Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 456 in total

  1. Salwoom L, Raja Abd Rahman RNZ, Salleh AB, Mohd Shariff F, Convey P, Pearce D, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781467 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040715
    In recent years, studies on psychrophilic lipases have been an emerging area of research in the field of enzymology. This study focuses on bacterial strains isolated from anthropogenically-influenced soil samples collected around Signy Island Research Station (South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctic). Limited information on lipase activities from bacteria isolated from Signy station is currently available. The presence of lipase genes was determined using real time quantification PCR (qPCR) in samples obtained from three different locations on Signy Island. Twenty strains from the location with highest lipase gene detection were screened for lipolytic activities at a temperature of 4 °C, and from this one strain was selected for further examination based on the highest enzymatic activities obtained. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data of this strain showed the highest level of sequence similarity (98%) to a Pseudomonas sp. strain also isolated from Antarctica. In order to increase lipase production of this psychrophilic strain, optimisation of different parameters of physical and nutritional factors were investigated. Optimal production was obtained at 10 °C and pH 7.0, at 150 rev/min shaking rate over 36 h incubation.
  2. Md Yusof AH, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE, Zainudin BH
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781448 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040711
    This study investigates the ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Malaysian cocoa shell extracts, and optimization using response surface methodology. There are three variables involved in this study, namely: ethanol concentration (70⁻90 v/v %), temperature (45⁻65 °C), and ultrasound irradiation time (30⁻60 min). All of the data were collected and analyzed for variance (ANOVA). The coefficient of determination (R²) and the model was significant in interaction between all variables (98% and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, the lack of fit test for the model was not of significance, with p > 0.0684. The ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time that yielded the maximum value of the total flavonoid content (TFC; 7.47 mg RE/g dried weight (DW)) was 80%, 55 °C, and 45 min, respectively. The optimum value from the validation of the experimental TFC was 7.23 ± 0.15 mg of rutin, equivalent per gram of extract with ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time values of 74.20%, 49.99 °C, and 42.82 min, respectively. While the modelled equation fits the data, the T-test is not significant, suggesting that the experimental values agree with those predicted by the response surface methodology models.
  3. Khan MJ, Shameli K, Sazili AQ, Selamat J, Kumari S
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781541 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040719
    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is desirable practice. It is not only the required technique for industrial and biomedical purposes but also a promising research area. The aim of this study was to synthesize green curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs). The synthesis of C-Ag NPs was achieved by reduction of the silver nitrate (AgNO₃) in an alkaline medium. The characterizations of the prepared samples were conducted by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and zeta potential (ZP) analyses. The formation of C-Ag NPs was evaluated by the dark color of the colloidal solutions and UV-vis spectra, with 445 nm as the maximum. The size of the crystalline nanoparticles, recorded as 12.6 ± 3.8nm, was confirmed by HRTEM, while the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystallographic structure was confirmed by PXRD and SAED. It is assumed that green synthesized curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs) can be efficiently utilized as a strong antimicrobial substance for food and meat preservation due to their homogeneous nature and small size.
  4. Aljohani G, Said MA, Lentz D, Basar N, Albar A, Alraqa SY, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 07;24(3).
    PMID: 30736403 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24030590
    An efficient microwave-assisted one-step synthetic route toward Mannich bases is developed from 4-hydroxyacetophenone and different secondary amines in quantitative yields, via a regioselective substitution reaction. The reaction takes a short time and is non-catalyzed and reproducible on a gram scale. The environmentally benign methodology provides a novel alternative, to the conventional methodologies, for the synthesis of mono- and disubstituted Mannich bases of 4-hydroxyacetophenone. All compounds were well-characterized by FT-IR, ¹H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The structures of 1-{4-hydroxy-3-[(morpholin-4-yl)methyl]phenyl}ethan-1-one (2a) and 1-{4-hydroxy-3-[(pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl]phenyl}ethan-1-one (3a) were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound 2a and 3a crystallize in monoclinic, P2₁/n, and orthorhombic, Pbca, respectively. The most characteristic features of the molecular structure of 2a is that the morpholine fragment adopts a chair conformation with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Compound 3a exhibits intermolecular hydrogen bonding, too. Furthermore, the computed Hirshfeld surface analysis confirms H-bonds and π⁻π stack interactions obtained by XRD packing analyses.
