Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Ismail A, Wan Ahmad WAN
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Dec;9(Suppl 1):S9-S14.
    PMID: 29333036 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_69_17
    Context: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves are traditionally used by Malays for treating hypertension. Our previous study showed that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum (AESP) and methanolic extract of S. polyanthum (MESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves significantly reduced blood pressure of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate their vasorelaxation potential and the possible involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide in mediating their effect.

    Settings and Design: Both extracts will be tested on isolated thoracic aorta rings of WKY and SHR. The involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide will be elucidated using respective blockers.

    Materials and Methods: Isolated thoracic aorta rings from WKY and SHR were mounted onto myograph chambers to measure changes in the aorta tension. Increasing concentrations of AESP and MESP, from 1 μg/ml to 10 mg/ml were added onto the myograph chambers. Blockers such as atropine (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), propranolol (1 μM), and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 μM) were preincubated before addition of extracts to check for involvement of muscarinic, α- and β-adrenergic receptors (AR) as well as nitric oxide, respectively.

    Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Bonferroni test was used, where P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant.

    Results: AESP and MESP caused significant vasorelaxations through nitric oxide pathway. The former was mediated through α-AR while the latter was mediated by β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.

    Conclusion: Vasorelaxation effect by AESP and MESP involved nitric oxide pathway which is possibly mediated by the autonomic receptors.

    SUMMARY: This is the first study that reveals significant vasorelaxation effect induced by Syzygium polyanthum leaves extract. Vasorelaxation maybe one of the possible mechanisms for its ability to reduce blood pressure. This study also suggested that the vasorelaxation effect by this plant extract may involve nitric oxide pathway mediated by the autonomic receptors. Abbreviations Used: AESP: Aqueous extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. MESP: Methanolic extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rat, WKY: Wistar-Kyoto rat.

  2. Shaarani S, Hamid SS, Mohd Kaus NH
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):12-20.
    PMID: 28250648 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.199774
    BACKGROUND: This study reports on hydrophobic drug thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound found in the volatile oil of Nigella sativa that exhibits anticancer activities. Nanoformulation of this drug could potentially increase its bioavailability to specific target cells.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to formulate TQ into polymer micelle, Pluronic F127 (5.0 wt %) and Pluronic F68 (0.1 wt %), as a drug carrier to enhance its solubility and instability in aqueous media.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymeric micelles encapsulated TQ were prepared by the microwave-assisted solvent evaporation technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer were utilized for qualitative confirmation of micelles encapsulation. The surface morphology and mean particle size of the prepared micelles were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity effect was studied using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay.

    RESULTS: Dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) technique showed hydrodynamic size distribution of optimized micelles of 50 nm, which was in close agreement with the mean particle size obtained from TEM of about 51 nm. Drug release study showed the maximum percentage of TQ release at 61% after 72 h, while the entrapment efficiency of TQ obtained was 46% using PF127. The cytotoxic effect of PF127-encapsulated TQ was considerably higher compared to PF68-encapsulated TQ against MCF7 cells, as they exhibited IC50value of 8 μM and 18 μM, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests higher molecular weight Pluronic polymer micelles (F127) with hydrophilic-hydrophobic segments which could be used as a suitable candidate for sustainable delivery of TQ. However, comprehensive studies should be carried out to establish the suitability of Pluronic F127 as a carrier for other drugs with similar challenges as TQ.

