Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  2. Amelia K, Singh J, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):209-12.
    PMID: 25829797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150536
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it.
  3. Amelia K, Khor CY, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):203-8.
    PMID: 25829796 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150532
    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken.
  4. Amran N, Rani AN, Mahmud R, Yin KB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):66-70.
    PMID: 26941539 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171104
    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy.
  5. Anand Swarup KR, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Abdulla MH, Salman IM, Rathore HA, et al.
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Jan;2(1):31-5.
    PMID: 21808536 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.60582
    Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased (P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.
  6. Annegowda HV, Anwar LN, Mordi MN, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Nov;2(6):368-73.
    PMID: 21713141 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.75457
    This study was designed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from T. catappa leaves obtained by different intervals of sonication.
  7. Balijepalli MK, Suppaiah V, Chin AM, Buru AS, Sagineedu SR, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):38-44.
    PMID: 25598633 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147197
    BACKGROUND: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
    RESULTS: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
    CONCLUSION: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
    KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Swietenia macrophylla; sky fruit; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit
  8. Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Mar;2(2):113-9.
    PMID: 21808551 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.62949
    Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC(50) values of 32.9 ± 3.8 μg/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer.
  9. Bhore SJ, Preveena J, Kandasamy KI
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):134-7.
    PMID: 23798890 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110545
    Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species.
  10. Chan EW, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Oct;3(4):266-72.
    PMID: 22224051 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.89748
    BACKGROUND: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents.

    RESULTS: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus.

    CONCLUSION: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  11. Chan EW, Lim YY, Tan SP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Jul;3(3):178-84.
    PMID: 22022166 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.85003
    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) or 5-caffeoylquinic acid, was found to be the dominant phenolic compound in leaves of Etlingera elatior (Zingiberaceae). The CGA content of E. elatior leaves was significantly higher than flowers of Lonicera japonica (honeysuckle), the commercial source. In this study, a protocol to produce a standardised herbal CGA extract from leaves of E. elatior using column chromatography was developed.
  12. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Christina JM, Asmawi MZ, Vikneswaran M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):1-6.
    PMID: 25598627 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147125
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  13. Gundamaraju R, Hwi KK, Singla RK, Vemuri RC, Mulapalli SB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):267-73.
    PMID: 25276061 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138237
    The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease.
  14. Gundamaraju R, Maheedhar K, Hwi KK
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jul;6(3):227-33.
    PMID: 25002803 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.132600
    Ulcerations have been effecting humans and causing major damage in the gastro intestinal tract. A need for development of a flawless anti-ulcer medication was always in the agenda. Thus, the need to conduct a study was provoked.
  15. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
  16. Hanapi NA, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Oct;5(4):241-6.
    PMID: 24174816 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.118806
    To date, many findings reveal that most of the modern drugs have the ability to interact with herbal drugs.
  17. Haron M, Ismail S
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct-Dec;7(4):341-9.
    PMID: 26692748 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.159580
    BACKGROUND: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5'- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
    RESULTS: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 μM followed by buprenorphine with an IC50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 μM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 μM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 μM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 μM.
    CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur.
    KEYWORDS: 4-methylumbelliferone; 7-hydroxymitragynine; buprenorphine; glucuronidation; ketamine; mitragynine
  18. Hashim S, Beh HK, Hamil MS, Ismail Z, Majid AM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):238-243.
    PMID: 27695261
    CONTEXT: Orthosiphon stamineus is a medicinal herb widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. It has been used traditionally as a diuretic, abdominal pain, kidney and bladder inflammation, gout, and hypertension.
    AIMS: This study aims to develop and validate the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for quantification of rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensitin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) found in ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract of O. stamineus leaves.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPTLC method was conducted using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile phase system of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (3:7:0.1) performed on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity, respectively. The detection of spots was observed at ultraviolet 254 nm and 366 nm.
    RESULTS: The linearity of RA, TMF, SIN, and EUP were obtained between 10 and 100 ng/spot with high correlation coefficient value (R2) of more than 0.986. The limit of detection was found to be 122.47 ± 3.95 (RA), 43.38 ± 0.79 (SIN), 17.26 ± 1.16 (TMF), and 46.80 ± 1.33 ng/spot (EUP), respectively. Whereas the LOQ was found to be 376.44 ± 6.70 (RA), 131.45 ± 2.39 (SIN), 52.30 ± 2.01 (TMF), and 141.82 ± 1.58 ng/spot (EUP), respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Hence, it may be applied in a routine quantification of RA, SIN, TMF, and EUP found in ethanol, 50% of ethanol and water extract of O. stamineus leaves.
    SUMMARY: HPTLC method provides rapid estimation of the marker compound for routine quality control analysis.The established HPTLC method is rapid for qualitative and quantitative fingerprinting of Orthosiphon stamineus extract used for commercial product.Four identified markers (RA, SIN, EUP and TMF) found in three a different type of O. stamineus extracts specifically ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract were successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography; RA: Rosmarinic acid; TMF: 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone; SIN: Sinensitin; EUP: Eupatorin; E: Ethanol; EW: 50% ethanol; W: Water; BK: Batu Kurau; KB: Kepala Batas; S: Sik; CJ: Changkat Jering; SB: Sungai Buloh.
    KEYWORDS: rosmarinic acid; Eupatorin; Orthosiphon stamineus; high-performance thin-layer chromatography; sinensitin; validation
  19. Hashim YZ, Phirdaous A, Azura A
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jul;6(3):191-4.
    PMID: 25002797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.132593
    Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved.
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