  5. Sumitha S, Vasanthi S, Shalini S, Chinni SV, Gopinath SCB, Anbu P, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 13;23(12).
    PMID: 30551671 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123311
    In the present study, we have developed a green approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (DSAgNPs) using aqueous extract of Durio zibethinus seed and determined its antibacterial, photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed the formation of DSAgNPs with a maximum absorbance (λmax) of 420 nm. SEM and TEM images revealed DSAgNPs were spherical and rod shaped, with a size range of 20 nm and 75 nm. The zeta potential was found to be -15.41 mV. XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the nature and presence of Ag and AgCl. DSAgNPs showed considerable antibacterial activity, exhibited better cytotoxicity against brine shrimp, and shown better photocatalytic activity against methylene blue. Based on the present research work, it can be concluded that DSAgNPs could be used in the field of water treatment, pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, biosensor and nanotechnology in near future.
  6. Monowar T, Rahman MS, Bhore SJ, Raju G, Sathasivam KV
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 06;23(12).
    PMID: 30563220 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123220
    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most important global problems currently confronting the world. Different biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have indicated them to be promising antimicrobial agents. In the present study, extracellular extract of an endophytic bacterium, Pantoea ananatis, was used for synthesis of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV⁻Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Zeta potential. The antimicrobial potential of the AgNPs against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 11632), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and multidrug resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 700677), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33592) Escherichia coli (NCTC 13351) was investigated. The synthesized spherical-shaped AgNPs with a size range of 8.06 nm to 91.32 nm exhibited significant antimicrobial activity at 6 μg/disc concentration against Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) which were found to be resistant to conventional antibiotics. The synthesized AgNPs showed promising antibacterial efficiency at 10 µg/disc concentration against the MDR strains. The present study suggests that AgNPs synthesized by using the endophytic bacterium P. ananatis are promising antimicrobial agent.
  7. Al-Anazi M, Al-Najjar BO, Khairuddean M
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 05;23(12).
    PMID: 30563058 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123203
    Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-1 (EGFR), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK), has been associated with several types of cancer, including breast, lung, ovarian, and anal cancers. Thus, the receptor was targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches for cancer treatments. A series of chalcone derivatives are among the most highly potent and selective inhibitors of EGFR described to date. A series of chalcone derivatives were proposed in this study to investigate the intermolecular interactions in the active site utilizing molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. After a careful analysis of docking results, compounds 1a and 1d were chosen for molecular dynamics simulation study. Extensive hydrogen bond analysis throughout 7 ns molecular dynamics simulation revealed the ability of compounds 1a and 1d to retain the essential interactions needed for the inhibition, especially MET 93. Finally, MM-GBSA calculations highlight on the capability of the ligands to bind strongly within the active site with binding energies of -44.04 and -56.6 kcal/mol for compounds 1a and 1d, respectively. Compound 1d showed to have a close binding energy with TAK-285 (-66.17 kcal/mol), which indicates a high chance for compound 1d to exhibit inhibitory activity, thus recommending to synthesis it to test its biological activity. It is anticipated that the findings reported here may provide very useful information for designing effective drugs for the treatment of EGFR-related cancer disease.
  8. Ahmad NA, Jumbri K, Ramli A, Abd Ghani N, Ahmad H, Lim JW
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 05;23(12).
    PMID: 30563037 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123201
    The antiradical efficiency (AE) and kinetic behavior of a new ferulate-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) were described using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. The reduction of the DPPH free radical (DPPH•) was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 517 nm. The time to reach steady state for the reaction of parent acid (ferulic acid) and synthesized PILs with DPPH• was continuously recorded for 1 h. Results revealed that the AE of 2-butylaminoethanol ferulate (2BAEF), 3-dimethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DMAPF) and 3-diethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DEAPF) PILs have improved compared to ferulic acid (FA) as the reaction class changes from low to medium. This attributed to the strong hydrogen abstraction occurred in the PILs. Furthermore, these PILs were found to have a good kinetic behavior compared to FA due to the high rate constant (k₂) (164.17, 242.84 and 244.73 M-1 s-1, respectively). The alkyl chain length and more alkyl substituents on the nitrogen atom of cation were believed to reduce the cation-anion interaction and speed up the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and electron transfer (ET) mechanisms; hence, increased rate constant was observed leading to a strong antioxidant activity of the synthesized PILs.
