effective in ensuring the preservation of higher phytosterol content in comparison with CD at 50 °C. The final recommendation of a suitable drying method to dehydrate C. alata leaves is CD at 40 °C.
  5. Taha M, Rahim F, Ali M, Khan MN, Alqahtani MA, Bamarouf YA, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 18;24(8).
    PMID: 31003424 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081528
    Chromen-4-one substituted oxadiazole analogs 1-19 have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for β-glucuronidase inhibition. All analogs exhibited a variable degree of β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging in between 0.8 ± 0.1-42.3 ± 0.8 μM when compared with the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4 lactone (IC50 = 48.1 ± 1.2 μM). Structure activity relationship has been established for all compounds. Molecular docking studies were performed to predict the binding interaction of the compounds with the active site of enzyme.
  6. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Quzwain FMC, Che Mohamad CA, Wan Sulaiman WMA, Abdul Wahab R, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 17;24(8).
    PMID: 30999617 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081506
    A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Psychotria malayana leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of P. malayana aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, P. malayana leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model.
  7. Dianita R, Jantan I
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 13;24(8).
    PMID: 31013947 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081469
    Many Premna species have been used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension and cardiac insufficiency, and as a tonic for cardiac-related problems. Some have been reported to possess cardiovascular protective activity through several possible mechanisms, but not Premna foetida. In the present study, the methanol extract of P. foetida leaves (PFM) and its isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit copper-mediated human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and arachidonic acid (AA)- and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Six flavonoids, three triterpenoids, vanillic acid and stigmasterol were successfully isolated from PFM. Of the isolated compounds, quercetin was the most active against LDL oxidation (IC50 4.25 µM). The flavonols were more active than the flavones against LDL oxidation, suggesting that hydroxyl group at C-3 and the catechol moiety at B-ring may play important roles in protecting LDL from oxidation. Most tested flavonoids showed stronger inhibition towards AA-induced than the ADP-induced platelet aggregation with apigenin exhibiting the strongest effect (IC50 52.3 and 127.4 µM, respectively) while quercetin and kaempferol showed moderate activity. The results suggested that flavonoids, especially quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol were among the major constituents of P. foetida responsible for anti-LDL oxidation and anti-platelet aggregation.
  8. Fazilah NF, Hamidon NH, Ariff AB, Khayat ME, Wasoh H, Halim M
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 11;24(7).
    PMID: 30978923 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24071422
    There has been an explosion of probiotic incorporated based product. However, many reports indicated that most of the probiotics have failed to survive in high quantity, which has limited their effectiveness in most functional foods. Thus, to overcome this problem, microencapsulation is considered to be a promising process. In this study, Lactococcus lactis Gh1 was encapsulated via spray-drying with gum Arabic together with Synsepalum dulcificum or commonly known as miracle fruit. It was observed that after spray-drying, high viability (~10⁸ CFU/mL) powders containing L. lactis in combination with S. dulcificum were developed, which was then formulated into yogurt. The tolerance of encapsulated bacterial cells in simulated gastric juice at pH 1.5 was tested in an in-vitro model and the result showed that after 2 h, cell viability remained high at 1.11 × 10⁶ CFU/mL. Incubation of encapsulated cells in the presence of 0.6% (w/v) bile salts showed it was able to survive (~10⁴ CFU/mL) after 2 h. Microencapsulated L. lactis retained a higher viability, at ~10⁷ CFU/mL, when incorporated into yogurt compared to non-microencapsulated cells ~10⁵ CFU/mL. The fortification of microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated L. lactis in yogurts influenced the viable cell counts of yogurt starter cultures, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
  9. Chua LYW, Chua BL, Figiel A, Chong CH, Wojdyło A, Szumny A, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 04 09;24(7).
