Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 140 in total

  1. Abbas N, Mohamad D, Abdullah AH, Saba T, Al-Rodhaan M, Al-Dhelaan A
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Sep;28(5):1801-6.
    PMID: 26408877
    The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area.
  2. Abbasi MA, Nazeer MM, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Hussain G, Shah SA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Nov;31(6):2477-2485.
    PMID: 30473521
    The aim of the present research work was synthesis of some 2-furyl[(4-aralkyl)-1-piperazinyl]methanone derivatives and to ascertain their antibacterial potential. The cytotoxicity of these molecules was also checked to find out their utility as possible therapeutic agents. The synthesis was initiated by reacting furyl(-1-piperazinyl)methanone (1) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and lithium hydride with different aralkyl halides (2a-j) to afford 2-furyl[(4-aralkyl)-1-piperazinyl]methanone derivatives (3a-j). The structural confirmation of all the synthesized compounds was done by IR, EI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral techniques and through elemental analysis. The results of in vitro antibacterial activity of all the synthesized compounds were screened against Gram-negative (S. typhi, E. coli, P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) bacteria and were found to be decent inhibitors. Amongst the synthesized molecules, 3e showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration MIC = 7.52±0.μg/mL against S. Typhi, credibly due to the presence of 2-bromobenzyl group, relative to the reference standard, ciprofloxacin, having MIC = 7.45±0.58μg/mL.
  3. Abbasi MA, Anwar A, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Rubab K, Shah SAA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Sep;30(5):1715-1724.
    PMID: 29084694
    Heterocyclic molecules have been frequently investigated to possess various biological activities during the last few decades. The present work elaborates the synthesis and enzymatic inhibition potentials of a series of sulfonamides. A series of 1-arylsulfonyl-4-Phenylpiperazine (3a-n) geared up by the reaction of 1-phenylpiperazine (1) and different (un)substituted alkyl/arylsulfonyl chlorides (2a-n), under defined pH control using water as a reaction medium. The synthesized molecules were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and EI-MS spectral data. The enzyme inhibition study was carried on α-glucosidase, lipoxygenase (LOX), acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) enzymes supported by docking simulation studies and the IC50 values rendered a few of the synthesized molecules as moderate inhibitors of these enzymes where, the compound 3e exhibited comparatively better potency against α-glucosidase enzyme. The synthesized compounds showed weak or no inhibition against LOX, AChE and BChE enzymes.
  4. Abbasi MA, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Hadi N, Mumtaz A, Shah SAA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Jan;32(1):61-68.
    PMID: 30772791
    In the current research work, a series of new N-(alkyl/aralkyl)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamides has been synthesized by reacting 1,4-benzozzdioxan-6-amine (1) with 4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) to yield N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (3) which was further reacted with different alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-n) to afford the target compounds (5a-n). Structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, EI-MS spectral techniques and CHN analysis data. The results of enzyme inhibition showed that the molecules, N-2-phenethyl-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5j) and N-(1-butyl)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5d), exhibited moderate inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values 26.25±0.11 μM and 58.13±0.15 μM respectively, whereas, compounds N-benzyl-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5i) and N-(pentane-2-yl)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (5f) showed moderate inhibition against α-glucosidase enzyme as evident from IC50 values 74.52±0.07 and 83.52±0.08 μM respectively, relative to standards Eserine having IC50 value of 0.04±0.0001 μM for cholinesterases and Acarbose having IC50 value 38.25±0.12 μM for α-glucosidase, respectively.
  5. Abbasi MA, Fatima Z, Rehman AU, Siddiqui SZ, Ali Shah SA, Shahid M, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Sep;32(5):1957-1964.
    PMID: 31813858
    The present study comprises the synthesis of a new series of benzenesulfonamides derived from N-sulfonation of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1). The synthesis was initiated by the reaction of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1) with benzenesulfonyl chloride (2), to yield N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)benzenesulfonamide (3). This parent molecule 3 was subsequently treated with various alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-j) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and in the presence of a weak base lithium hydride (LiH) to obtain various N-(alkyl/aralkyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl) benzenesulfonamides (5a-j). The characterization of these derivatives was carried out by spectroscopic techniques like IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. Elemental analysis also supported this data. The biofilm inhibitory action of all the synthesized compounds was carried out on Escherichia coli and some of the compounds were identified to be very suitable inhibitors of this bacterial strain. Furthermore, the molecules were also tested for their cytotoxicity behavior to assess their utility as less cytotoxic therapeutic agents.