    SUMMARY: There is a rising interest in integrating nanotechnology with medicine, creating a nanomedicine aiming for high efficiency and efficacy of disease diagnosis and treatment. In drug delivery, the term nanomedicine describes the nanometer-sized range (1-1000 nm) of a multi-component drug for disease treatments. As such, liposome-based nanoparticulate delivery vehicles have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical applications. The main purpose of introducing nanoscale drug delivery is to improve the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of therapeutic molecules. Drug or therapeutic molecules can be either released through the cleavage of a covalent linkage between drug molecules and polymers (conjugation) or through the diffusion from a drug and polymer blended matrix (physical encapsulation). Polymers play an important role in the design of nanocarriers for therapeutic deliveries. In Asia, Nigella sativa seed oil has been used traditionally for its various medicinal benefits. One of its most potent compound which is thymoquinone has been intensively investigated for its anti-cancer effects in colorectal carcinoma, breast adenocarcinoma, osteosarcoma, ovarian carcinoma, myeloblastic leukemia, and pancreatic carcinoma. In addition, it is reported to show anti-inflammatory potential, antidiabetic, antihistaminic effects, as well as the ability to alleviate respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. This study aims to formulate and characterize different pluronic-based thymoquinone nanocarrier and investigate its effect against breast cancer cells Abbreviations Used: ATR-IR: Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, CH3CN: Acetonitrile, DLS: Dynamic Light Scattering, MTS: [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, NPs: Nanoparticles, PF127/TQ: Pluronic F127 encapsulated TQ, PF68/TQ: Pluronic F68 encapsulated TQ, PLGA: Poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), PVA: Poly-vinylalcohol, TQ: Thymoquinone, UV/VIS: Ultravioletvisible spectrophotometry.
  3. Parasuraman S, Zhen KM, Banik U, Christapher PV
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):247-252.
    PMID: 28827965 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_8_17
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for experiments. The animals were divided into six groups, namely, normal control, olanzapine control, betahistine (10 mg/kg), and curcumin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Except the normal control group, all other animals were administered with olanzapine 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally to induce obesity. The drugs were administered once daily, per oral for 28 days. During the experiment, body weight changes and behavior alterations were monitored at regular intervals. At the end of the experiment, blood sample was collected from all the experimental animals for biochemical analysis. Part of the liver and kidney tissues was harvested from the sacrificed animals and preserved in neutral formalin for histopathological studies.

    RESULTS: Curcumin showed a significant reduction in olanzapine-induced body weight gain on the rats and improved the locomotor effects. The effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced body weight gain is not comparable with that of betahistine.

    CONCLUSION: This study has shown metabolic alteration effect of curcumin on olanzapine, an antipsychotic drug, treated SD rats.

    SUMMARY: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Obesity is an adverse effect of olanzapine, and the present study was made an attempt to study the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats. In this present study, curcumin significantly reduced olanzapine-induced body weight gain in rats. Abbreviations Used: 5HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, ALT: Alanine transaminase, ANOVA: Analysis of variance, AST: Aspartate transaminase, CMC: Carboxymethyl cellulose, D: Dopamine, H and E: Hematoxylin and Eosin stain, H: Histamine, HDL-C: Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, IP: Intraperitoneal, MAO: Monoamine oxidase, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, SD rats: Sprague Dawley rats, TCs: Total cholesterols, TG: Triglyceride.
  4. Yap CV, Subramaniam KS, Khor SW, Chung I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):378-383.
    PMID: 29263632 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_19_17
    Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Annonacin, a natural pure compound extracted from the seeds of Annona muricata, is a potential alternative therapeutic agent to treat EC.

    Objective: To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs).

    Materials and Methods: Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting.

    Results: Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC50values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.005). We further showed that annonacin-mediated apoptotic cell death was associated with an increase in caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Cell apoptosis was accompanied with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival protein expression and induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Conclusion: Annonacin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for EC patients.

    SUMMARY: We aimed to study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer. Abbreviations Used: 7-AAD: 7-Amino-Actinomycin, ATP: Adenosine diphosphate, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, EC: Endometrial cancer, ECC-1: Endometrial cancer cell-1, EC50: Half maximal effective concentration, Ept: Epithelial, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, HEC-1A: Human endometrial carcinoma-1A, MTT: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, RPMI 1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate.
  5. Yew PN, Lee WL, Lim YY
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):366-371.
    PMID: 29263630 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_145_16
    Background: Porcupine dates are phytobezoar stones that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments against cancer, postsurgical recovery, dengue fever, etc. The medicinal values have not been scientifically investigated due to the availability and high pricing of the dates.

