Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Amran N, Rani AN, Mahmud R, Yin KB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):66-70.
    PMID: 26941539 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171104
    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy.
  2. Ismail A, Wan Ahmad WAN
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Dec;9(Suppl 1):S9-S14.
    PMID: 29333036 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_69_17
    Context: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves are traditionally used by Malays for treating hypertension. Our previous study showed that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum (AESP) and methanolic extract of S. polyanthum (MESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves significantly reduced blood pressure of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate their vasorelaxation potential and the possible involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide in mediating their effect.

    Settings and Design: Both extracts will be tested on isolated thoracic aorta rings of WKY and SHR. The involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide will be elucidated using respective blockers.

    Materials and Methods: Isolated thoracic aorta rings from WKY and SHR were mounted onto myograph chambers to measure changes in the aorta tension. Increasing concentrations of AESP and MESP, from 1 μg/ml to 10 mg/ml were added onto the myograph chambers. Blockers such as atropine (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), propranolol (1 μM), and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 μM) were preincubated before addition of extracts to check for involvement of muscarinic, α- and β-adrenergic receptors (AR) as well as nitric oxide, respectively.

    Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Bonferroni test was used, where P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant.

    Results: AESP and MESP caused significant vasorelaxations through nitric oxide pathway. The former was mediated through α-AR while the latter was mediated by β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.

    Conclusion: Vasorelaxation effect by AESP and MESP involved nitric oxide pathway which is possibly mediated by the autonomic receptors.

    SUMMARY: This is the first study that reveals significant vasorelaxation effect induced by Syzygium polyanthum leaves extract. Vasorelaxation maybe one of the possible mechanisms for its ability to reduce blood pressure. This study also suggested that the vasorelaxation effect by this plant extract may involve nitric oxide pathway mediated by the autonomic receptors. Abbreviations Used: AESP: Aqueous extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. MESP: Methanolic extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rat, WKY: Wistar-Kyoto rat.

  3. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Christina JM, Asmawi MZ, Vikneswaran M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):1-6.
    PMID: 25598627 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147125
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  4. Parasuraman S, Balamurugan S, Christapher PV, Petchi RR, Yeng WY, Sujithra J, et al.
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):156-65.
    PMID: 25829789 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.151457
    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) and prediction of biological activities of its phytoconstituents using in vivo anti-diabetic model and in silico analysis respectively.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaves of O. tenuiflorum were extracted with 60% ethanol, and the extract was used for further pharmacological screening. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated as per the guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, revised draft guidelines 423. The oral anti-diabetic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was studied against streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus. The animals were treated with the investigational plant extract and standard drug (glibenclamide) for 21 consecutive days and the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum on blood glucose levels was measured at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, then the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were collected for organ weight analysis. Prediction for pharmacological and toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum was carried out using online web tools such as online pass prediction and lazar toxicity prediction.
    RESULTS: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Predicted biological activities of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum showed presence of various pharmacological actions, which includes anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Prediction of toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum did not show any major toxic effects.
    CONCLUSION: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity against STZ + nicotinamide induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Further studies are required to confirm the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of individual phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum.
    KEYWORDS: Anti-diabetic activity; Anti-hyperlipidemic activity; In silico analysis; Ocimum tenuiflorum; Phytoconstituents
  5. Chan EW, Lim YY, Tan SP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Jul;3(3):178-84.
    PMID: 22022166 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.85003
    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) or 5-caffeoylquinic acid, was found to be the dominant phenolic compound in leaves of Etlingera elatior (Zingiberaceae). The CGA content of E. elatior leaves was significantly higher than flowers of Lonicera japonica (honeysuckle), the commercial source. In this study, a protocol to produce a standardised herbal CGA extract from leaves of E. elatior using column chromatography was developed.
  6. Ramli N, Ahamed PO, Elhady HM, Taher M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):280-4.
    PMID: 25276063 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138248
    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus.
  7. Ranjith MS, Ranjitsingh AJ, Shankar SG, Vijayalaksmi GS, Deepa K, Babu K, et al.
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Jan;2(1):10-4.
    PMID: 21808531 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.60581
    Solanum trilobatum is a widely used plant in the Indian indigenous systems of medicine. It is mainly used in the treatment of respiratory diseases like bronchial asthma. In our present study, we report that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. trilobatum exhibited inhibition of mast cell degranulation. Further, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. trilobatum significantly decreased the release of IL1α and increased the release of IL8 from the cultured keratinocytes. Oral administration of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. trilobatum stabilized mast cells in experimental rats.
  8. Rajeh MA, Kwan YP, Zakaria Z, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Sasidharan S
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2012 Jul;4(3):170-7.
    PMID: 22923956 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.99085
    The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity.
  9. Patro G, Bhattamisra SK, Mohanty BK, Sahoo HB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016;8(1):22-8.
    PMID: 26941532 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171099
    OBJECTIVE: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate.
    RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group.
    CONCLUSION: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract.
    SUMMARY: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in-vivo antioxidant evaluation from brain homogenate on oxidative stress markers as TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH from rat was investigated. Our findings revealed that M. pudica possesses both in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity due to presence of phenolics and flavonoids.
    KEYWORDS: 2; 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; Brain homogenate; Flavonoids; Mimosa pudica; Oxidative stress
  10. Balijepalli MK, Suppaiah V, Chin AM, Buru AS, Sagineedu SR, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):38-44.
    PMID: 25598633 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147197
    BACKGROUND: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
    RESULTS: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
    CONCLUSION: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
    KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Swietenia macrophylla; sky fruit; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit
  11. Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Mar;2(2):113-9.
    PMID: 21808551 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.62949
    Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC(50) values of 32.9 ± 3.8 μg/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer.
  12. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  13. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
  14. Wong SK, Lim YY, Abdullah NR, Nordin FJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Apr;3(2):100-6.
    PMID: 21772753 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.81957
    The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves.
  15. Gundamaraju R, Hwi KK, Singla RK, Vemuri RC, Mulapalli SB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):267-73.
    PMID: 25276061 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138237
    The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease.
  16. Sriramaneni RN, Omar AZ, Ibrahim SM, Amirin S, Mohd Zaini A
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Jul;2(4):242-6.
    PMID: 21808575 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.69125
    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE) and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA), on rat aortic rings.
  17. Shaarani S, Hamid SS, Mohd Kaus NH
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):12-20.
    PMID: 28250648 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.199774
    BACKGROUND: This study reports on hydrophobic drug thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound found in the volatile oil of Nigella sativa that exhibits anticancer activities. Nanoformulation of this drug could potentially increase its bioavailability to specific target cells.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to formulate TQ into polymer micelle, Pluronic F127 (5.0 wt %) and Pluronic F68 (0.1 wt %), as a drug carrier to enhance its solubility and instability in aqueous media.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymeric micelles encapsulated TQ were prepared by the microwave-assisted solvent evaporation technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer were utilized for qualitative confirmation of micelles encapsulation. The surface morphology and mean particle size of the prepared micelles were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity effect was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay.