  6. Abbasi MA, Zeb A, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Shah SAA, Shahid M, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jan;33(1):41-47.
    PMID: 32122829
    The current research was commenced by reaction of 1,4-benzodioxane-6-amine (1) with 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in the presence of aqueous base under dynamic pH control at 9 to yield N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide (3) which was further reacted with a series of alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-i) in polar aprotic solvent using catalytic amount of lithium hydride which acts as base to afford some new N-alkyl/aralkyl-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamides (5a-i). The projected structures of all the synthesized derivatives were characterized by contemporary techniques i.e., IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS. The biofilm Inhibitory action of all synthesized molecules was carried out against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. It was inferred from their results that 5f and 5e exhibited suitable inhibitory action against the biofilms of these bacterial strains. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was also checked and it was concluded that these synthesized molecules displayed docile cytotoxicity.
  7. Abbasi MA, Ijaz M, Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Siddiqui SZ, Ali Shah SA, Shahid M, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jul;33(4):1609-1616.
    PMID: 33583794
    In the planned research work, the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-[(E)-3-phenyl-2-propenyl]piperazine (1) was carried out with different sulfonyl chlorides (2a-g) at pH 9-10 to synthesize its different N-sulfonated derivatives (3a-g). The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by their proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) and Infra Red (IR) spectral data, along with CHN analysis. The inhibition potential of the synthesized molecules was ascertained against two bacterial pathogenic strains i.e. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. It was inferred from the results that some of the compounds were very suitable inhibitors of these bacterial strains. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was also profiled and it was outcome that most of these molecules possessed moderate cytotoxicity.
  8. Abbasi MA, Irshad M, Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Siddiqui SZ, Nazir M, Ali Shah SA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Sep;33(5):2161-2170.
    PMID: 33824125
    In the presented work, 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-amine (1) was reacted with 4-chlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in presence of aqueous basic aqueous medium to obtain 4-chloro-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)benzenesulfonamide (3). In parallel, various un/substituted anilines (4a-l) were treated with bromoacetyl bromide (5) in basified aqueous medium to obtain corresponding 2-bromo-N-(un/substituted)phenylacetamides (6a-l) as electrophiles. Then the compound 3 was finally reacted with these electrophiles, 6a-l, in dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent and lithium hydride as base and activator to synthesize a variety of 2-[[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl](2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)amino]-N-(un/substituted)phenylacetamides (7a-l). The synthesized compounds were corroborated by IR, 1H-NMR and EI-MS spectral data for structural confirmations. These molecules were then evaluated for their antimicrobial and antifungal activities along with their %age hemolytic activity. Some compounds were found to have suitable antibacterial and antifungal potential, especially the compound 2-[[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl](2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)amino]-N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)acetamide (7l) exhibited good antimicrobial potential with low value of % hemolytic activity.
  9. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
  10. Abdualkader AM, Ghawi AM, Alaama M, Awang M, Merzouk A
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 May;26(3):525-35.
    PMID: 23625426
    The medicinal Malaysian leeches have been used in traditional medicine to treat many different ailments. In this study, leech saliva extract (LSE) was collected from the medicinal Malaysian leech Hirudinaria manillensis. Gel electrophoresis of LSE was carried out to estimate the peptide and protein molecular weights of its content. Results showed that LSE contains more than 60 peptides and proteins with molecular masses ranging from 1.9-250kDa. Thrombin time assay in vitro was employed to assess the collected LSE antithrombin activity. First, to study its stability, LSE was lyophilized under the following different conditions: pre-freezing temperature, type of container and lyophilization cycle. Pre-freezed LSE sample at -20°C and lyophilized for 24 hours retained about 100-95% of its original biological activities. Second, the LSE antithrombin activity was monitored for a period of six months. Storage temperature, type of the container and photosensitivity effects on antithrombin activity of the lyophilized (solid state) and non-lyophilized (liquid state) were investigated. Results showed that storage temperature drastically affected the biological activity of LSE with -20 °C as the optimum temperature. Samples stored at ambient temperature and +4 °C were light photosensitive and adversely affected when stored in polypropylene tubes. Lyophilized samples were more stable than non-lyophilized ones over the period of study. To sum up, in order to have a biologically active stock of LSE, it has to be lyophilized for no more than 24 hours following freezing at -20°C and has to be stored at -20°C in glass tubes protected from light.