    PMID: 30970652 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24071397
    The preservation of active constituents in fresh herbs is affected by drying methods. An effective drying method for Strobilanthes crispus which is increasingly marketed as an important herbal tea remains to be reported. This study evaluated the effects of conventional and new drying technologies, namely vacuum microwave drying methods, on the antioxidant activity and yield of essential oil volatiles and phytosterols. These drying methods included convective drying (CD) at 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C; vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 6, 9, and 12 W/g; convective pre-drying and vacuum microwave finish drying (CPD-VMFD) at 50 °C and 9 W/g; and freeze-drying (FD). GC–MS revealed 33 volatiles, and 2-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexenal, 1-octen-3-ol, linalool, and benzaldehyde were major constituents. The compounds β-sitosterol and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant phytosterol and fatty acid, respectively, in fresh S. crispus. The highest phenolic content was achieved with CD at 60 °C. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained with CD at 40 °C and VMD at 9 W/g. On the contrary, the highest total volatiles and phytosterols were detected with CD at 50 °C and VMD at 9 W/g, respectively. This study showed that CD and VMD were effective in producing highly bioactive S. crispus. A suitable drying parameter level, irrespective of the drying method used, was an important influencing factor.
  10. Salehi B, Zakaria ZA, Gyawali R, Ibrahim SA, Rajkovic J, Shinwari ZK, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 07;24(7).
    PMID: 30959974 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24071364
    Piper species are aromatic plants used as spices in the kitchen, but their secondary metabolites have also shown biological effects on human health. These plants are rich in essential oils, which can be found in their fruits, seeds, leaves, branches, roots and stems. Some Piper species have simple chemical profiles, while others, such as Piper nigrum, Piper betle, and Piper auritum, contain very diverse suites of secondary metabolites. In traditional medicine, Piper species have been used worldwide to treat several diseases such as urological problems, skin, liver and stomach ailments, for wound healing, and as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, Piper species could be used as natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents in food preservation. The phytochemicals and essential oils of Piper species have shown strong antioxidant activity, in comparison with synthetic antioxidants, and demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogens. Moreover, Piper species possess therapeutic and preventive potential against several chronic disorders. Among the functional properties of Piper plants/extracts/active components the antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and neuropharmacological activities of the extracts and extract-derived bioactive constituents are thought to be key effects for the protection against chronic conditions, based on preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, besides clinical studies. Habitats and cultivation of Piper species are also covered in this review. In this current work, available literature of chemical constituents of the essential oils Piper plants, their use in traditional medicine, their applications as a food preservative, their antiparasitic activities and other important biological activities are reviewed.
  11. Ida J, Chan SK, Glökler J, Lim YY, Choong YS, Lim TS
    Molecules, 2019 Mar 19;24(6).
    PMID: 30893817 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24061079
    G-quadruplexes are made up of guanine-rich RNA and DNA sequences capable of forming noncanonical nucleic acid secondary structures. The base-specific sterical configuration of G-quadruplexes allows the stacked G-tetrads to bind certain planar molecules like hemin (iron (III)-protoporphyrin IX) to regulate enzymatic-like functions such as peroxidase-mimicking activity, hence the use of the term DNAzyme/RNAzyme. This ability has been widely touted as a suitable substitute to conventional enzymatic reporter systems in diagnostics. This review will provide a brief overview of the G-quadruplex architecture as well as the many forms of reporter systems ranging from absorbance to luminescence readouts in various platforms. Furthermore, some challenges and improvements that have been introduced to improve the application of G-quadruplex in diagnostics will be highlighted. As the field of diagnostics has evolved to apply different detection systems, the need for alternative reporter systems such as G-quadruplexes is also paramount.
  12. Karunanidhi A, Ghaznavi-Rad E, Jeevajothi Nathan J, Joseph N, Chigurupati S, Mohd Fauzi F, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Mar 13;24(6).
    PMID: 30871159 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24061003
    Antibiotic resistance is a problem that continues to challenge the healthcare sector, especially in clinically significant pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein is described the isolation and structure elucidation of a bioactive compound from Allium stipitatum with antimicrobial activity. Crude Allium stipitatum dichloromethane extract (ASDE) was subjected to systematic purification by chromatographic procedures to afford various bioactive fractions. A fraction that exhibited anti-MRSA activity (4 µg·mL-1) was further characterized to determine the structure. The structure of the compound was elucidated as 2-(methyldithio)pyridine-3-carbonitrile (2-Medpy-3-CN). The 2-Medpy-3-CN compound, which was screened for antimicrobial activity, exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 0.5 to >64 µg·mL-1 for tested bacterial species and 0.25 to 2 µg·mL-1 for Candida spp. Further studies are important to confirm the drug target and mechanism of action.