    Objectives: This paper represents the first report on the phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging properties of the extracts of three porcupine dates: grassy date (GD), black date (BD), and powdery date (PD).

    Materials and Methods: Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. Samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant assays based on total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP) as well as intracellular ROS and RNS scavenging properties.

    Results: Phytochemical screening and total tannins assay revealed that tannins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids were found in all porcupine dates with tannins forming the major portion of the TPC. In comparison to GD, BD and PD were found to contain significantly high TPC, radical scavenging activity, and FRP. At 200 μg/ml, BD and PD remarkably scavenged 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced ROS in RAW264.7 cells and significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

    Conclusion: Overall, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties.

    SUMMARY: Tannins, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids were found in all three types of porcupine dates with tannins being the major compoundsAntioxidant contents and properties of three dates were in the order black date (BD) > powdery date (PD) > grassy dateBD and PD extracts showed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging properties. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, BD: Black date, GD: Grassy date, PD: Powdery date, TPC: Total phenolic content, FRS: Free radical scavenging, FRP: Ferric reducing power, NO: Nitric oxide, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, GAE: Gallic acid equivalent, AAE: Ascorbic acid equivalent, PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, DCFH-DA: Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate, AAPH: 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.
  6. Amran N, Rani AN, Mahmud R, Yin KB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):66-70.
    PMID: 26941539 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171104
    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy.
  7. Patro G, Bhattamisra SK, Mohanty BK, Sahoo HB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016;8(1):22-8.
    PMID: 26941532 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171099
    OBJECTIVE: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate.
    RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group.
    CONCLUSION: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract.
    SUMMARY: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in-vivo antioxidant evaluation from brain homogenate on oxidative stress markers as TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH from rat was investigated. Our findings revealed that M. pudica possesses both in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity due to presence of phenolics and flavonoids.
    KEYWORDS: 2; 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; Brain homogenate; Flavonoids; Mimosa pudica; Oxidative stress
  8. Hashim S, Beh HK, Hamil MS, Ismail Z, Majid AM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):238-243.
    PMID: 27695261
    CONTEXT: Orthosiphon stamineus is a medicinal herb widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. It has been used traditionally as a diuretic, abdominal pain, kidney and bladder inflammation, gout, and hypertension.
    AIMS: This study aims to develop and validate the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for quantification of rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensitin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) found in ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract of O. stamineus leaves.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPTLC method was conducted using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile phase system of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (3:7:0.1) performed on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity, respectively. The detection of spots was observed at ultraviolet 254 nm and 366 nm.
    RESULTS: The linearity of RA, TMF, SIN, and EUP were obtained between 10 and 100 ng/spot with high correlation coefficient value (R2) of more than 0.986. The limit of detection was found to be 122.47 ± 3.95 (RA), 43.38 ± 0.79 (SIN), 17.26 ± 1.16 (TMF), and 46.80 ± 1.33 ng/spot (EUP), respectively. Whereas the LOQ was found to be 376.44 ± 6.70 (RA), 131.45 ± 2.39 (SIN), 52.30 ± 2.01 (TMF), and 141.82 ± 1.58 ng/spot (EUP), respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Hence, it may be applied in a routine quantification of RA, SIN, TMF, and EUP found in ethanol, 50% of ethanol and water extract of O. stamineus leaves.
    SUMMARY: HPTLC method provides rapid estimation of the marker compound for routine quality control analysis.The established HPTLC method is rapid for qualitative and quantitative fingerprinting of Orthosiphon stamineus extract used for commercial product.Four identified markers (RA, SIN, EUP and TMF) found in three a different type of O. stamineus extracts specifically ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract were successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography; RA: Rosmarinic acid; TMF: 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone; SIN: Sinensitin; EUP: Eupatorin; E: Ethanol; EW: 50% ethanol; W: Water; BK: Batu Kurau; KB: Kepala Batas; S: Sik; CJ: Changkat Jering; SB: Sungai Buloh.
    KEYWORDS: rosmarinic acid; Eupatorin; Orthosiphon stamineus; high-performance thin-layer chromatography; sinensitin; validation
  9. Salleh NA, Ismail S, Ab Halim MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):309-315.
    PMID: 27695274 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.188873
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.
    OBJECTIVE: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM.
    RESULTS: In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59-22.76 μg/mL and 110.71-526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes.