  11. Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Chitneni M, Yam MF, Mahdi ES, Salman IM, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Apr;25(2):429-33.
    PMID: 22459473
    The surface activity of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents like ibuprofen was investigated extensively. This fact has attracted the researchers to extend this behavior to other agents like piroxicam. Piroxicam molecules are expected to orient at the interface of oil and aqueous phase. The aim of this study was, firstly, to assess the surface and interfacial tension behaviour of newly synthesised palm oil esters and various pH phosphate buffers. Furthermore, the surface and interfacial tension activity of piroxicam was studied. All the measurements of surface and interfacial tension were made using the tensiometer. The study revealed that piroxicam has no effect on surface tension values of all pH phosphate buffers and palm oil esters. Similarly, various concentrations of piroxicam did not affect the interfacial tensions between the oil phase and the buffer phases. Accordingly, the interfacial tension values of all mixtures of oil and phosphate buffers were considerably high which indicates the immiscibility. It could be concluded that piroxicam has no surface activity. Additionally, there is no surface pressure activity of piroxicam at the interface of plam oil esters and phosphate buffers in the presence of Tweens and Spans.
  12. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Johns EJ
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jul;26(4):727-32.
    PMID: 23811449
    Effect of losartan was assessed on systemic haemodynamic responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in the model of high-fructose-fed rat. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed for 8 weeks either 20% fructose solution (FFR) or tap water (C) ad libitum. FFR or C group received losartan (10mg/kg/day p.o.) for 1 week at the end of feeding period (FFR-L and L) respectively, then the vasopressor responses to Ang II, noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) and methoxamine (ME) were determined. The responses (%) to NA, PE, ME and Ang II in FFR were lower (P<0.05) than C (FFR vs. C; 22±2 vs. 32±2, 30±3 vs. 40±3, 9±1 vs. 13±1, 10±1 vs. 17±1) respectively. L group had blunted (P<0.05) responses to NA, PE, ME and Ang II compared to C (L vs. C; 26±2 vs. 32±2, 30±3 vs. 40±3, 7±0.7 vs. 13±1, 5±0.4 vs. 17±1) respectively. FFR-L group had aggravated (P<0.05) response to NA and ME, but blunted response to Ang II compared to FFR (FFR-L vs. FFR; 39±3 vs. 22±2, 11±1 vs. 9±1, 3±0.4 vs. 10±1) respectively. Fructose intake for 8 weeks results in smaller vasopressor response to adrenergic agonists and Ang II. Data also demonstrated an important role played by Ang II in the control of systemic haemodynamics in FFR and point to its interaction with adrenergic neurotransmission.
  13. Abdullah GZ, Abdulkarim MF, Mallikarjun C, Mahdi ES, Basri M, Sattar MA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jan;26(1):75-83.