    RESULTS: Dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) technique showed hydrodynamic size distribution of optimized micelles of 50 nm, which was in close agreement with the mean particle size obtained from TEM of about 51 nm. Drug release study showed the maximum percentage of TQ release at 61% after 72 h, while the entrapment efficiency of TQ obtained was 46% using PF127. The cytotoxic effect of PF127-encapsulated TQ was considerably higher compared to PF68-encapsulated TQ against MCF7 cells, as they exhibited IC50value of 8 μM and 18 μM, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests higher molecular weight Pluronic polymer micelles (F127) with hydrophilic-hydrophobic segments which could be used as a suitable candidate for sustainable delivery of TQ. However, comprehensive studies should be carried out to establish the suitability of Pluronic F127 as a carrier for other drugs with similar challenges as TQ.

    SUMMARY: There is a rising interest in integrating nanotechnology with medicine, creating a nanomedicine aiming for high efficiency and efficacy of disease diagnosis and treatment. In drug delivery, the term nanomedicine describes the nanometer-sized range (1-1000 nm) of a multi-component drug for disease treatments. As such, liposome-based nanoparticulate delivery vehicles have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical applications. The main purpose of introducing nanoscale drug delivery is to improve the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of therapeutic molecules. Drug or therapeutic molecules can be either released through the cleavage of a covalent linkage between drug molecules and polymers (conjugation) or through the diffusion from a drug and polymer blended matrix (physical encapsulation). Polymers play an important role in the design of nanocarriers for therapeutic deliveries. In Asia, Nigella sativa seed oil has been used traditionally for its various medicinal benefits. One of its most potent compound which is thymoquinone has been intensively investigated for its anti-cancer effects in colorectal carcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, ovarian carcinoma, myeloblastic leukemia, and pancreatic carcinoma. In addition, it is reported to show anti-inflammatory potential, antidiabetic, antihistaminic effects, as well as the ability to alleviate respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. This study aims to formulate and characterize different pluronic-based thymoquinone nanocarrier and investigate its effect against breast cancer cells Abbreviations Used: ATR-IR: Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, CH3CN: Acetonitrile, DLS: Dynamic Light Scattering, MTS: [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, NPs: Nanoparticles, PF127/TQ: Pluronic F127 encapsulated TQ, PF68/TQ: Pluronic F68 encapsulated TQ, PLGA: Poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), PVA: Poly-vinylalcohol, TQ: Thymoquinone, UV/VIS: Ultravioletvisible spectrophotometry.
  18. Hanapi NA, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Oct;5(4):241-6.
    PMID: 24174816 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.118806
    To date, many findings reveal that most of the modern drugs have the ability to interact with herbal drugs.
  19. Sahgal G, Ramanathan S, Sasidharan S, Mordi MN, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Jul;2(4):215-20.
    PMID: 21808570 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.69107
    The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract.
  20. Annegowda HV, Anwar LN, Mordi MN, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Nov;2(6):368-73.
    PMID: 21713141 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.75457
    This study was designed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from T. catappa leaves obtained by different intervals of sonication.
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