Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Saidan NH, Aisha AF, Hamil MS, Majid AM, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):23-31.
    PMID: 25598631 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147195
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
  2. Balijepalli MK, Suppaiah V, Chin AM, Buru AS, Sagineedu SR, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):38-44.
    PMID: 25598633 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147197
    BACKGROUND: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
    RESULTS: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
    CONCLUSION: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
    KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Swietenia macrophylla; sky fruit; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit
  3. Rajeh MA, Kwan YP, Zakaria Z, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Sasidharan S
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2012 Jul;4(3):170-7.
    PMID: 22923956 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.99085
    The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity.
  4. Parasuraman S, Zhen KM, Banik U, Christapher PV
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):247-252.
    PMID: 28827965 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_8_17
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for experiments. The animals were divided into six groups, namely, normal control, olanzapine control, betahistine (10 mg/kg), and curcumin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Except the normal control group, all other animals were administered with olanzapine 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally to induce obesity. The drugs were administered once daily, per oral for 28 days. During the experiment, body weight changes and behavior alterations were monitored at regular intervals. At the end of the experiment, blood sample was collected from all the experimental animals for biochemical analysis. Part of the liver and kidney tissues was harvested from the sacrificed animals and preserved in neutral formalin for histopathological studies.

    RESULTS: Curcumin showed a significant reduction in olanzapine-induced body weight gain on the rats and improved the locomotor effects. The effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced body weight gain is not comparable with that of betahistine.

    CONCLUSION: This study has shown metabolic alteration effect of curcumin on olanzapine, an antipsychotic drug, treated SD rats.

    SUMMARY: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Obesity is an adverse effect of olanzapine, and the present study was made an attempt to study the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats. In this present study, curcumin significantly reduced olanzapine-induced body weight gain in rats. Abbreviations Used: 5HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, ALT: Alanine transaminase, ANOVA: Analysis of variance, AST: Aspartate transaminase, CMC: Carboxymethyl cellulose, D: Dopamine, H and E: Hematoxylin and Eosin stain, H: Histamine, HDL-C: Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, IP: Intraperitoneal, MAO: Monoamine oxidase, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, SD rats: Sprague Dawley rats, TCs: Total cholesterols, TG: Triglyceride.
  5. Mustaffa F, Indurkar J, Ismail S, Mordi MN, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Mar;2(2):76-81.
    PMID: 21808545 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.62952
    Cinnomomum iners standardized leaves methanolic extract (CSLE) was subjected to analgesic, toxicity and phytochemical studies. The analgesic activity of CSLE was evaluated using formalin, hot plate and tail flick tests at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg. CSLE showed significant activity (P < 0.05) in the formalin model (late phase) on the rats at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg. However, CSLE did not show activity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. The results obtained suggest that CSLE acts peripherally to relieve pain. For the toxicity study, CSLE was orally administered to the Swiss albino mice according to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guideline 423. There was no lethality or toxic symptoms observed for all the tested doses throughout the 14-day period. Phytochemical screening of CSLE showed the presence of cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, polyphenol, saponin, sugar, tannin and terpenoid.
  6. Shafaei A, Aisha AF, Siddiqui MJ, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):32-7.
    PMID: 25598632 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147196
    Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids.
  7. Amelia K, Singh J, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):209-12.
    PMID: 25829797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150536
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it.
  8. Yap CV, Subramaniam KS, Khor SW, Chung I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):378-383.
    PMID: 29263632 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_19_17
    Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Annonacin, a natural pure compound extracted from the seeds of Annona muricata, is a potential alternative therapeutic agent to treat EC.

    Objective: To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs).

    Materials and Methods: Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting.

    Results: Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC50values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.005). We further showed that annonacin-mediated apoptotic cell death was associated with an increase in caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Cell apoptosis was accompanied with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival protein expression and induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Conclusion: Annonacin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for EC patients.

