A new cycloartane triterpene bisdesmoside, soulieoside T (1), and one known compound, oleanolic acid (2), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Actaea vaginata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with data reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines.
Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Shorea maxwelliana yielded five oligostilbenoids identified as α-viniferin (1), maximol A (2), vaticanol A (3), suffruticosol A (4) and vaticanol G (5). Chemotaxonomy of isolated compounds was discussed briefly. Major compounds were tested for neurotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Neurotoxicity for all tested compounds did not pose any toxic effect against cultured cell (cell viability range ±100-94%). Compounds 2-5 possessed active cyctotoxic activity against HL60 cell line with IC50 values range of 2.7-78 µg mL(-1).
An isomeric mixture of α,β-amyrin (triterpene) and 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone (quinone) isolated from the Ardisia crispa root hexane (ACRH) extract was reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. Considering the close association between inflammation and cancer, on top of the lack of antitumour study on those compounds, this study aimed to determine the potential of both compounds against tumour promotion in vitro, either as single agent or in combination. Triterpene and quinone compounds, as well as triterpene-quinone fraction (TQF) and ACRH were subjected to inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay for that purpose. Compared with curcumin (positive control), inhibition against EBV-EA activation occurred in the order: ACRH>TQF ≥ curcumin>α,β-amyrin ≥ 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone. These findings reported, for the first time, the antitumor-promoting effect of α,β-amyrin and 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone from the roots of A. crispa, which was enhanced when both compounds act in synergy.
Enterobacter cloacae is a highly pathogenic Gram-negative proteobacterium which is responsible for a wide array of infections. In the present study, the fermentation culture of E. cloacae has yielded one new oxolane compound, Rimboxo (1) in addition to three known compounds, i.e. Maculosine (2), phenylacetic acid (3) and methyl myristate (4). These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluations.
Enterobacter cloacae is a versatile bacterial species inhabiting a wide variety of niches and is capable of metabolising a wide variety of substances as energy resources. The fermentation culture of this bacterial species has successfully yielded one new compound, Rimboxa (1) and three known compounds, i.e. indole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), indole-3-acetic acid (3) and 3,4-di-t-butylaniline (4). Rimboxa (1) is shown to possess the 1,2-oxathiolane core structure. 3,4-Di-t-butylaniline (4) is isolated for the first time from a natural resource. These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluations.
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark (MRB) was extracted using methanol and the extracts were subjected to tests of anti-inflammatory effects. The ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the best anti-inflammatory effects. Purified compounds, sanggenon B, albanol B and sanggenon D, showed inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and albanol B demonstrated the best anti-inflammatory effects. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms, further investigations showed that treatments with Albanol B reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These results would contribute to development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs from MRB.
Phytochemical studies on the stem bark of Garcinia nervosa has resulted in the discovery of one new pyranoxanthone derivative, garner xanthone (1) and five other compounds, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 6-deoxyisojacareubin (3), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (4) stigmasterol (5), and β-sitosterol (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques, such as NMR and MS. The crude extracts of the plant were assessed for their antimicrobial activity.
A new sesquiterpenoid, 1α,4β,7β-eudesmanetriol (1), was isolated together with the known compounds 1β,4β,7β-eudesmanetriol (2) and oplopanone (3) from the rhizomes of Homalomena sagittifolia. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive spectral analyses. The compounds 1 and 2 inhibited growth of Pseudomonas stutzeri with a MIC value of 117 µM when evaluated for antibacterial activity using the minimum concentration assay. Both these compounds showed remarkable activities against acetylcholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) values ranging between 25 and 26 µM. The isolation of these sesquiterpenoids and their biological activities observed in this study support the reported traditional uses of H. sagittifolia for the treatment of microbial related diseases and central nervous system disorders.
The aqueous methanolic extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. exhibited antibacterial activity when assayed against seven microorganisms by the agar diffusion method. Solvent fractionation afforded active chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions from the leaves and the flowers, respectively. A phytochemical study resulted in the identification of ursolic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (2), asiatic acid (3), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and the glycolipid glycerol 1,2-dilinolenyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyanoside (5) from the chloroform fraction. Kaempferol (6), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-E-p-coumaryl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11) and ellagic acid (12) were found in the ethyl acetate fraction. The structures of these compounds were determined by chemical and spectral analyses. Compounds 1-4, the flavonols (6 and 11) and ellagic acid (12) were found to be active against some of the tested microorganisms, while the kaempferol 3-O-glycosides (7-9) did not show any activity, indicating the role of the free 3-OH for antibacterial activity. Addition of p-coumaryl groups results in mild activity for 10 against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Compounds 2-5, 7 and 9-12 are reported for the first time from M. malabathricum. Compound 10 is rare, being reported only once before from a plant, without assignment of the double bond geometry in the p-coumaryl moiety.