    PMID: 23261730
    Micro-emulsions and sometimes nano-emulsions are well known candidates to deliver drugs locally. However, the poor rheological properties are marginally affecting their acceptance pharmaceutically. This work aimed to modify the poor flow properties of a nano-scaled emulsion comprising palm olein esters as the oil phase and ibuprofen as the active ingredient for topical delivery. Three Carbopol ® resins: 934, 940 and Ultrez 10, were utilized in various concentrations to achieve these goals. Moreover, phosphate buffer and triethanolamine solutions pH 7.4 were used as neutralizing agents to assess their effects on the gel-forming and swelling properties of Carbopol ® 940. The addition of these polymers caused the produced nano-scaled emulsion to show a dramatic droplets enlargement of the dispersed globules, increased intrinsic viscosity, consistent zeta potential and transparent-to-opaque change in appearance. These changes were relatively influenced by the type and the concentration of the resin used. Carbopol ® 940 and triethanolamine appeared to be superior in achieving the proposed tasks compared to other materials. The higher the pH of triethanolamine solution, the stronger the flow-modifying properties of Carbopol ® 940. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of a well-arranged gel network of Carbopol ® 940, which was the major cause for all realized changes. Later in vitro permeation studies showed a significant decrease in the drug penetration, thus further modification using 10% w/w menthol or limonene as permeation promoters was performed. This resulted in in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamics properties that are comparably higher than the reference chosen for this study.
  14. Abed SA, Sirat HM, Taher M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Nov;29(6):2071-2078.
    PMID: 28375126
    The leaves of Gynotroches axillaris were chemically and biologically studied. Sequential extraction of the leaves using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol afforded three extracts. Purification of pet. ether extract yielded, squalene and β-amyrin palmitate as the major compounds, together with palmitic acid and myristic acid as the minor components. The methanol extract yielded two flavonoids, quercitrin and epicatechin. The isolated compounds were characterized by MS, IR and NMR (1D and 2D). Anti-acetyl cholinesterase screening using TLC bio-autography assay showed that palmitic acid and myristic acid were the strongest inhibition with detection limit 1.14 and 1.28 μ/g/ 5 μL respectively. Antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative and antifungal activities exhibited that β-amyrin palmitate was the strongest (450-225 μ/mL) against all the tested microbes. The tyrosinase inhibition assay of extracts and the pure compounds were screened against tyrosinase enzyme. The inhibition percentage (I%) of methanol extract against tyrosinase enzyme was stronger than the other extracts with value 68.4%. Quercitrin (59%) was found to be the highest in the tyrosinase inhibition activity amongst the pure compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report on the phytochemicals, tyrosinase inhibition, anti-acetycholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of G. axillaris.
  15. Adekoya AA, Ahmad S, Maziah M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 May;29(3):979-84.
    PMID: 27166542
    The use of herbal medicine and traditional healing practices for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness and ailment continue to have more awareness among the scientific community due to their safety and also as a source of alternatives to synthetic products. This research assessed the total phenolic compounds and in vitro total antioxidant potentials of water extracts in selected species of Zingiberaceae rhizomes use as spice, drinks and medicine. DPPH and FRAP were used to determine the antioxidant capacity, total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents assays to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant activity and the control was ascorbic acid. The results showed that all extracts contain significant antioxidant activity with Zingiber officinale having the highest activity in all assays. DPPH (222.30mg/TE/g DW), FRAP (98.04mg/TE/g DW), Flavonoid (38.58mg/NGN/g DW) phenolic acid (10.78mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (22.84mg/GAE/g DW). Significant and positive linear correlation were found in DPPH, FRAP and total flavonoid, phenolic acids and polyphenol contents. This study reveals some phytochemicals present in Zingiberaceae species, which might be responsible for their biological activities and reason for it use in folkloric medicine in Southeast Asia.
  16. Afzal S, Sattar MA, Akhtar S, Binti Abdullah NA, Eseyin OA, Abdulla MH, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 May;31(3):747-754.
    PMID: 29716851
    Pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ) agonist, is a therapeutic drug for diabetes. Present study investigated the interaction between PPAR-γ and alpha adrenoceptors in modulating vasopressor responses to Angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists, in diabetic & non-diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs). Diabetes was induced with an i.p injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) in two groups (STZ-CON, STZ-PIO), whereas two groups remained non diabetic (ND-CO, ND-PIO). One diabetic and non-diabetic group received Pioglitazone (10mg/kg) orally for 21 days. On day 28, the animals were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (60mg/kg) and prepared for measurement of systemic haemodynamics. Basal mean arterial pressure of STZ-CON was higher than ND-CON, whereas following pioglitazone treatment, MAP was lower compared to respective controls. MAP responses to i.v administration of NA, PE, ME and ANG II were significantly lower in diabetic SHRs: STZ-CON vs ND-CON (35%). Pioglitazone significantly decreased responses to NA, PE, ME and ANG II in ND-PIO versus ND-CON by 63%. Responses to NA and ANG II were significantly attenuated in STZ-PIO vs. ND-PIO (40%). PPAR-γ regulates systemic hemodynamic in diabetic model and cross-talk relationship exists between PPAR-γ and α1-adrenoceptors, ANG II in systemic vasculature of SHRs.