    SUMMARY: Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAM: Complementary and alternative medicine, cDNA: Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid, CDNB: 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CuSO4.5H2O: Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CXEE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract, CXAE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza aqueous extract, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, GSH: Glutathione, GST: Glutathione S-transferase, KCl: Potassium chloride, min: Minutes, MgCl2: Magnesium chloride, mg/mL: Concentration (weight of test substance in milligrams per volume of test concentration), mM: Milimolar, Na2CO3: Sodium carbonate, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, nmol: nanomol, NSAIDs: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, p-NP: para-nitrophenol, RLU: Relative light unit, SEM: Standard error of mean, UDPGA: UDP-glucuronic acid, UGT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.
    KEYWORDS: Curcuma xanthorrhiza; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; glutathione transferase; xanthorrhizol
  10. Muthiah YD, Ong CE, Sulaiman SA, Ismail R
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):292-297.
    PMID: 27695271
    In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine.
  11. Roy P, Abdulsalam FI, Pandey DK, Bhattacharjee A, Eruvaram NR, Malik T
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S57-62.
    PMID: 26109789 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.157997
    Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita are temperate Himalayan medicinal plants used as potent herbal drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha).
  12. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Christina JM, Asmawi MZ, Vikneswaran M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):1-6.
    PMID: 25598627 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147125
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  13. Balijepalli MK, Suppaiah V, Chin AM, Buru AS, Sagineedu SR, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):38-44.
    PMID: 25598633 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147197
    BACKGROUND: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
    RESULTS: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
    CONCLUSION: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
    KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Swietenia macrophylla; sky fruit; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit
  14. Shafaei A, Aisha AF, Siddiqui MJ, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):32-7.
    PMID: 25598632 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147196
    Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids.
  15. Saidan NH, Aisha AF, Hamil MS, Majid AM, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):23-31.
    PMID: 25598631 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147195
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
  16. Parasuraman S, Balamurugan S, Christapher PV, Petchi RR, Yeng WY, Sujithra J, et al.
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):156-65.
    PMID: 25829789 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.151457
    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) and prediction of biological activities of its phytoconstituents using in vivo anti-diabetic model and in silico analysis respectively.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaves of O. tenuiflorum were extracted with 60% ethanol, and the extract was used for further pharmacological screening. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated as per the guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, revised draft guidelines 423. The oral anti-diabetic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was studied against streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus. The animals were treated with the investigational plant extract and standard drug (glibenclamide) for 21 consecutive days and the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum on blood glucose levels was measured at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, then the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were collected for organ weight analysis. Prediction for pharmacological and toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum was carried out using online web tools such as online pass prediction and lazar toxicity prediction.
    RESULTS: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Predicted biological activities of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum showed presence of various pharmacological actions, which includes anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Prediction of toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum did not show any major toxic effects.
    CONCLUSION: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity against STZ + nicotinamide induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Further studies are required to confirm the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of individual phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum.
    KEYWORDS: Anti-diabetic activity; Anti-hyperlipidemic activity; In silico analysis; Ocimum tenuiflorum; Phytoconstituents
  17. Amelia K, Singh J, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):209-12.
    PMID: 25829797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150536
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it.
  18. Amelia K, Khor CY, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):203-8.
    PMID: 25829796 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150532
    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken.
  19. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  20. Ramli N, Ahamed PO, Elhady HM, Taher M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):280-4.
    PMID: 25276063 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138248
    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus.
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