    SUMMARY: We aimed to study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer. Abbreviations Used: 7-AAD: 7-Amino-Actinomycin, ATP: Adenosine diphosphate, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, EC: Endometrial cancer, ECC-1: Endometrial cancer cell-1, EC50: Half maximal effective concentration, Ept: Epithelial, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, HEC-1A: Human endometrial carcinoma-1A, MTT: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, RPMI 1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate.
  9. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
  10. Gundamaraju R, Hwi KK, Singla RK, Vemuri RC, Mulapalli SB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):267-73.
    PMID: 25276061 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138237
    The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease.
  11. Ramli N, Ahamed PO, Elhady HM, Taher M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):280-4.
    PMID: 25276063 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138248
    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus.
  12. Amran N, Rani AN, Mahmud R, Yin KB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):66-70.
    PMID: 26941539 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171104
    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy.
  13. Yew PN, Lee WL, Lim YY
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):366-371.
    PMID: 29263630 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_145_16
    Background: Porcupine dates are phytobezoar stones that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments against cancer, postsurgical recovery, dengue fever, etc. The medicinal values have not been scientifically investigated due to the availability and high pricing of the dates.

    Objectives: This paper represents the first report on the phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging properties of the extracts of three porcupine dates: grassy date (GD), black date (BD), and powdery date (PD).

    Materials and Methods: Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. Samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant assays based on total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP) as well as intracellular ROS and RNS scavenging properties.

    Results: Phytochemical screening and total tannins assay revealed that tannins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids were found in all porcupine dates with tannins forming the major portion of the TPC. In comparison to GD, BD and PD were found to contain significantly high TPC, radical scavenging activity, and FRP. At 200 μg/ml, BD and PD remarkably scavenged 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced ROS in RAW264.7 cells and significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

    Conclusion: Overall, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties.

    SUMMARY: Tannins, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids were found in all three types of porcupine dates with tannins being the major compoundsAntioxidant contents and properties of three dates were in the order black date (BD) > powdery date (PD) > grassy dateBD and PD extracts showed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging properties. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, BD: Black date, GD: Grassy date, PD: Powdery date, TPC: Total phenolic content, FRS: Free radical scavenging, FRP: Ferric reducing power, NO: Nitric oxide, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, GAE: Gallic acid equivalent, AAE: Ascorbic acid equivalent, PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, DCFH-DA: Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate, AAPH: 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.
  14. Chan EW, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Oct;3(4):266-72.
    PMID: 22224051 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.89748
    BACKGROUND: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents.

    RESULTS: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus.

    CONCLUSION: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  15. Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Mar;2(2):113-9.
    PMID: 21808551 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.62949
    Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC(50) values of 32.9 ± 3.8 μg/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer.
  16. Wong SK, Lim YY, Abdullah NR, Nordin FJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Apr;3(2):100-6.
    PMID: 21772753 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.81957
    The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves.
  17. Ismail A, Wan Ahmad WAN
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Dec;9(Suppl 1):S9-S14.
    PMID: 29333036 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_69_17
    Context: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves are traditionally used by Malays for treating hypertension. Our previous study showed that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum (AESP) and methanolic extract of S. polyanthum (MESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves significantly reduced blood pressure of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate their vasorelaxation potential and the possible involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide in mediating their effect.

    Settings and Design: Both extracts will be tested on isolated thoracic aorta rings of WKY and SHR. The involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide will be elucidated using respective blockers.

    Materials and Methods: Isolated thoracic aorta rings from WKY and SHR were mounted onto myograph chambers to measure changes in the aorta tension. Increasing concentrations of AESP and MESP, from 1 μg/ml to 10 mg/ml were added onto the myograph chambers. Blockers such as atropine (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), propranolol (1 μM), and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 μM) were preincubated before addition of extracts to check for involvement of muscarinic, α- and β-adrenergic receptors (AR) as well as nitric oxide, respectively.

    Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Bonferroni test was used, where P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant.

    Results: AESP and MESP caused significant vasorelaxations through nitric oxide pathway. The former was mediated through α-AR while the latter was mediated by β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.

    Conclusion: Vasorelaxation effect by AESP and MESP involved nitric oxide pathway which is possibly mediated by the autonomic receptors.

    SUMMARY: This is the first study that reveals significant vasorelaxation effect induced by Syzygium polyanthum leaves extract. Vasorelaxation maybe one of the possible mechanisms for its ability to reduce blood pressure. This study also suggested that the vasorelaxation effect by this plant extract may involve nitric oxide pathway mediated by the autonomic receptors. Abbreviations Used: AESP: Aqueous extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. MESP: Methanolic extract of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rat, WKY: Wistar-Kyoto rat.

  18. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  19. Sahgal G, Ramanathan S, Sasidharan S, Mordi MN, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Jul;2(4):215-20.
    PMID: 21808570 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.69107
    The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract.
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