  9. Ibrahim MD, Kntayya SB, Mohd Ain N, Iori R, Ioannides C, Abdull Razis AF
    Molecules, 2018 Nov 27;23(12).
    PMID: 30486382 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123092
    Glucoraphasatin (GRH), a glucosinolate present abundantly in the plants of the Brassicaceae family, is hydrolyzed by myrosinase to raphasatin, which is considered responsible for its cancer chemopreventive activity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action have not been investigated, particularly in human cell lines. The aims of this study are to determine the cytotoxicity of raphasatin, and to evaluate its potential to cause apoptosis and modulate cell cycle arrest in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxicity was determined following incubation of the cells with glucoraphasatin or raphasatin (0⁻100 µM), for 24, 48, and 72 h. GRH displayed no cytotoxicity as exemplified by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. When myrosinase was added to the incubation system to convert GRH to raphasatin, cytotoxicity was evident. Exposure of the cells to raphasatin stimulated apoptosis, as was exemplified by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, using Annexin V-FITC assay, raphasatin induced apoptosis, as witnessed by changes in cellular distribution of cells, at different stages of apoptosis; in addition, raphasatin caused the arrest of the MCF-7 cells at the G₂ + M phase. In conclusion, raphasatin demonstrated cancer chemopreventive potential against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells, through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
  10. Zakaria N, Mahdzir MA, Yusoff M, Mohd Arshad N, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 23;23(11).
    PMID: 30360475 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23112733
    BACKGROUND: Pinnatane A from the bark of Walsura pinnata was investigated for its anti-cancer properties by analyzing the cytotoxic activities and cell cycle arrest mechanism induced in two different liver cancer cell lines.

    METHODS: A 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze the pinnatane A selectivity in inducing cell death in cancer and normal cells. Various biological assays were carried out to analyze the anti-cancer properties of pinnatane A, such as a live/dead assay for cell death microscopic visualization, cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) to identify the cell cycle arrest phase, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (annexin V-FITC)/PI flow cytometry assay to measure percentage of cell populations at different stages of apoptosis and necrosis, and DNA fragmentation assay to verify the late stage of apoptosis.

    RESULTS: The MTT assay identified pinnatane A prominent dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity effects in Hep3B and HepG2 cells, with minimal effect on normal cells. The live/dead assay showed significant cell death, while cell cycle analysis showed arrest at the G₀/G₁ phase in both cell lines. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays identified apoptotic cell death in Hep3B and necrotic cell death in HepG2 cell lines.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pinnatane A has the potential for further development as a chemotherapeutic agent prominently against human liver cells.

  11. Eliaser EM, Ho JH, Hashim NM, Rukayadi Y, Ee GCL, Razis AFA
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 20;23(10).
    PMID: 30347850 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102708
    Natural products, either pure compounds or standardized plant extracts, have provided opportunities for the discovery of new drugs. Nowadays, most of the world's population still relies on traditional medicines for healthcare purposes. Plants, in particular, are always used as traditional medicine, as they contain a diverse number of phytochemicals that can be used for the treatment of diseases. The multicomponent feature in the plants is considered a positive phytotherapeutic hallmark. Hence, ethnopharmacognosy has been the focus for finding alternative treatments for diseases. Melicopelunu-ankenda, also known as Euodialunu-ankenda, is widely distributed in tropical regions of Asia. Different parts of M.lunu-ankenda have been used for treatment of hypertension, menstrual disorder, diabetes, and fever, and as an emmenagogue and tonic. It has also been consumed as salad and as a condiment for food flavorings. The justification of use of M.lunu-ankenda in folk medicines is supported by its reported biological activities, including its cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review summarizes the phytochemical compounds isolated from various parts of M.lunu-ankenda, such as root and leaves, and also its biological activities, which could make the species a new therapeutic agent for some diseases, including diabetes, in the future.
  12. Abdullah NH, Ismail S
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 19;23(10).
