RESULTS: We use a network model of central metabolism and optimize the correspondence between relative changes in fluxes and in gene expression. To this end we apply the Least-squares with Equalities and Inequalities algorithm integrated with Flux Balance Analysis (Lsei-FBA). We predict for PD (1) decreases in glycolytic rate and oxygen consumption and an increase in lactate production in brain cortex that correspond with measurements (2) relative flux decreases in ATP synthesis, in the malate-aspartate shuttle and midway in the TCA cycle that are substantially larger than relative changes in glucose uptake in the substantia nigra, dopaminergic neurons and most other brain regions (3) shifts in redox shuttles between cytosol and mitochondria (4) in contrast to Alzheimer's disease: little activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway in compensation for decreased alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity (5) in the globus pallidus internus, metabolic fluxes are increased, reflecting increased functional activity.
CONCLUSION: Our method predicts metabolic changes from gene expression data that correspond in direction and order of magnitude with presently available experimental observations during Parkinson's disease, indicating that the hypothesis may be useful for some biochemical pathways. Lsei-FBA generates predictions of flux distributions in neurons and small brain regions for which accurate metabolic flux measurements are not yet possible.
METHODS: We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.
RESULTS: Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.
CONCLUSION: The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.
OBJECTIVE: To collect evidence from published systematic reviews that have evaluated pharyngeal airway changes related to mandibular advancement with or without maxillary procedures.
METHODOLOGY: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched without limiting language or timeline. Eligible systematic reviews evaluating changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular advancement with or without maxillary surgery were identified and included.
RESULTS: This overview has included eleven systematic reviews. Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) increases linear, cross-sectional plane and volumetric measurements of pharyngeal airways significantly (p<0.0001), while reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) significantly (p<0.0001). Two systematic reviews included primary studies that have evaluated single-jaw mandibular advancement, but did not discuss their effect onto pharyngeal airways. Based on the included primary studies of those systematic reviews, single-jaw mandibular advancement was reported to significantly increase pharyngeal airway dimensions (p<0.05); however, conclusive long-term results were lacking.
CONCLUSION: MMA increases pharyngeal airway dimensions and is beneficial to patients suffering from OSA. However, more evidence is still needed to draw definite conclusion related to the effect of single-jaw mandibular advancement osteotomies on pharyngeal airways.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence from systematic reviews that has evaluated pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.
METHODOLOGY: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched with no restriction of language or date. Systematic reviews studying changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions and respiratory parameters after mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies have been identified, screened for eligibility, included and analyzed in this study.
RESULTS: Six systematic reviews have been included. While isolated mandibular setback osteotomies result in reduced oropharyngeal airway dimensions, the reduction is lesser in cases with concomitant upper jaw osteotomies. Only scarce evidence exists currently to what happens to naso- and hypo-pharyngeal airways. There is no evidence for post-surgical OSA, even though some studies reported reduced respiratory parameters after single-jaw mandibular setback with or without concomitant upper jaw osteotomies.
CONCLUSION: Although mandibular setback osteotomies reduce pharyngeal airway dimensions, evidence confirming post-surgical OSA was not found. Nevertheless, potential post-surgical OSA should be taken into serious consideration during the treatment planning of particular orthognathic cases. As moderate evidence exists that double-jaw surgeries lead to less compromised post-surgical pharyngeal airways, they should be considered as the method of choice especially in cases with severe dentoskeletal Class III deformity.
STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42016046484).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan from November 2013 till May 2016 among Type 2 DM patients (DM with no DR and DM with NPDR). The patients were evaluated for anterior ocular segment biometry [central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber width (ACW), angle opening distance (AOD) and anterior chamber angle (ACA)] by using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT). Three ml venous blood was taken for the measurement of HbA1c.
RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were included in this study (DM with no DR: 50 patients, DM with NPDR: 50 patients, non DM: 50 patients as a control group). The mean CCT and ACW showed significant difference among the three groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.015 respectively). Based on post hoc result, there were significant mean difference of CCT between non DM and DM with NPDR (mean difference 36.14 μm, p < 0.001) and also between non DM and DM with no DR (mean difference 31.48 μm, p = 0.003). The ACW was significantly narrower in DM with NPDR (11.39 mm SD 0.62) compared to DM with no DR (11.76 mm SD 0.53) (p = 0.012). There were no significant correlation between HbA1c and all the anterior ocular segment biometry.
CONCLUSION: Diabetic patients have significantly thicker CCT regardless of retinopathy status whereas ACW was significantly narrower in DM with NPDR group compared to DM with no DR. There was no significant correlations between HbA1c and all anterior ocular segment biometry in diabetic patients regardless of DR status.