  13. Roheem FO, Mat Soad SZ, Ahmed QU, Ali Shah SA, Latip J, Zakaria ZA
    Molecules, 2019 Mar 13;24(6).
    PMID: 30871172 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24061006
    Digestive enzymes and free radical inhibitors are used to prevent complications resulting from diabetes. Entadaspiralis (family Leguminosae), which is a well-known medicinal plant in herbal medicine due to its various traditional and medicinal applications, was studied. Crude extracts were successively obtained from the stem bark using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol as extracting solvents. The antioxidant activity of all the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene and 2,2'-azinobis(-3-ethylbenzothiazine-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, while digestive enzymes inhibitory activity was assessed using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory methods. Structure elucidation of pure compounds was achieved through different spectroscopic analysis methods. Fractionation and purification of the most active methanol extract resulted in the isolation of a ferulic ester namely; (e)-hexyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) acrylate (FEQ-2) together with five known phenolic constituents, identified as kaempferol (FEQ-3), 5,4'-dihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (FEQ-2), gallic acid (FEQ-5), (+)-catechin (FEQ-7) and (-)-epicatechin (FEQ-8). FEQ-5 exhibited the strongest antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities followed by FEQ-3 and FEQ-4. FEQ-2 also displayed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 13.79 ± 2.13 (DPPH) and 4.69 ± 1.25 (ABTS) µg/mL, respectively. All other compounds were found active either against free radicals or digestive enzymes.
  14. Pang KL, Chin KY
    Molecules, 2019 Mar 06;24(5).
    PMID: 30845769 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24050923
    Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, and these two metabolic conditions cause significant healthcare burden worldwide. Chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress due to exposure of cells to excess nutrients in obesity may trigger insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Tocotrienol, as a functional food component with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cell signaling-mediating effects, may be a potential agent to complement the current management of obesity and diabetes. The review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects of tocotrienol. Previous studies showed that tocotrienol could suppress adipogenesis and, subsequently, reduce body weight and fat mass in animals. This was achieved by regulating pathways of lipid metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis. It could also reduce the expression of transcription factors regulating adipogenesis and increase apoptosis of adipocytes. In diabetic models, tocotrienol was shown to improve glucose homeostasis. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was suggested to be responsible for these effects. Tocotrienol also prevented multiple systemic complications due to obesity and diabetes in animal models through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. Several clinical trials have been conducted to validate the antidiabetic of tocotrienol, but the results were heterogeneous. There is no evidence showing the anti-obesity effects of tocotrienol in humans. Considering the limitations of the current studies, tocotrienol has the potential to be a functional food component to aid in the management of patients with obesity and diabetes.
  15. Salwoom L, Raja Abd Rahman RNZ, Salleh AB, Mohd Shariff F, Convey P, Pearce D, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781467 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040715
    In recent years, studies on psychrophilic lipases have been an emerging area of research in the field of enzymology. This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic). Limited information on lipase activities from bacteria isolated from Signy station is currently available. The presence of lipase genes was determined using real time quantification PCR (qPCR) in samples obtained from three different locations on Signy Island. Twenty strains from the location with highest lipase gene detection were screened for lipolytic activities at a temperature of 4 °C, and from this one strain was selected for further examination based on the highest enzymatic activities obtained. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data of this strain showed the highest level of sequence similarity (98%) to a Pseudomonas sp. strain also isolated from Antarctica. In order to increase lipase production of this psychrophilic strain, optimisation of different parameters of physical and nutritional factors were investigated. Optimal production was obtained at 10 °C and pH 7.0, at 150 rev/min shaking rate over 36 h incubation.
  16. Md Yusof AH, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE, Zainudin BH
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781448 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040711
    This study investigates the ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Malaysian cocoa shell extracts, and optimization using response surface methodology. There are three variables involved in this study, namely: ethanol concentration (70⁻90 v/v %), temperature (45⁻65 °C), and ultrasound irradiation time (30⁻60 min). All of the data were collected and analyzed for variance (ANOVA). The coefficient of determination (R²) and the model was significant in interaction between all variables (98% and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, the lack of fit test for the model was not of significance, with p > 0.0684. The ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time that yielded the maximum value of the total flavonoid content (TFC; 7.47 mg RE/g dried weight (DW)) was 80%, 55 °C, and 45 min, respectively. The optimum value from the validation of the experimental TFC was 7.23 ± 0.15 mg of rutin, equivalent per gram of extract with ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time values of 74.20%, 49.99 °C, and 42.82 min, respectively. While the modelled equation fits the data, the T-test is not significant, suggesting that the experimental values agree with those predicted by the response surface methodology models.