    PMID: 30347696 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102696
    The co-use of conventional drug and herbal medicines may lead to herb-drug interaction via modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) by herbal constituents. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyzing glucuronidation are the major metabolic enzymes of Phase II DMEs. The in vitro inhibitory effect of several herbal constituents on one of the most important UGT isoforms, UGT2B7, in human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM) was investigated. Zidovudine (ZDV) was used as the probe substrate to determine UGT2B7 activity. The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of ZDV in HLM is 1.65 µL/mg/min which is ten times greater than in RLM, which is 0.16 µL/mg/min. Andrographolide, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, mitragynine and zerumbone inhibited ZDV glucuronidation in HLM with IC50 values of 6.18 ± 1.27, 18.56 ± 8.62, 8.11 ± 4.48 and 4.57 ± 0.23 µM, respectively, hence, herb-drug interactions are possible if andrographolide, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, mitragynine and zerumbone are taken together with drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT2B7. Meanwhile, only mitragynine and zerumbone inhibited ZDV glucuronidation in RLM with IC50 values of 51.20 ± 5.95 μM and 8.14 ± 2.12 µM, respectively, indicating a difference between the human and rat microsomal model so caution must be exercised when extrapolating inhibitory metabolic data from rats to humans.
  13. Abu Tawila ZM, Ismail S, Dadrasnia A, Usman MM
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 18;23(10).
    PMID: 30340415 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102689
    The production, optimization, and characterization of the bioflocculant QZ-7 synthesized by a novel Bacillus salmalaya strain 139SI isolated from a private farm soil in Selangor, Malaysia, are reported. The flocculating activity of bioflocculant QZ-7 present in the selected strain was found to be 83.3%. The optimal culture for flocculant production was achieved after cultivation at 35.5 °C for 72 h at pH 7 ± 0.2, with an inoculum size of 5% (v/v) and sucrose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources. The maximum flocculating activity was found to be 92.6%. Chemical analysis revealed that the pure bioflocculant consisted of 79.08% carbohydrates and 15.4% proteins. The average molecular weight of the bioflocculant was calculated to be 5.13 × 10⁵ Da. Infrared spectrometric analysis showed the presence of carboxyl (COO-), hydroxyl (-OH), and amino (-NH₂) groups, polysaccharides and proteins. The bioflocculant QZ-7 exhibited a wide pH stability range from 4 to 7, with a flocculation activity of 85% at pH 7 ± 0.2. In addition, QZ-7 was thermally stable and retained more than 80% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. SEM analysis revealed that QZ-7 exhibited a clear crystalline brick-shaped structure. After treating wastewater, the bioflocculant QZ-7 showed significant flocculation performance with a COD removal efficiency of 93%, whereas a BOD removal efficiency of 92.4% was observed in the B. salmalaya strain 139SI. These values indicate the promising applications of the bioflocculant QZ-7 in wastewater treatment.
  14. Yap WY, Hwang JS
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 04;23(10).
    PMID: 30287801 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102537
    A group of stable, water-soluble and membrane-bound proteins constitute the pore forming toxins (PFTs) in cnidarians. They interact with membranes to physically alter the membrane structure and permeability, resulting in the formation of pores. These lesions on the plasma membrane causes an imbalance of cellular ionic gradients, resulting in swelling of the cell and eventually its rupture. Of all cnidarian PFTs, actinoporins are by far the best studied subgroup with established knowledge of their molecular structure and their mode of pore-forming action. However, the current view of necrotic action by actinoporins may not be the only mechanism that induces cell death since there is increasing evidence showing that pore-forming toxins can induce either necrosis or apoptosis in a cell-type, receptor and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we focus on the response of the cellular immune system to the cnidarian pore-forming toxins and the signaling pathways that might be involved in these cellular responses. Since PFTs represent potential candidates for targeted toxin therapy for the treatment of numerous cancers, we also address the challenge to overcoming the immunogenicity of these toxins when used as therapeutics.
  15. Ng CH, Rullah K, Abas F, Lam KW, Ismail IS, Jamaludin F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 30;23(10).