In this study the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the Adonidia merrillii fruits were investigated using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate and water). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extract was higher compare with other extract with respective values of 17.80 ± 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 5.43 ± 0.33 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Beside that The RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, naringin and rutin. In the DPPH, NO2 and ABTS scavenging assays, the methanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity as compared to the ethyl acetate and water extracts. The extracts exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxic activity in the assays using human hepatocytes (Chang liver cells) and NIH/3T3 (fibroblasts cell) cell lines. The findings showed the Adonidia merrillii fruit extracts to possess considerable antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. The fruit, therefore, is a potential candidate for further work to discover antioxidant and cytotoxic drugs from natural sources.
Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells.
A phytochemical study carried out on the plant, Calophyllum wallichianum has led to the isolation of a new coumarin, wallimarin T (1) and a known coumarin, calanolide E (2) along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (3) and stigmasterol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, and NMR. MIC assay against the Bacillus bacteria were conducted on the extracts and this gave MIC values ranging from 0.313 to 1.25 mg/mL. Compound 2 was weakly inhibitory towards the Bacilli strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25-0.50 mg/mL. Wallimarin T (1) was not active towards all four bacteria. Overall, the extracts exhibited weak bactericidal properties whereas compound 2 was not bactericidal on the tested bacteria. The hexane and chloroform extracts of the plant were found to be inhibitors to the growth of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis.
A new carbazole alkaloid, 3-carbomethoxy-2-hydroxy-7-methoxycarbazole, Clausine-TY (1), together with two known carbazole alkaloid, Clausine-H (2) and Clausine-B (3), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of the Malaysian Clausena excavata. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The new carbazole alkaloid shows significant cytotoxicity against CEM-SS cell line.
The aim of the study was to isolate digestive enzymes inhibitors from Mimosa pudica through a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Repeated silica gel and sephadex LH 20 column chromatographies of bioactive fractions afforded stigmasterol, quercetin and avicularin as digestive enzymes inhibitors whose IC50 values as compared to acarbose (351.02 ± 1.46 μg mL-1) were found to be as 91.08 ± 1.54, 75.16 ± 0.92 and 481.7 ± 0.703 μg mL-1, respectively. In conclusion, M. pudica could be a good and safe source of digestive enzymes inhibitors for the management of diabetes in future.
Three new cembrane diterpenes, nephthecrassocolides A-B (1-2) and 6-acetoxy nephthenol acetate (3) along with three known compounds, 6-acetoxy-7,8-epoxy nephthenol acetate (4), epoxy nephthenol acetate (5) and nephthenol (6) were isolated from one population of Nephthea sp. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data analysis and the antifungal activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated.
Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders. is used as a medication agent in folkloric medicine. The present study was to examine the chemical composition of the stem bark and leaf of G. atroviridis as well as their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cells. The constituents obtained by hydrodistillation were identified using GC-MS. The stem bark oil (EO-SB) composed mainly the palmitoleic acid (51.9%) and palmitic acid (21.9%), while the leaf oil (EO-L) was dominated by (E)-β-farnesene (58.5%) and β-caryophyllene (16.9%). Treatment of MCF-7 cells using EO-L (100 μg/mL) caused more than 50% cell death while EO-SB did not induce cytotoxic effect. EO-L has stimulated the growth of BEAS-2B normal cells, but not in MCF-7 cancerous cells. The IC50 of EO-L in MCF-7 and BEAS-2B cells were 71 and 95 μg/mL, respectively. A combination treatment of EO-L and tamoxifen induced more cell death than the treatment with drug alone at lower doses.
Garcinia celebica L., locally known as "manggis hutan" in Malaysia is widely used in folkloric medicine to treat various diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of G. celebica L. (EO-GC) and its cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential. EO-GC obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed using capillary GC and GC-MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified, dominated by α-copaene (61.25%), germacrene D (6.72%) and β-caryophyllene (5.85%). In the in vitro MTT assay, EO-GC exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 45.2 μg/mL. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, it showed better inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and none on the fungi and yeasts tested.
Chloroform extract of bark of Artabotrys crassifolius Hook.f. & Thomson exhibited antibacterial activities against both American Type Culture Collection and clinical bacterial strains in vitro with zones of inhibition ranging from 7 to 14 mm. Further analysis of this extract yielded artabotrine, liridine, lysicamine and atherospermidine. Artabotrine displayed a broad array of antibacterial activity mostly against Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 1.25 μg/mL to 5 μg/mL. Of note, artabotrine, liridine and lysicamine are bactericidal against Gram-negative extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella with MIC values equal 2.5, 2.5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, and minimum bactericidal concentrations values equal to 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/mL.
Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25 µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients.
A new limonoid, pentandricine (1), along with three known limonoids, ceramicine B (2), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxochisocheton (3), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxo-7-O-deacetylchisocheton (4), have been isolated from the stembark of Chisocheton pentandrus. The chemical structures of the new compound were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. All of the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compounds 1-4 showed weak and no cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 369.84, 150.86, 208.93 and 120.09 μM, respectively.