  17. Khan MJ, Shameli K, Sazili AQ, Selamat J, Kumari S
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781541 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040719
    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is desirable practice. It is not only the required technique for industrial and biomedical purposes but also a promising research area. The aim of this study was to synthesize green curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs). The synthesis of C-Ag NPs was achieved by reduction of the silver nitrate (AgNO₃) in an alkaline medium. The characterizations of the prepared samples were conducted by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and zeta potential (ZP) analyses. The formation of C-Ag NPs was evaluated by the dark color of the colloidal solutions and UV-vis spectra, with 445 nm as the maximum. The size of the crystalline nanoparticles, recorded as 12.6 ± 3.8nm, was confirmed by HRTEM, while the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystallographic structure was confirmed by PXRD and SAED. It is assumed that green synthesized curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs) can be efficiently utilized as a strong antimicrobial substance for food and meat preservation due to their homogeneous nature and small size.
  18. Aljohani G, Said MA, Lentz D, Basar N, Albar A, Alraqa SY, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 07;24(3).
    PMID: 30736403 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24030590
    An efficient microwave-assisted one-step synthetic route toward Mannich bases is developed from 4-hydroxyacetophenone and different secondary amines in quantitative yields, via a regioselective substitution reaction. The reaction takes a short time and is non-catalyzed and reproducible on a gram scale. The environmentally benign methodology provides a novel alternative, to the conventional methodologies, for the synthesis of mono- and disubstituted Mannich bases of 4-hydroxyacetophenone. All compounds were well-characterized by FT-IR, ¹H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The structures of 1-{4-hydroxy-3-[(morpholin-4-yl)methyl]phenyl}ethan-1-one (2a) and 1-{4-hydroxy-3-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl]phenyl}ethan-1-one (3a) were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 2a and 3a crystallize in monoclinic, P2₁/n, and orthorhombic, Pbca, respectively. The most characteristic features of the molecular structure of 2a is that the morpholine fragment adopts a chair conformation with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Compound 3a exhibits intermolecular hydrogen bonding, too. Furthermore, the computed Hirshfeld surface analysis confirms H-bonds and π⁻π stack interactions obtained by XRD packing analyses.
  19. Sumitha S, Vasanthi S, Shalini S, Chinni SV, Gopinath SCB, Anbu P, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 13;23(12).
    PMID: 30551671 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123311
    In the present study, we have developed a green approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (DSAgNPs) using aqueous extract of Durio zibethinus seed and determined its antibacterial, photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed the formation of DSAgNPs with a maximum absorbance (λmax) of 420 nm. SEM and TEM images revealed DSAgNPs were spherical and rod shaped, with a size range of 20 nm and 75 nm. The zeta potential was found to be -15.41 mV. XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the nature and presence of Ag and AgCl. DSAgNPs showed considerable antibacterial activity, exhibited better cytotoxicity against brine shrimp, and shown better photocatalytic activity against methylene blue. Based on the present research work, it can be concluded that DSAgNPs could be used in the field of water treatment, pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, biosensor and nanotechnology in near future.
  20. Monowar T, Rahman MS, Bhore SJ, Raju G, Sathasivam KV
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 06;23(12).
    PMID: 30563220 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123220
    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most important global problems currently confronting the world. Different biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have indicated them to be promising antimicrobial agents. In the present study, extracellular extract of an endophytic bacterium, Pantoea ananatis, was used for synthesis of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV⁻Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated. The synthesized spherical-shaped AgNPs with a size range of 8.06 nm to 91.32 nm exhibited significant antimicrobial activity at 6 μg/disc concentration against Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) which were found to be resistant to conventional antibiotics. The synthesized AgNPs showed promising antibacterial efficiency at 10 µg/disc concentration against the MDR strains. The present study suggests that AgNPs synthesized by using the endophytic bacterium P. ananatis are promising antimicrobial agent.
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