    PMID: 30274341 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102509
    A new series of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA) analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. Prenylated analogues 4a⁻g (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 35 μ M to 95 μ M) did not exhibit better inhibitory activity than tHGA (3a) (IC50 value: 23.6 μ M) due to the reduction in hydrophobic interaction when the alkyl chain length was reduced. One geranylated analogue, 3d, with an IC50 value of 15.3 μ M, exhibited better LOX inhibitory activity when compared to tHGA (3a), which was in agreement with our previous findings. Kinetics study showed that the most active analogue (3e) and tHGA (3a) acted as competitive inhibitors. The combination of in silico approaches of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation revealed that the lipophilic nature of these analogues further enhanced the LOX inhibitory activity. Based on absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) and toxicity prediction by komputer assisted technology (TOPKAT) analyses, all geranylated analogues (3a⁻g) showed no hepatotoxicity effect and were biodegradable, which indicated that they could be potentially safe drugs for treating inflammation.
  16. Abdi MM, Md Tahir P, Liyana R, Javahershenas R
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 26;23(10).
    PMID: 30261640 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102470
    In this study a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as a soft template for in situ chemical polymerization of aniline on the surface of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The morphology of the wire-like and porous nanostructure of the resulting composite was highly dependent on the MCC and CTAB concentrations. The effect of the MCC and CTAB concentrations on the electrochemical and morphological properties of the polyaniline (PAni) nanocomposite was studied. Cyclic voltammograms of modified PAni/MCC/CTAB electrode displayed a high current response and the effect of scan rate on the current response confirmed a diffusion controlled process on the surface of the electrode that makes it suitable for sensor applications. The overlapping characteristic peaks of pure PAni and MCC caused peak broadening at 3263 cm-1 in the IR spectra of PAni/MCC/CTAB nanocomposite that revealed the interaction between NH of PAni and OH group of MCC via electrostatic interactions. The addition of MCC to PAni through chemical polymerization decreased the thermal stability of composite compared to pure PAni. Lower crystallinity was observed in the XRD diffractogram, with 2 theta values of 22.8, 16.5, and 34.6 for PAni/MCC, confirming the formation of PAni on the MCC surface.
  17. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Nik Yusoff NI, Uzir BF, Perumal V, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 19;23(9).
    PMID: 30235889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092402
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

    METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

  18. Zakaria SR, Saim N, Osman R, Abdul Haiyee Z, Juahir H
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 16;23(9).
    PMID: 30223605 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092365
    This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of three mango varieties (Harumanis, Tong Dam and Susu) for the discrimination of authentic Harumanis from other mangoes. The VOCs of these mangoes were extracted and analysed nondestructively using Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Prior to the analytical method, two simple sensory analyses were carried out to assess the ability of the consumers to differentiate between the Harumanis and Tong Dam mangoes as well as their preferences towards these mangoes. On the other hand, chemometrics techniques, such as principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and discriminant analysis (DA), were used to visualise grouping tendencies of the volatile compounds detected. These techniques were successful in identifying the grouping tendencies of the mango samples according to the presence of their respective volatile compounds, thus enabling the identification of the groups of substances responsible for the discrimination between the authentic and unauthentic Harumanis mangoes. In addition, three ocimene compounds, namely beta-ocimene, trans beta-ocimene, and allo-ocimene, can be considered as chemical markers of the Harumanis mango, as these compounds exist in all Harumanis mango, regardless the different sources of the mangoes obtained.
  19. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
  20. Khoo LW, Foong Kow AS, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 29;23(9).
    PMID: 30158427 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092172
    The present study aims for the first time to provide the in vivo acute toxicological profile of the highest dose of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract according to the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 guidelines through conventional toxicity and advanced proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) serum and urinary metabolomics evaluation methods. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water extract was administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Conventional toxicity evaluation methods (physical observation, body and organ weight, food and water consumption, hematology, biochemical testing and histopathological analysis) suggested no abnormal toxicity signs. Serum ¹H-NMR metabolome revealed no significant metabolic difference between untreated and treated groups. Urinary ¹H-NMR analysis, on the other hand, revealed alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism in extract-treated rats after 2 h of extract administration, but the metabolic expression collected after 24 h and at Day 5, Day 10 and Day 15 indicated that the extract-treated rats did not accumulate any toxicity biomarkers. Importantly, the outcomes further suggest that single oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water leaf extract is safe for consumption.
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