  17. Ahmad M, Masood S, Sultana S, Hadda TB, Bader A, Zafar M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Jan;28(1):241-7.
    PMID: 25553701
    Nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of three edible wild berries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb, Rubus ulmifolius L.) from Lesser Himalayan Range (LHR) were evaluated. Their edible portion was assayed for moisture, fats, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, fibers, essential minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co, Ni) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was applied to determine the antioxidant potential. The fruit of Rubus ulmifolius L. (blackberry) possessed the highest values of energy (403.29 Kcal), total protein (6.56g/100 g), Nitrogen (N) content (1500mg/100g), K (860.17mg/100g), Ca (620.56mg/100g), Zn (17.509mg/100g) and the strongest antioxidant activity (98.89% inhibition). While the raspberries (Rubus ellipticus Smith, Rubus niveus Thunb.) exhibited more significant contents of dietary fiber (5.90g/100g), carbohydrates (86.4 g/100 g) and Fe (4.249mg/100g). Significant variation was observed among the tested samples in all the investigated features. The combination of bio elements and active antioxidants clearly showed the applicability of these berries as a nutraceutical supplement.
  18. Ahmed AS, Ahmed Q, Saxena AK, Jamal P
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Jan;30(1):113-126.
    PMID: 28603121
    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.
  19. Aisha AF, Abu-Salah KM, Alrokayan SA, Ismail Z, Abdulmajid AM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jan;25(1):7-14.
    PMID: 22186303
    Parkia speciosa Hassk is a traditional medicinal plant with strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties. This study aims to investigate the total phenolic content, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of eight extracts from P. speciosa empty pods. The extracts were found to contain high levels of total phenols and demonstrated strong antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging test. In rat aortic rings, P. speciosa extracts significantly inhibited the microvessel outgrowth from aortic tissue explants by more than 50%. The antiangiogenic activity was further confirmed by tube formation on matrigel matrix involving human endothelial cells. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated by XTT test on endothelial cells as a model of angiogenesis versus a panel of human cancer and normal cell lines. Basically the extracts did not show acute cytotoxicity. Morphology examination of endothelial cells indicated induction of autophagy characterized by formation of plenty of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The extracts were found to work by decreasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells.
  20. Akram S, Najam R, Rizwani GH, Abbas SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Sep;28(5):1781-7.
    PMID: 26408897
    This study depicts a profile of existence of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, Mn, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg) in some important herbal plants like (H. Integrifolia, D. regia, R. communis, C. equisetifolia, N. oleander, T. populnea, M. elengi, H. schizopetalus, P. pterocarpum) from Pakistan and an antidiabetic Malaysian herbal drug product containing (Punica granatum L. (Mast) Hook, Momordica charantia L., Tamarindus indica L., Lawsonia inermis L.) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metals in these herbal plants and Malaysian product were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppm of Cu, 0.00-0.02 ppm of Ni, 0.02-0.29 ppm of Zn, 0.00-0.04 ppm of Cd, 0.00-1.33 ppm of Hg, 0.00-0.54 ppm of Mn, 0.22-3.16 ppm of Fe, 0.00-9.17 ppm of Na, 3.27-15.63 ppm of Ca and 1.85-2.03 ppm of Mg. All the metals under study were within the prescribed limits except mercury. Out of 10 medicinal plants/product under study 07 were beyond the limit of mercury permissible limits. Purpose of this study is to determine heavy metals contents in selected herbal plants and Malaysian product, also to highlight the health concerns related to the presence of toxic levels of heavy metals.
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